CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityIntroduction to Academic EssaysStyleShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayUsing SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingDescriptive EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK


The writing stage is often called drafting. When you draft, you should be focused mainly on ideas, rather than worrying too much about your grammar. (When you move on to the revising stage, you will correct your grammar.) Use your outline as you draft to make sure you don't lose your focus.

Use the sources you found to help you draft your body paragraphs. Make sure you add commentary and your own explanations between the sources.

Later in this book, you will learn about ways to find sources, cite sources, and use sources in quotes, summaries, and paraphrases. For now, it is only important to note that you need to use sources as you draft. Don't wait until you have finished your draft to add sources into your writing.

The example body paragraph below was written using the quotes and questions from the example on page 19.

Example: Body Paragraph

       Learning vocabulary in a second language is faster than learning vocabulary as a child. Within the first year of life, children learn "…approximately one word per week, and then one word per day" (Gleason, 2014, p. 112). This is amazingly slow, when compared to how quickly an adult can learn a language. While it is relatively unknown how long it takes adults to learn new words, they "…can learn a second language to a high level of proficiency in the same amount of time it takes a baby to learn its first 20 words" (Larson, 2015, p. 15). The difference is partially due to the resources that adults have. According to Larson (2015), "Adults have greater cognitive abilities that enable them to learn new words faster. They are also able to use strategies to help them learn" (p. 15). Thus, when adults learn a second language, they can appeal to these strategies to learn faster than they would if they were learning as a child. These results clearly show that adults learn faster than children when learning vocabulary.