ObjectivesThe Writing ProcessPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityIntroduction to Academic EssaysStyleShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayUsing SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingDescriptive EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK

Using Academic Vocabulary

At a minimum, you need to know the meaning, the part of speech, and the collocates.

Meaning 

Make sure you know what words mean. Sometimes when you use words incorrectly, it is because you don't fully understand what it means.

Part of Speech

You also need to know what part of speech it is.

A noun...

...is a person, place, thing, or idea.

...can be described with adjectives.

...frequently follows determiners.

*common suffixes include "sion/tion" (condition); "ance/ence" (difference); "ment" (development); "ity" (activity)

A verb...

...is a word that shows action.

...can be described with adverbs.

...follows subjects (or comes before objects).

...can be changed to show past or future tense.

*common suffixes include "ate" (indicate); "ize" (recognize); "ify" (identify)

An adjective...

...is a word that describes a noun.

...usually comes before a noun or after a verb like BE.

*common suffixes include "ive" (effective); "ful" (useful); "ic" (specific)

An adverb...

...is a word that describes verbs, adjectives, and sentences.

...can be in many different places in a sentence.

*common suffixes include "ly" (quickly)

Collocations 

A collocate is a word that is frequently used with another word. Sometimes when you use academic vocabulary, your teacher will tell you that you have a "word choice" error or your roommate may tell you that it "sounds funny." That is often because you used a word that is not a collocate. You should memorize a couple of collocates with each new word you learn. You can find lists of collocates on the LEAP dashboard, wordandphrase.info, in collocation dictionaries, and in your LEAP vocabulary packet. Using these lists while you make sentences will help you remember the words in a natural context.

Look at the chart below. You will notice that some words have a noun, verb, adjective, and adverb form that are all a little different. Some words do not. Some words even have the same form for two different parts of speech.

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

expression

express

expressive

expressively

respect

respect

respectful

respectfully

honesty

be honest

honest

honestly

confidence

be confident, have confidence

confident

confidently

1 EXERCISE: Identify word forms

Fill in the word forms that you know.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
      developmental
  support    
sustainability     ------------
    explanatory ------------
      sequentially
part ------------    
    collective  
  expect    

You need to be careful in your writing to use the correct word form.

2 EXERCISE: Revise for word form errors

Find the word form errors. 

       The homework assignment looked easy, but I did not know how to completely it. I asked my study buddy to help me because he is so intelligence. Apparent, he is really good at learning languages, because he is learning three languages at BYU. I know one day he will be famously. I respectful him a lot.