CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Introduction to Academic EssaysStyleShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayTimed Writing 2Using SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingDescriptive EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK

Conclusion Paragraphs

Your conclusion paragraph should logically conclude your essay, just like your concluding sentences logically conclude your body paragraphs. The conclusion paragraph should begin by restating your thesis, and then you should broaden back out to a general topic. End with a closing statement. This paragraph looks like the reverse of your introduction paragraph, going from specific to general.

Restate your thesis

The first sentence of your conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis. In order to restate your thesis, remember that the meaning of your thesis should not change, but the words need to. One way you can do this is by reversing the order of the clauses in your thesis. The clauses are also paraphrased, rather than simply copying them and moving them. Compare the thesis with the restatement below.

Example: Restated thesis

Thesis: Some of the most impactful inventions of the nineteenth century that changed the way we live were the telephone, the bicycle, and plastic.

Restated Thesis: It is obvious that these three nineteenth-century inventions dramatically changed our lifestyles.

The thesis changed by implying the main points, instead of stating them directly. Even though the words were changed, the overall meaning did not change. Other ways to restate a thesis include reversing the order of the clauses or using different word forms (e.g., adjective to noun: essential>the importance).

1 Exercise: Restate a thesis

Rewrite each thesis statement as you would at the beginning of a conclusion paragraph.

  1. Rosa Parks was one of the most influential leaders of the Civil Rights movement because of her dignity and bravery.
  2. Financial problems and miscommunication are two major causes of divorce.
  3. Governments should prepare for disasters by educating citizens and storing commodities.

Apply your thesis to general contexts

Connect your thesis back to the general topics you mentioned in your introduction. Why should the reader care about what you have just said? How does all of this work together to support your position? 

Give a closing statement

Your closing statement is very similar to the concluding sentence of a body paragraph except that you will not restate your main idea at the very end of your paper. Your closing statement can be a prediction, suggestion, or opinion.

2 Exercise: Concluding Paragraph Analysis

Read the example student's concluding paragraph. Does the paragraph appropriately restate the thesis? Does the author apply the main idea to general topics? Does the writer include a closing statement? Do you think this is effective as a concluding paragraph? Why or why not?

       In conclusion, even though both of them are sugar, there are differences between them. The differences were calories, how sweet they are, and how we can include them with our bodies. About calories, real sugar does have calories and artificial sugar does not. Artificial sugar is way sweeter than real sugar. Then, real sugar can be our energy but artificial sugar cannot really be. When we look up the backside of the food package, we can know what sugar is in it. Knowing these facts will help us to choose which food will be better at that time. Those types of sugar have differences that will make our life easier.

Here is the essay's thesis statement: However, there are differences between the number of carbohydrates that they have, taste, and the way the body processes them.