CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Introduction to Academic EssaysStyleShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayTimed Writing 2Using SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingDescriptive EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK

Nuts and Bolts AK


  1. Exercise: Revising for listing punctuation

    1. Interesting buildings on BYU campus include: the Wilkinson Center, the Museum of Art, and the Fine Arts Center. (missing a verb before the semicolon)
    2. The expensive, red sportscar was parked illegally. (missing comma)
    3. No error
  2. Exercise: Revise linking punctuation

    1. No error
    2. BYU has lots of fun activities for students; you will never be bored on the weekends. (semicolon) BYU has lots of fun activities for students, so you will never be bored on the weekends. (conjunction added)
    3. Amazon is one of the most popular websites for online shopping, and you can find a wide variety of products that ship quickly to your home. (comma) Amazon is one of the most popular websites for online shopping; you can find a wide variety of products that ship quickly to your home. (no conjunction)
    4. Electricity was one of the most important inventions in the nineteenth century, and it led to other important inventions. (comma)
    5. No error
  3. Exercise: Revise run-on sentences

    1. Parents do not control what their children do. Children’s behavior is affected more by television, movies, and other influences from outside the home. This is a terrible thing that sociologists have noticed, but fortunately, parents are still interested in trying to teach their children. Parents should teach their children about good behaviors, and they will see improvements in the behavior of their children.

Using Academic Vocabulary

  1. Exercise: Identify word forms

    1. development, develop, developmental/developing/developed
    2. support, supportive, supportively
    3. sustain, sustainable
    4. explanation, explain
    5. sequence, sequence, sequential
    6. partial, partially
    7. expectation, expected/expecting, expectedly
  2. Exercise: Revise for word form errors

    1. The homework assignment looked easy, but I did not know how to COMPLETE it. I asked my study buddy to help me because he is so INTELLIGENT. Apparent, he is really good at learning languages, because he is learning three languages at BYU. I know one day he will be FAMOUS. I RESPECT him a lot.