Writing has cohesion when the ideas logically flow from one to the next. Writing paragraphs that have good sequencing will help your readers understand your ideas more clearly. Sometimes you will have a clear order that relates to time. Sometimes the order is more flexible and there is not one perfect way to sequence the sentences.
EXERCISE: Identify logical order of sentences
EXERCISE: Insert a sentence
EXERCISE: Identify misplaced sentences
EXERCISE: Revise for cohesion
Revise the paragraph for cohesion.
The languages spoken in Haiti and the Dominican Republic are one evidence of their distinct cultures. On one side of the island, they speak French, while on the other side they speak Spanish. The indigenous people of the island originally spoke Taino (Reichard, 2017). Spanish and French were imported. France and Spain both established colonies on the island, bringing their languages with them. Due to these new influences, most of the native Taino language was conquered. There are a few words of Taino that remained in Spanish like huracán (tornado) and maíz (corn) (Reichard, 2017). Both sides of the island are certainly distinct because they now have different languages.
One way to improve the cohesion of your writing is by using cohesive devices properly. There are many types of cohesive devices: pronouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions, conjunctions, repeated words, transition words, etc.
Some cohesive devices show certain relationships between ideas, like showing contrast or a cause/ effect relationship.
|Another||Another reason to use public transportation is that it is reliable.|
|Also||Public transportation is also reliable.|
|Besides||Besides being efficient, public transportation is reliable.|
|In addition||In addition to being efficient, public transportation is reliable.|
|First, second, etc.||Second, public transportation is reliable.|
The two sports share both a wide fan base and a name.
|Likewise||The two sports share a wide fan base. Likewise, they share a name.|
|Similarly||The two sports share a wide fan base. Similarly, they share a name.|
|However||RNA is able to leave the nucleus of the cell. However, DNA isn't.|
|In contrast||RNA is able to leave the nucleus of the cell. In contrast, DNA isn't.|
|On the other hand||RNA is able to leave the nucleus of the cell. On the other hand, DNA isn't.|
|Whereas||Whereas RNA is able to leave the nucleus of the cell, DNA isn't.|
|Yet||RNA is able to leave the nucleus of the cell, yet DNA isn't.|
|Thus||Excessive stress weakens the body, thus making it easier to get sick.|
|As a consequence||Excessive stress weakens the body. As a consequence, stress makes it easier to get sick.|
|therefore||Excessive stress weakens the body. Therefore, stress makes it easier to get sick.|
|as a result||Excessive stress weakens the body. As a result, stress makes it easier to get sick.|
|consequently||Excessive stress weakens the body. Consequently, stress makes it easier to get sick.|
|An example of||Squats are an example of exercises that strengthen our muscles|
|For instance||Many exercises strengthen our muscles. For instance, squats are an...|
|To illustrate||Many exercises strengthen our muscles. To illustrate, consider how your muscles are strengthened when you do an exercise like squats.|
EXERCISE: Identify connectors
Read the groups of sentences and think about what cohesive devices would most effectively combine the research into a paragraph.
The following research comes from an article by Peri (2018). If you wanted to include all of this research in a body paragraph, what kind of cohesive device could you use?
- Sleep plays a critical role in thinking and learning.
- Lack of sleep impairs attention, alertness, concentration, reasoning, and problem solving.
- Various sleep cycles play a role in consolidating memories in the mind.
- If you don't get enough sleep, you won't be able to remember what you learned.
The following research comes from an article by DiSalvo (2017). If you wanted to include all of this research in a body paragraph, what kind of cohesive device could you use?
- Controlling your breathing calms your brain.
- Breathing regulates your blood pressure.
- Counting breaths taps into the brain's emotional control regions.
- The rhythm of your breathing affects memory.
- Controlled breathing may boost the immune system.
The following research comes from an article by Jacobs (2017). If you wanted to include all of this research in a body paragraph, what kind of cohesive devices could you use?
- To give someone a business card, a Japanese business person will hold the card with two hands as she passes the card to the The card should be studied and discussed as part of the conversation.
- When an American business person passes a business card to another person, they do not hold it with two hands, and they may not even have a card with Many millennials prefer to have business contacts go to their LinkedIn profiles. Failure to present a business card is not offensive in American culture.