LA 5.2: Program Models

Viewing and Reading with a purpose.

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Learning Outcome Pedagogical Intent Student Position

Interpret the historical context of diversity and discrimination and evaluate how it impacts current practices.

Assessment: 25 pts.

TA: 70 Minutes

Teachers who understand the history of educating ELs can select models, strategies, and practices to effectively teach English language learners.

Students have explored the legalities involved in the modern history of educating English learners in the United States. They are now prepared to read about programming responses to those legalities. 

Instructions

Part A

  1. Your class will watch a video on program models (If you want to watch it on your own later, follow this link and although you are in session 5 it is actually found in Session 6, so  scroll down to session 6 in the left column and then move to the right column and click on 6.1 Program Models).
  2. For class, you can take notes on the AVG 5.1/6.1 which is linked here.

Part B

  1. In your working groups, read all seven of the program model summaries that follow the instructions.
  2. For the next part of the work you will need to use the analysis sheet so click on the link. For each program complete the Important Points About the Model row. 
  3. Divide the next four rows among the members of your group. Each person will fill out the corresponding row of the pro- gram analysis chart, responding to the prompts in each row. For the second row, refer to the summary of SLA facts and the WIDA Standards for ELs. For the third and fourth rows, use the program information from the book and your homework 5.1 about enrollment and classification. The last row will be assigned as homework from this session. It need not be completed until the next session. 
  4. Go through the program chart as a group, adding in the missing information from each row. 
  5. Participate in the class discussion about these programs when you have finished.

Program Model Descriptions

Two-Way Bilingual Program Model

 

Description

In the United States, this fairly new program design is also called Developmental Bilingual Education. In these programs, language minority students work together academically and socially with language majority students (i.e. native English speakers). Both groups learn language and academic content through two languages.

Student Population

Relationship to School Exposure to English Speakers

Ideally, there is a balance of Native English speakers and speakers of the minority language. Both groups have extensive, on-going daily interaction with native speakers of the language they are learning, serving as linguistic role models for each other. Both acquire a new language and develop their native language.

Teacher Population

A single teacher proficient in both languages or two teachers, one of whom is bilingual, teach the students. They monitor the balance of language use across the two languages and make certain that students from both groups have similar classroom experiences.

Resources

Instructional Costs

These programs require at least one bilingual teacher. They also require materials in both languages. This is the least expensive model because the curriculum delivered is mainstream curriculum.

Program Length

These programs extend through elementary (6 yrs.) and sometimes through high school (12 yrs.)

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English) Theories of Language Learning Native Language Support

Based on the concepts of transfer and additive bilingualism, this program develops higher order thinking and reasoning. Additive bilingualism positively affects concept formation, creativity, ana- logic reasoning, visual spatial skills, and problem solving at no cost to the development of L1. The ultimate goal is full literacy in both L1 and L2.

Academic Emphasis

Content and Language

Teachers used content to teach language and language to teach content.

Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture C2=2nd Culture

Since both languages are actively cultivated throughout the duration of this program, it represents a pluralistic view of language and culture.

Cognitive Emphasis

The basic concepts of this program, transfer and additive bilingualism, strongly support cognitive development.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

Students graduating from this program score about the 50th percentile on national standardized tests, which means that 100% of the achievement gap is closed by the end of their schooling.

Transitional Bilingual Education Model

 

Description

For a program to be accurately labeled a bilingual program, it must (1) use students’ primary

language (usually the language used in the home), (2) teach content area subjects through both the primary and target languages, and (3) teach the target language (in the United States that is English).

Student Population

Relationship to School Exposure to English Speakers

The students speak the same primary language—usually a language other than English. They may be immigrant or indigenous minorities. Since these programs provide instruction in English in

 addition to the students’ home language, about half of the instruction is in English. Models for English include their teachers, other students learning English with them, and interaction in the school.

Teacher Population

The teacher in this program must be proficient in both languages.

Resources

Instructional Costs

These programs require a bilingual teacher and materials in both languages. It is one of the less expensive models because the curriculum delivered is mainstream curriculum with additional materials. It works best in districts which have substantial numbers of language minority students speaking the same language at the same grade level.

Program Length

Early exit programs transition students to English-only instruction after initial literacy is developed in the home language. Late exit programs last through elementary with instruction in L1 and L2.

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English) Theories of Language Learning Native Language Support

This program is based on the principle of transfer (cognitive/academic or literacy-related skills transfer across languages and L1 development supports L2). Content area instruction may be pro- vided almost exclusively in L1 with gradual increase in the use of English as the medium. In Late exit, students receive 40% of the content in L1 even after they are reclassified as fluent English proficient.

Academic Emphasis

Content and Language

Teachers use content to teach language and language to teach content.

Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture C2=2nd Culture

Based on a pluralistic view of language and culture; however, programs may undercut C1 if L1 is not valued and maintained.

