CoverIntroductionWellbeing and Its Importance in SchoolsWhat frameworks exist to promote school wellbeing?What is the best approach for my school/district?Valuable Tools and ConsiderationYour Call to ActionStudent Wellbeing InterventionsPositive Emotion Three Good ThingsCounting BlessingsEnvisioning Your Best Possible SelfUnderstanding HumorThree Funny ThingsOutdoor LearningBringing the Outside InBibliotherapyEngagementRecognizing and Utilizing Personal StrengthsARCS Model of CuriosityCarousel BrainstormingGenius HourPerspective Taking and Role-PlayArts IntegrationDrawing and Coloring TherapyCulturally-Enriching and Arts-Based Field TripsCulturally Responsive PracticesSocial Belonging InterventionEmotional Self-Regulation: RULER methodModeling Emotional Self-Regulation SkillsTeacher PraiseRelationshipsModeling Love, Kindness and ForgivenessActive Constructive RespondingDialogue JournalsSecret Strengths SpottingPeer Praise NotesActs of KindnessVolunteeringFast FriendsBuddy BenchMeaningEducating Students about Benefit AppraisalsGratitude LettersSavoring StrategiesTaking in the Good (HEAL)Mental Time TravelBrief Mindfulness ActivitiesMindful BellMindful BreathingBody Scan RelaxationMindful Walking/MovementFive Senses MindfulnessMindful PhotographyMindful Self-CompassionAccomplishmentFuture Thinking & When/Where PlansHope MapG-POWER Goal SettingEmbedded Self-Regulation StrategiesGrowth MindsetGrit and Deliberate PracticeDeveloping Students' Resilience and Coping SkillsHealth and VitalityHealthy Sleep HabitsClassroom Physical ActivityYogaCreative Playground EquipmentHealthy Body Image InterventionStudent-Led Health ProgramSchool-Led Interventions for Teachers and StaffSupporting Teacher AutonomyMindfulness TrainingCompassion TrainingHumor TrainingIncentivizing Physical ExerciseIndividual Interventions for School EmployeesPositive and Reflective JournalingSelf-Regulation and Coping StrategiesSelf-AffirmationSelf Compassion LetterDiscovering and Utilizing Character StrengthsJob CraftingMindfulnessAdditional Interventions to ConsiderDedicated Wellbeing SpacesIndividual Wellbeing Plans for School EmployeesOther ResourcesPROSPER
Addressing Wellbeing In Schools

What frameworks exist to promote school wellbeing?

This resource centers around Martin Seligman’s PERMAH framework because it has been frequently studied and used in positive education curricula, but it is not the only framework available. Some school curricula, particularly in the United States, include SEL, or social emotional learning, as a way to promote wellbeing and student development. According to the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning, or CASEL (n.d.), SEL is “the process through which all young people and adults acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to develop healthy identities, manage emotions and achieve personal and collective goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain supportive relationships, and make responsible and caring decisions” (para. 1). Similar to Seligman’s model, CASEL’s model for social and emotional learning includes five core components: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationships skills, and responsible decision-making.

The CASEL framework shows that the five principles of social and emotional learning(SEL). These include: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills and responsible decision-making. Communities, caregivers, schools and classrooms work together to achieve these indicators through SEL instruction and classroom climate, schoolwide culture, practices and policies, authentic partnerships, and aligned learning opportunities.

The Positive Education Schools Association (2020), states that while positive education should not be confused with SEL curriculums and programs, it “encapsulates” many of the key components and goals of SEL (p. 15). Many of the interventions you will find under the PERMAH framework in this resource will also help support your efforts to improve SEL in your schools. Many other frameworks have been researched and developed to define wellbeing, particularly within the scope of education. If you find neither the PERMAH nor SEL frameworks to be the best fit for your school, please visit the Other Resources section for information about other researched-based frameworks.


Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (n.d.). Fundamentals of SEL.

Positive Education Schools Association. (2020). Wellbeing in your school: A guide to understanding and implementing positive education, 2nd edition.


CC BY-NC: This work is released under a CC BY-NC license, which means that you are free to do with it as you please as long as you (1) properly attribute it and (2) do not use it for commercial gain.

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