LA 5.2: Worksheet - Program Model Summary 1


In the United States, this fairly new program design is also called Developmental Bilingual Education. In these programs, language minority students work together academically and socially with language majority students (i.e. native English speakers). Both groups learn language and academic content through two languages.

Student Population

Relationship to School

Exposure to English Speakers

Ideally, there is a balance of Native English speakers and speakers of the minority language. Both groups have extensive, on-going daily interaction with native speakers of the language they are learning, serving as linguistic role models for each other. Both acquire a new language and develop their native language.

Teacher Population

A single teacher proficient in both languages or two teachers, one of whom is bilingual, teach the students. They monitor the balance of language use across the two languages and make certain that students from both groups have similar classroom experiences.


Instructional Costs

These programs require at least one bilingual teacher. They also require materials in both languages. This is the least expensive model because the curriculum delivered is mainstream curriculum.

Program Length

These programs extend through elementary (6 yrs.) and sometimes through high school (12 yrs.)

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English)

Theories of Language Learning

Native Language Support

Based on the concepts of transfer and additive bilingualism, this program develops higher order thinking and reasoning. Additive bilingualism positively affects concept formation, creativity, analogic reasoning, visual spatial skills, and problem solving at no cost to the development of L1. The ultimate goal is full literacy in both L1 and L2.

Academic Emphasis

Content and Language

Teachers used content to teach language and language to teach content.

Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture

C2=2nd Culture

Since both languages are actively cultivated throughout the duration of this program, it represents a pluralistic view of language and culture.

Cognitive Emphasis

The basic concepts of this program, transfer and additive bilingualism, strongly support cognitive development.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

Students graduating from this program score about the 50th percentile on national standardized tests, which means that 100% of the achievement gap is closed by the end of their schooling.