Cognitive Emphasis

The basic concept of this program (transfer) supports cognitive development, particularly the development of higher order thinking skills.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

More than 50% of the language gap is closed. The final average scores will be between the 32nd to above the 50th percentile

Structured Immersion

 

Description

In these programs, the target language is used for most instruction and there is no explicit ESL instruction. Essential features are linguistically homogeneous classes, bilingual teachers, content area instruction in L2, with L2 acquired through authentic and meaningful interaction.

Student Population

Relationship to School Exposure to English Speakers

Students are from the same homogeneous L1 background. In the U.S., students are usually from immigrant and non-middle class families without full development of L1. (In Canada, they come from middle class backgrounds—findings across the countries cannot be compared.) Teachers and the non-native speakers in the program provide models of L2 use. Sometimes L1 is not allowed in the classroom.

Teacher Population

The teacher is bilingual (or at least has receptive skills in L1 of students) and has a bilingual or ESL teaching credential. Teachers understand and value the students’ L1, but teach and respond to students in L2. Content must be made concrete. (Sometimes teachers structure these programs more like sheltered English programs.)

Resources

Instructional Costs

These programs require at least one bilingual teacher credentialed in ESL. They may require simplified subject matter.

Program Length

These programs usually last through elementary school.

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English) Theories of Language Learning Native Language Support

These programs are based on the theory that the process of acquiring L1 and L2 are similar and language is learned when used for authentic purposes. Initial learning need not occur in L1 as long as L2 is comprehensible. Teachers understand and accept the students’ L1 but teach in and respond in the target language.

Academic Emphasis:

Content and Language

Teachers use content to teach language and language to teach content.

Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture C2=2nd Culture

In theory, this program model adheres to a pluralistic concept of language and culture. Since L2 is the language of instruction and the use of L1 is discouraged, students may perceive their own language as less.

Cognitive Emphasis

Students learn academic content and social language in L2.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

In the United States, the program often results in negative academic and self-esteem progress. In fact, students may be 2 to 3 grade levels below their peers in academic performance in partial immersion programs.

 

Utah Model Bilingual Education

Description

In the United States, this fairly new program design is also called

Student Population

Relationship to School Exposure to English Speakers

Ideally, there would be a balance of Native English speakers and speakers of the minority language. This is different from Two-Way Bilingual models elsewhere and this is why it is called DLI or Dual Language Immersion. With the programs other than Portuguese and Spanish, there is usually a very limited number of speakers of the language partnered with English. Spanish and Portuguese programs are more likely to be able to provide a closer balance of participant language skills where both groups thus on-going daily interaction with native speakers of the language they are learning, serving as linguistic role models for each other. Both acquire a new language and develop their native language. The insistent that teachers of the paired language and the teacher of English do not allow students to see they have proficiency in both language becomes an important feature of the program

Teacher Population

The program enlists two teachers each is proficient in at least one of the languages (Spanish, Chinese, Portuguese, French). However, usually at least the teacher responsible for the language other than English also speaks English. One of the features of the model is that teachers seek to never allow students to see them interacting or speaking in the language they are not responsible for teaching. The student population is divided in half and they spend half of each day with each teacher learning the assigned content in the language spoken by the teacher.

Resources

Instructional Costs

These programs require two teachers: one for each language (usually the teacher in the language other than English has some level of bilingualism). They  require materials in both languages—but the curriculum is split between the teachers (However because of some difficulties with this programs often need materials in both languages so that teachers can support English speakers in learning the content they are not assigned to teach.}

Program Length

These programs extend through elementary (6 yrs.) and sometimes through high school (12 yrs.)

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English) Theories of Language Learning Native Language Support

Based on the concepts of transfer and additive bilingualism, this program develops higher order thinking and reasoning. Additive bilingualism positively affects concept formation, creativity, ana- logic reasoning, visual spatial skills, and problem solving at no cost to the development of L1. The ultimate goal is full literacy in both L1 and L2.

Academic Emphasis

Content and Language

Teachers used content to teach language and language to teach content. The curriculum is divided. In the early grades (1-3) the teachers on the English side have a disproportionate responsibility to teach all content. (see this link for curriculum division

https://edtechbooks.org/-WKNW.)

.Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture C2=2nd Culture

Since both languages are actively cultivated throughout the duration of this program, it represents a pluralistic view of language and culture.

Cognitive Emphasis

The basic concepts of this program, transfer and additive bilingualism, strongly support cognitive development.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

Since this program is based on the research guiding Two-Way models, the belief is that students graduating from this program will score about the 50th percentile on national standardized tests, which means that 100% of the achievement gap is closed by the end of their schooling. Students moving through the program are able to participate in high school advanced placement programs.The claims for the efficacy for the Utah Program Model can be found here (https://edtechbooks.org/-qGd)

ESL Pullout

 

Description

These programs are specifically designed for LEP students. They may also be called Content-Based ESOL or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE). The medium of instruction is English with the level of instruction adapted to language proficiency of students.

Student Population

Relationship to School Exposure to English Speakers

Students may come from a variety of L1 backgrounds. They usually spend some portion of the day with native English speakers, but at the secondary level this may depend on how much of their content is presented in “sheltered” courses.

