CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Introduction to Academic EssaysEssay Shape and OrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayTimed Writing 2Integrated Writing 2Descriptive EssaysExample Descriptive Essay 1Example Descriptive Essay 2PrewritingWriting: Word ChoiceSources: QuotingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayTimed Writing 3Integrated Writing 3Comparison EssaysExample Comparison Essay 1Example Comparison Essay 2PrewritingWriting: UnitySources: SummarizingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayTimed Writing 4Integrated Writing 4Cause-Effect EssaysExample Cause-Effect Essay 1Example Cause-Effect Essay 2PrewritingWriting: CohesionParaphrasingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayTimed Writing 5Integrated Writing 5Additional ResourcesAppendix 1: DevelopmentAppendix 2: PunctuationAppendix 3: Using Academic VocabularyAppendix 4: Finding SourcesAppendix 5: In-Text CitationsAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK

Integrated Writing 4

Summarizing

This section of the textbook is the perfect time to talk about integrated writing. Integrated writing (especially on the TOEFL) is all about comparison and summarizing. You are taking what you learn from different places and bringing it all together into a much shorter review of the most important and relevant information.

Important & Relevant

When you are summarizing the information from the sources, you must first decide what information is essential to understanding the topic. This means you need to think about the audience and your own writing. 

The idea of important and relevant information is that anything you include from a source must be purposeful. It needs to be directly connected to the prompt and the expected organization of your writing. Do not include something in your summary that is just interesting but not important and relevant.

  TOEFL Integrated Class Integrated
Audience The reader wants you to explain as much as possible from each source in the limited time. The listening is more important than the reading.  Think if the reader needs more or less context from that source. You only want to include what is necessary.
Your Writing You cannot include any additional information from your background knowledge on the topic.  Your own organization will be the standard for if general or specific information is needed.
Content There is always the same structure. There is a main idea. There are three major details in each source. The details either contradict each other or support each other. You need to decide if a very specific piece of knowledge (like a statistic) is important to support your major details. 

Writing the Summary

When you write your summary, using a T-chart and/or a list of the points that were most important and relevant is a good place to start. Making that short bullet list helps you to see the information in the most basic form.

Organizing that information then depends on the context.

Writing is not a mathematical equation. There are patterns that can help make things easier. However, using the same "formulaic" structure for your summaries makes them boring and weak. Remember that the context will always decide the importance, relevance, and organization of your summary.

Exercises

Exercise 1: Review

With a partner, choose one of the review points to present to the class. Practice explaining the connection between the skill from that section and integrated writing. If possible, share an example with the class of a writer using this skill effectively.

Exercise 2: Integrated Writing Practice

Watch the video and take notes on the main idea and any major details. Then click on the article and read that source. You will then use your notes to answer the prompt. You will have 30 minutes to write your response. You should have at least 300 words in your answer.

Prompt: Describe the characteristics of a good listener using the points from the video. What benefits do the video and article explain result from really listening? Use at least one specific example from the reading to illustrate this concept.

Article: https://edtechbooks.org/-iHYW 

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