CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Introduction to Academic EssaysEssay Shape and OrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayTimed Writing 2Integrated Writing 2Descriptive EssaysExample Descriptive Essay 1Example Descriptive Essay 2PrewritingWriting: Word ChoiceSources: QuotingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample Comparison Essay 1Example Comparison Essay 2PrewritingWriting: UnitySources: SummarizingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingParaphrasingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyUsing SourcesFinding SourcesAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKCitationsDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK


Now that your planning stage is complete, you can begin writing your draft. Be careful as you quote, paraphrase, and summarize. Your writing should be organized, developed, accurate, and original.

As you write your introduction, think about the information your reader needs to understand your topic so they feel ready for the thesis when they read it. For example, imagine the following thesis at the end of an introduction paragraph about sleep deprivation. What information would help a reader understand the general topic so he is ready for the thesis?

TH: Sleep deprivation has many physiological and immunological effects.

Some key information might include a definition of sleep deprivation, how common it is, who suffers from it, or why people suffer from it. Now read the introduction paragraph that follows and look for the information that the author included to introduce the general topic and give background knowledge.

Example: Introduction Paragraph

      Do you know anyone who is tired all of the time? Our bodies need rest, and while scientists aren't exactly sure why we do, it is certain that we do. People who consistently sleep less than 6-7 hours each night are considered sleep deprived (Carter, 2014), and this issue affects a lot of the population (Drix, 2017) including working professionals, young mothers, and students (Andrews, 2016). Working professionals may say they need every extra minute to finish a project for work, mothers are constantly awakened by their children, and students have many responsibilities to balance to complete all of their assignments. However, cutting out time for sleep is no small matter. There are serious effects that come from not sleeping enough consistently. Sleep deprivation has many physiological and immunological effects.

1 Exercise: Brainstorm background knowledge for an introduction

What does the reader need to know before they encounter any of these thesis statements in an introduction paragraph?

TH: Smart investments in both people and resources lead to success in business.

TH: Stereotypes can lead to racial discrimination.

TH: A poor diet and excessive stress cause attention problems in school.

2 Exercise: Write a conclusion

Read the following introduction paragraph for an essay about causes of airplane accidents. Write the conclusion paragraph (or explain what you would write to a partner).

       Technology advances in aviation have made flying safer nowadays. The construction materials have been tested and proven to be durable. The mechanics have been improved for maximum efficiency and precision. Even the passengers receive more extensive safety training before takeoff. However, there are some accidents that can't be controlled for in every situation. It has been found that human errors are responsible for 70 percent of airplane accidents ("Human Factors," n.d.). Mechanical errors, memory problems, and intentional violations are the most common human causes of aircraft accidents.