III. Design

Andrew Gibbons and Vic Bunderson (2005) wrote a classic article on three ways of seeking knowledge about the real world: through exploration (often with qualitative research methods), through explanation (often through quantitative methods) and design. As LIDT professionals, we consider design and design knowledge to be core to our work, and key to our understanding of teaching and learning. At our core, we are interventionists: we do not simply observe the world, but seek to influence it in effective ways. This is done through design processes and design research, which is the focus of this section. This section begins with a chapter on classic instructional design approaches, followed by a look at more current perspectives on design thinking and agile design. You will also read about some current issues in the field around design, including design mindsets, design-based research, how to design for effective systemic change, makerspace design, and user experience design. Included also is a chapter on Human Performance Technology, which is a similar field to our own, applying many of the same skill sets and knowledge bases in slighty different ways to the world of corporate learning.


Gibbons, A. S., & Bunderson, C. V. (2005). Explore, explain, design. Encyclopedia of social measurement, 1, 927-938.

Section Contents

22. Instructional Design Models23. Design Thinking and Agile Design24. What and how do designers design?25. The Development of Design-Based Research26. A Survey of Educational Change Models27. Performance Technology28. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace29. User Experience Design