CoverIntroductionWellbeing and Its Importance in SchoolsWhat models/frameworks exist to promote school wellbeing?What is the best approach for my school or district?Valuable Tools and ConsiderationYour Call to ActionStudent Wellbeing InterventionsPositive Emotion Three Good ThingsCounting BlessingsEnvisioning Your Best Possible SelfUnderstanding HumorThree Funny ThingsOutdoor LearningBringing the Outside InBibliotherapyEngagementRecognizing and Utilizing Personal StrengthsARCS Model of CuriosityCarousel BrainstormingGenius HourPerspective Taking and Role-PlayArts IntegrationDrawing and Coloring TherapyCulturally-Enriching and Arts-Based Field TripsCulturally Responsive PracticesSocial Belonging InterventionEmotional Self-Regulation: RULER methodModeling Emotional Self-Regulation SkillsTeacher PraiseRelationshipsModeling Love, Kindness and ForgivenessActive Constructive RespondingDialogue JournalsSecret Strengths SpottingPeer Praise NotesActs of KindnessVolunteeringFast FriendsBuddy BenchMeaningEducating Students about Benefit AppraisalsGratitude LettersSavoring StrategiesTaking in the Good (HEAL)Mental Time TravelBrief Mindfulness ActivitiesMindful BellMindful BreathingBody Scan RelaxationMindful Walking/MovementFive Senses MindfulnessMindful PhotographyMindful Self-CompassionAccomplishmentFuture Thinking & When/Where PlansHope MapG-POWER Goal SettingEmbedded Self-Regulation StrategiesGrowth MindsetGrit and Deliberate PracticeDeveloping Students' Resilience and Coping SkillsHealth and VitalityHealthy Sleep HabitsClassroom Physical ActivityYogaCreative Playground EquipmentHealthy Body Image InterventionStudent-Led Health ProgramSchool-Led Interventions for Teachers and StaffSupporting Teacher AutonomyMindfulness TrainingCompassion TrainingHumor TrainingIncentivizing Physical ExerciseIndividual Interventions for Administrators, Teachers and StaffPositive and Reflective JournalingSelf-Regulation and Coping StrategiesSelf-AffirmationSelf Compassion LetterDiscovering and Utilizing Character StrengthsJob CraftingMindfulnessAdditional Interventions to ConsiderDedicated Wellbeing SpacesIndividual Wellbeing Plans for School EmployeesOther ResourcesPROSPER

Wellbeing Conceptual Framework (Huppert & So)

In order to establish a more comprehensive framework for wellbeing, Huppert and So identified ten central components of positive mental health and flourishing. They determined that wellbeing was not only the absence, but the opposite, of ill being or poor mental health (Huppert, 2014, p. 5). As such, each of these ten components was chosen by identifying the opposites of poor mental health symptoms using diagnostic criteria from the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and the World Health Organization (Huppert & So, 2013). Each of the five PERMA principles are included within this framework, with five additional components, namely emotional stability, optimism, resilience, self- esteem and vitality. A complete list of the principles found in Huppert and So’s (2013) framework are included below. 

  1. Competence (Accomplishment)
  2. Emotional stability
  3. Engagement
  4. Meaning
  5. Optimism
  6. Positive Emotion
  7. Positive Relationships
  8. Resilience
  9. Self-Esteem
  10. Vitality

In order to evaluate the validity of this framework, Huppert and So (2013) evaluated  data from the European Social Survey, a large survey of over 43,000 Europeans from 13 different countries. A supplementary wellbeing evaluation was added to the survey in 2006, allowing Huppert and So to evaluate their wellbeing framework and assess flourishing across Europe using their ten established components. They determined that for a person to be categorized as “flourishing” they had to have positive emotion, all but one of the positive characteristics in the framework (PERMA) and all but one of the positive functioning aspects of the framework(emotional stability, optimism, resilience, self-esteem and vitality). The questions used in the survey for each of the ten components are listed below(Huppert & So, 2013, p. 843). You may wish to use these questions in assessing the wellbeing of your students and staff. 

Wellbeing Component: Indicator:
Competence Most days I feel a sense of accomplishment from what I do
Emotional Stability (In the past week) I felt calm and peaceful
Engagement I love learning new things
Meaning I generally feel that what I do in my life is valuable and worthwhile
Optimism I am always optimistic about my future
Positive Emotion Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
Positive Relationships There are people in my life who really care about me
Resilience When things go wrong in my life it generally takes me a long time to get back to normal (reverse score)
Self-Esteem In general, I feel very positive about myself
Vitality (In the past week) I had a lot of energy

Huppert, F. A., & So, T. T. (2013). Flourishing Across Europe: Application of a New Conceptual Framework for Defining Well-Being. Social indicators research, 110(3), 837–861. 

Huppert, F. A. (2014). The state of well-being science: Concepts, measures, interventions, and policies. In F. A. Huppert & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Interventions and policies to enhance well-being. Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell. 

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