CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Introduction to Academic EssaysStyleShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayTimed Writing 2Using SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingDescriptive EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK


1 Exercise: Revise a body paragraph

Read the paragraph and revise it. First, check to make sure all of the supporting sentences support the topic sentence. Some information may be better for the introduction or another body paragraph. Also think about how to add commentary between quotes as necessary. 

       Joan of Arc was a brave leader who was sensitive to spiritual impressions. “At the age of 18 she led the French army to victory over the British at Orléans in the Hundred Year’s War. She was captured a year later and burned at the stake as a heretic by the English and their French collaborators. She was named as a Roman Catholic saint more than 500 years later in 1920. Joan of Arc was a young girl and her bravery and actions to protect France were unheard of for a woman. Joan of Arc is one of the most powerful female figures in French history” (“France’s Great Heroine,” 2009, para. 1). She became one of the great heroines through divine help. “At the age of 13, Joan began to hear voices, which she determined had been sent by God to give her a mission of overwhelming importance: to save France by expelling its enemies, and to install Charles as its rightful king” (“France’s Great Heroine,” 2009, para. 3). 

2 Exercise: Check your essay

Remember to think about those same questions as you revise your own essay before you ask someone for feedback. 

Good luck with your revisions!