• Foundations of Education for Emergent Bilinguals
  • Session One: Exploring My Culture and ELs Strengths
  • Session Two: Developing Understandings of Culture--Mine and My ELs
  • Session Three: Considering ELs as a Resource in My Teaching
  • Session Four: Developing Knowledge of Assets and Legal Obligations
  • Session Five: Attending to Standards and Classifications with WIDA
  • Session Six: Positioning ELs within the School Game
  • Session Seven: Promoting ELs Learning through My Learning
  • Session Eight: Celebrating and Presenting My Learning
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  • Translations
  • LA 3.4: Norma's Story

    Considering Funds of Knowledge, Resistance Theory, and Identity Formation


    Learning Outcome Pedagogical Intent Student Position

    Identify factors that influence the school experiences of English learners and their families under a deficit model.

    Assessment: 25 pts.

    TA: 40 Minutes

    Teachers can identify and recognize social theories of Resistance, and Funds of Knowledge and learn how these deficit orientations can affect their pedagogy.

    Students have learned about the socioeconomic level, immigrant status, and language factors that affect the culture of English learners and their families. They have watched a video explaining social theories and have heard Norma’s Story.  They are now prepared to learn about how deficit orientations affect their participation in schools


    1. With a partner read Norma's Story for evidence of Funds of Knowledge and Resistance Theory in stages of identity formation. 
    2. Take notes on the form linked here.
    3. Be prepared to share your thoughts with your table and with the class.
    4. After the class share, as a class you will watch a video on Identity Formation. Your facilitator will share the video, but you can access it independently at this link. You will scroll down to Session 4 on the left side of the screen and then select it. Then move back to the top and click on the small video screen to watch. You can access the viewing guide here.

    This content is provided to you freely by EdTech Books.

    Access it online or download it at https://edtechbooks.org/bilingual_education/la_3.4.