CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Introduction to Academic EssaysStyleShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayTimed Writing 2Using SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingDescriptive EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK


1.Writes level-appropriate* text.

2. Synthesizes information from written and spoken texts.

3. Effectively implements appropriate writing strategies.

*Writing for this level can be described by the following level descriptors:

Function: Students are able to meet basic academic writing needs. They consistently write in all major time frames with some control. They have minimal control of academic syntax and vocabulary. They produce personal, general and some academic texts in concrete terms. Students will occasionally produce texts about academic topics in abstract terms. They are able to write in most informal situations and in some formal situations.

Text: Students use a limited number of cohesive devices in texts and may resort to redundancy or awkward repetition. They are able to combine and link sentences into texts of multiple paragraph length but may lack the ability to consistently maintain coherence among paragraphs. Students incorporate some organizational conventions of academic writing but may also use atypical organizational conventions.

Comprehensibility: Students can be understood by those unaccustomed to non-native writing, although some additional effort may be required. Errors sometimes interfere with understanding.