CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Introduction to Academic EssaysEssay Shape and OrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayTimed Writing 2Integrated Writing 2Descriptive EssaysExample Descriptive Essay 1Example Descriptive Essay 2PrewritingWriting: Word ChoiceSources: QuotingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample Comparison Essay 1Example Comparison Essay 2PrewritingWriting: UnitySources: SummarizingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingParaphrasingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyUsing SourcesFinding SourcesAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKCitationsDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK

Integrated Writing 1

Integrated writing is an extremely common task type in life, especially at the college level. In fact, almost all of the writing you will do may be considered "integrated" to some degree. Integration means including ideas using one or both of your receptive language skills: reading and listening. At the most basic level, when we read and respond to a text, we are using a receptive skill to support our writing. At the more academic level of this skill, you will express an understanding both of explicit and implicit information. This may include comparing/contrasting or providing your own opinion on the topic. 

Because this is such a common expectation of academic writing, you can expect to see integrated tasks in potentially any college course you enroll in. Typically a true integrated task would allow you the support of referring to the original material (or at least the notes you took) while writing. However, there may be instances when there will be a constraint of time (such as on a quiz or test). 

Writing about a topic you were expected to understand and drawing connections between different sources pushes you beyond a passive understanding to recreating the essential knowledge of the course in your own words.

Although this section is about integrated writing in general, all of the writing tips in this textbook will help you with the integrated essay on the TOEFL.

Step One: Review the source material

This means that when you encounter an integrated writing prompt, you should first think about the content.

Because integrated writing generally includes access to the source material in advance of writing and during the writing process itself, this will feel more like a drafted task.

Step Two: Organizing your ideas AND your time

Because of this task can range in the demand both in comprehension and in lingusitic ability, it is understandable that this writing may require more planning and time.

First of all, an outline will always benefit you. You may think that the best idea is to immediately start writing, but that could lead to a very disorganized or unfocused answer. Read the prompt carefully and make a brief outline of ideas from the source(s) that are necessary to include in an answer. Ensure that you know all parts of the prompt will be addressed and all of your most important details will be included. Identify any specific phrases or sentences you would want to include verbatim.

Second, be realistic about the time you have to work on this task. Review the source material to estimate the time it will take to read or listen to it. This may include multiple reviews and/or notetaking, which will add to the overall time. Next, consult the syllabus deadlines and your other committments to set a personal timeline for working on this project. Will you have time to write multiple drafts? Is there time to have a classmate review your writing or to visit the campus Writing Center? 

It may also be necessary to adjust times depending on what is most important to the teacher. For example, there may be a larger emphasis on accuracy, so you will need to give yourself more time to revise and edit. You will also want to consider how necessary it is for you to fully grasp the concepts. In other words, if this assignment is for a core course in your major or in a particularly challenging class, it will be worth scheduling additional time. However, if the assignment is a small percentage of your total grade or for a general education course you're doing well in, it may be fine to lower the priority for reviewing and drafting this essay.

Examples of integrated writing prompts

  • Compare and contrast the similarties and differences in opinion between the authors of the two articles on dieting. Choose at least three aspects in your comparison. 
  • Read the newspaper article provided and discuss if this account is trustworthy according to the points discussed in class lectures.
  • After reading the section of a textbook, listen to the professor's opinion on the topic. What reasons does the professor give for disagreeing with the text?

Exercise 1: Integrated Writing

Prompt: Summarize the points from the discussion and explain how they cast doubt on the points made in the reading. Refer to specific details from each source in your response. Your answer should be between 250-300 words.

Reading Passage:

A science that has played an important role in law enforcement is the practice of detecting lies.  This practice has assisted police officers and law officials in interrogations and courtroom proceedings throughout the years.  Lie detecting relies on observing other people’s behaviors and bodily changes.

There are certain behaviors that people exhibit when they are lying.  For example, liars frequently look away from the person that they’re speaking to.  They look down, or to the side.  Liars also lean forward as they lie.  They play with objects, or fiddle with their hands.  People usually smile ingenuously, or cleverly, if they are lying.  They blink less and swallow more.  They even sometimes stutter when they talk.  And liars generally touch their faces more.

Liars do these things because of bodily changes that they cannot control.  For instance, people touch their faces more when they lie because the tissue of the nose and ears can become filled with blood, causing the liar’s face to feel hot and uncomfortable.  They fidget because their body releases adrenaline when they lie.  Liars stutter because the adrenaline also speeds up their breathing, which gets in the way of normal speech.  

Observations of behavioral and bodily changes have helped to catch many liars.  This is due to the ease with which professionals and non-professionals alike can practice it.  Although lie detecting is a science that is still being developed and studied, it is something that anyone can do with practice.  If someone becomes familiar enough with the typical signs, a liar will stand out to them.

**Audio recording available to teachers**