ObjectivesThe Writing ProcessPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityIntroduction to Academic EssaysStyleShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayUsing SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingDescriptive EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Descriptive EssayComparison EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Comparison EssayCause-Effect EssaysExample EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise: Cause-Effect EssayRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskNuts and BoltsPunctuationUsing Academic VocabularyAnswer KeyThe Writing Process AKIntroduction to Academic Essays AKUsing Sources AKDescriptive Essays AKComparison Essays AKCause-Effect Essays AKRefining Writing AKWriting for the TOEFL AKNuts and Bolts AK

Writing

Now that your planning stage is complete, you can begin writing your draft. Be careful as you quote, paraphrase, and summarize. Your writing should be organized, developed, accurate, and original.

During the entire time you draft your body paragraphs, keep in mind what your focus should be. By the time you finish writing a body paragraph, your reader should clearly understand why you believe that your topic sentence is true. Read the example outline with research below:

Example: Outline with Research

TS: Martin Luther King Jr. was remembered for being a nonviolent reformer.

"King became synonymous with nonviolent direct action as he worked to overturn systemic segregation and racism across the southern United States" (Miller, 2018, para. 2).

Q: Why did Martin Luther King Jr. not use violence to cause change?

"I am not unmindful of the fact that violence often brings about momentary results. Nations have frequently won their independence in battle. But in spite of temporary victories, violence never brings permanent peace. It solves no social problem: it merely creates new and more complicated ones. Violence is impractical because it is a descending spiral ending in destruction for all. It is immoral because it seeks to humiliate the opponent rather than win his understanding: it seeks to annihilate rather than convert. Violence is immoral because it thrives on hatred rather than love. It destroys community and makes brotherhood impossible. It leaves society in monologue rather than dialogue. Violence ends up defeating itself. It creates bitterness in the survivors and brutality in the destroyers" (as cited in Swan, 2016, "The Quest for Peace," para. 1).

Q: How did Martin Luther King Jr. change things without fighting?

"They endured death threats, violence and legal prosecution. King's home was bombed. But instead of responding in kind, the members of the movement took to the pews, praying and rallying in churches in protest of the discrimination they suffered" (Miller, 2018, para. 5).

While these quotes answer the questions and support the topic sentence, you should not simply paste several quotes together into one body paragraph. Consider which pieces of your quotes are necessary to support and develop the topic sentence. This means that some pieces of quotes may be unnecessary because they don’t support the topic sentence. It's also okay to divide large quotes into smaller quotes that focus on smaller ideas.

Note how only certain pieces of quotes in the example below were selected for the body paragraph (remember to include ellipses where necessary; see page 30). The large quote was divided into several smaller quotes (and much of the original quote was deleted).

Example: Outline with Selected Quotes

TS: Martin Luther King Jr. was remembered for being a nonviolent reformer.

"King became synonymous with nonviolent direct action as he worked to overturn systemic segregation and racism across the southern United States" (Miller, 2018, para. 2).

Q: Why did Martin Luther King Jr. not use violence to cause change?

"[Violence] solves no social problem..." (as cited in Swan, 2016, "The Quest for Peace," para. 1).

"Violence is impractical because it is a descending spiral ending in destruction for all" (as cited in Swan, 2016, "The Quest for Peace," para. 1).

"It is immoral because it seeks to humiliate the opponent rather than win his under- standing...it thrives on hatred rather than love" (as cited in Swan, 2016, "The Quest for Peace," para. 1).

"Violence ends up defeating itself. It creates bitterness in the survivors and brutality in the destroyers" (as cited in Swan, 2016, "The Quest for Peace," para. 1).

Q: How did Martin Luther King Jr. change things without fighting?

"...the members of the movement took to the pews, praying and rallying in churches in protest of the discrimination they suffered" (Miller, 2018, para. 5).

You will also need to use your own words to connect quotes together. You will use your commentary to introduce some of your research, explain how a quote supports your topic sentence, explain what a quote means, or show how quotes are connected together.

After you use a quote, don't simply summarize it; remember to justify or clarify the reason for using the quote.

The easiest way to begin using sources is by quoting them. It is also possible to use summaries and paraphrases, but for the sake of a straightforward example, only quotes have been used here. As you continue to progress as an academic writer, think about using research instead of exclusively using quotes.

Example: Body Paragraph with Quotes Bolded

       Martin Luther King Jr. was remembered for being a nonviolent reformer. It can be argued that his name "...became synonymous with nonviolent direct action as he worked to overturn systemic  segregation  and  racism  across  the  southern  United States" (Miller, 2018, para. 2). This ideal was important to him because he believed that "[Violence]  solves  no  social  problem..."  and  "...ends  up  destroying  itself"  (as  cited in Swan, 2016, "The Quest for Peace," para. 1). King didn't want to use violence because he felt that it was immoral: "It is immoral because it seeks to humiliate the opponent rather  than  win  his  understanding...it  thrives  on  hatred  rather  than  love"  (as  cited  in Swan, 2016, "The Quest for Peace," para. 1). As a deeply religious man, the immoral side of violence spoke to King's conscience and his convictions were reflected in his actions. He felt violence was likewise impractical "...because it is a descending spiral ending in destruction for all" (as cited in Swan, 2016, para. 1). Clearly, mutual destruction doesn't end up accomplishing the end goal many revolutionaries have in mind, thus violence is a poor route to follow when attempting to establish one's own beliefs and instigate reform. Those that subscribed to King's ideologies sought to emulate his nonviolent approach as well. After King's opponents bombed his home, "...the members of the movement took to the pews, praying and rallying in churches in protest of the discrimination  they suffered" (Miller, 2018, para. 5) instead of retaliating with violent acts of their own. King and his supporters sought to unite both sides instead of setting themselves up to be brutal conquerors as they transformed the Southern United States.