CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityIntroduction to Academic EssaysStyleShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayUsing SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingDescriptive EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK

Cause-Effect Essays AK

Example Essay

  1. Exercise: Analyze an essay

    1. Yes
    2. Yes (Some of the most obvious physical health effects of obesity include high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and bone diseases.)
    3. Yes (Obesity may lead to high blood pressure. Type 2 diabetes is another health concern that may be caused by obesity. Finally, obesity can contribute to a variety of bone and joint diseases.)
    4. Yes
    5. Yes
    6. Yes
    7. Yes
    8. Yes
    9. Yes
    10. Yes (In conclusion, obesity brings with it an increased risk for a variety of health problems.)
    11. Suggestion

Prewriting

  1. Exercise: Revise thesis statements (Answers will vary, examples provided)

    1. Overfishing has three negative effects on our world.
    2. Many people experience homelessness as a direct effect of unemployment.
    3. There are many surprising benefits and impacts of practicing yoga.
    4. One significant issue in the world is the presence of unstable economies, which can have may implications for both individuals and countries.
    5. The addictive nature of alcohol can have significant impacts on your life.
    6. Free trade laws have many benefits for countries.
  2. Exercise: Complete an outline

    1. Some of the causes of depression include: genetics, brain chemistry, and individual circumstances.
  3. Exercise: Choose sources that support a topic sentence

    1. Answers will vary, no examples provided

Writing

  1. Exercise: Brainstorm background knowledge for an introduction (Answers will vary, examples provided)

    1. How do you define a "successful" investment? What type of investment will the essay discuss? How do you invest in people vs resources? 
    2. What is a stereotype? Are stereotypes always negative? Do stereotypes only impact racial discrimination?
    3. What is the author's definition of a "poor" diet? What is the author's definition of "excessive" stress? Are these the main sources of attention problems?
  2. Exercise: Write a conclusion

    1. Answers will vary, no examples provided

Revising

  1. Exercise: Give feedback (Answers will vary, examples provided)

    1. The first sentence is unclear: Effects of what? Grammar sometimes obscures meaning. The summary needs to be introduced and responded to. The paragraph needs stronger transitions. 
  2. Exercise: Check your essay

    1. Answers will vary, no examples provided

Revise: Example Essay

  1. Exercise: Give feedback

    1. Answers will vary, no examples provided