Teacher Population

Teachers are not necessarily bilingual, usually not educated in the subject matter, but are ESL specialists. In some cases courses are team taught with ESL specialists and content teachers (not usually). Teachers teach courses taught in the general curriculum adapted to student language skills. Teachers use gestures, visual aids and simplified language.

Resources

Instructional Costs

These programs require at least one ESL specialist. They require special materials, because the curriculum is simplified, and they require space.

Program Length

Students are in these programs for only one or two years; but spend from one hour to an entire day in sheltered instruction.

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English) Theories of Language Learning Native Language Support

These programs are based on Krashen’s acquisition-learning hypothesis and comprehensible input hypothesis. L2 acquisition is enhanced when content is the medium for learning language. Building on former content knowledge, teachers develop language and new understandings in content. L1 is used ironically to support L2 learning—past content knowledge in L1 will become L2 learning. But L1 is not itself supported.

Academic Emphasis:

Content and Language

Teachers use content to teach language and language to teach content, but the focus is strictly on academic language acquisition in L2.

Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture C2=2nd Culture

Since both languages are actively cultivated throughout the duration of this program, it represents a pluralistic view of language and culture.

Cognitive Emphasis

This program implies a cognitive emphasis. Whether that is realized is context dependent: the skill of the teacher to exploit the language and the academic content for L2 development and the academic skill of the students in L1 are major intervening variables.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

The strongest programs still close less than 50% of the achievement gap, while weak programs will close none.

Sheltered English

Description

These programs are specifically designed for LEP students. They may also be called Content-Based ESOL or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE). The medium of instruction is English with the level of instruction adapted to language proficiency of students.

Student Population

Relationship to School Exposure to English Speakers

Students may come from a variety of L1 backgrounds. They usually spend some portion of the day with native English speakers, but at the secondary level this may depend on how much of their content is presented in “sheltered” courses.

Teacher Population

Teachers are not necessarily bilingual, usually not educated in the subject matter, but are ESL specialists. In some cases courses are team taught with ESL specialists and content teachers (not usually). Teachers teach courses taught in the general curriculum adapted to student language skills. Teachers use gestures, visual aids and simplified language.

Resources

Instructional Costs

These programs require at least one ESL specialist. They require special materials, because the curriculum is simplified, and they require space.

Program Length

Students are in these programs for only one or two years; but spend from one hour to an entire day in sheltered instruction.

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English) Theories of Language Learning Native Language Support

These programs are based on Krashen’s acquisition-learning hypothesis and comprehensible input hypothesis. L2 acquisition is enhanced when content is the medium for learning language. Building on former content knowledge, teachers develop language and new understandings in content. L1 is used ironically to support L2 learning—past content knowledge in L1 will become L2 learning. But L1 is not itself supported.

Academic Emphasis:

Content and Language

Teachers use content to teach language and language to teach content, but the focus is strictly on academic language acquisition in L2.

Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture C2=2nd Culture

Since both languages are actively cultivated throughout the duration of this program, it represents a pluralistic view of language and culture.

Cognitive Emphasis

This program implies a cognitive emphasis. Whether that is realized is context dependent: the skill of the teacher to exploit the language and the academic content for L2 development and the academic skill of the students in L1 are major intervening variables.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

The strongest programs still close less than 50% of the achievement gap, while weak programs will close none.

 

Submersion

Description

In the United States, this fairly new program design is also called Developmental Bilingual Educa- tion. In these programs, language minority students work together academically and socially with language majority students (i.e. native English speakers). Both groups learn language and academic content through two languages.

Student Population

Relationship to School Exposure to English Speakers

Ideally, there is a balance of Native English speakers and speakers of the minority language. Both groups have extensive, on-going daily interaction with native speakers of the language they are learning, serving as linguistic role models for each other. Both acquire a new language and develop their native language.

Teacher Population

A single teacher proficient in both languages or two teachers, one of whom is bilingual, teach the students. They monitor the balance of language use across the two languages and make certain that students from both groups have similar classroom experiences.

Resources

Instructional Costs

These programs require at least one bilingual teacher. They also require materials in both languag- es. This is the least expensive model because the curriculum delivered is mainstream curriculum.

Program Length

These programs extend through elementary (6 yrs.) and sometimes through high school (12 yrs.)

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English) Theories of Language Learning Native Language Support

Based on the concepts of transfer and additive bilingualism, this program develops higher order thinking and reasoning. Additive bilingualism positively affects concept formation, creativity, ana- logic reasoning, visual spatial skills, and problem solving at no cost to the development of L1. The ultimate goal is full literacy in both L1 and L2.

Academic Emphasis

Content and Language

Teachers used content to teach language and language to teach content.

Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture C2=2nd Culture

Since both languages are actively cultivated throughout the duration of this program, it represents a pluralistic view of language and culture.

Cognitive Emphasis

The basic concepts of this program, transfer and additive bilingualism, strongly support cognitive development.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

Students graduating from this program score about the 50th percentile on national standardized tests, which means that 100% of the achievement gap is closed by the end of their schooling.

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