LA 5.2: Worksheet - Program Model Summary 4


In these programs, all instruction is in English and the focus is on developing language, although some recent programs have begun to integrate content instruction. The teacher may or may not speak the primary language of the students.

Student Population

Relationship to School

Exposure to English Speakers

The student population may be diverse, with many different languages represented. Students should be exposed to native speakers throughout the day in their interactions in school, but during ESL classes they often interact primarily with ESL students with the same first language.

Teacher Population

The teachers are not necessarily bilingual, but should be credentialed in ESL. Even when they are bilingual, a linguistically diverse student group means they may or may not speak the students’ L2. Teachers generally pull students out of mainstream classrooms. However, in new models teachers may plan content with classroom teachers and deliver content in the regular classroom by team teaching or by teaching children one on one or in small groups.


Instructional Costs

These programs require at least one extra ESL credentialed teacher. They also require materials for teaching English and space allocation. These additional costs to a system make it an expensive program. Scheduling is a challenge.

Program Length

These programs are always short term, lasting 1-3 years. Instructional time varies from once or twice a week to several hours each day.

Linguistic Emphasis

(L1=primary language, L2=English)

Theories of Language Learning

Native Language Support

If the emphasis is on L2 development not integrated with content, then students learn only social language. If the programs include content instruction, some academic language in L2 may also be developed. Theoretically, ESL programs are based on the assumption that formal language instruction is critical but initial learning needn’t occur in L1.

Academic Emphasis

Content and Language

This depends on whether content instruction is integrated with language instruction. They may fall behind peers academically if only L2 focus.

Sociocultural Emphasis

C1=1st Culture

C2=2nd Culture

Clearly, this model has assimilation overtones. L1 is replaced with L2. Students are taught that L2, and therefore C2, is more important.

Cognitive Emphasis

When programs integrate language and content instruction, the cognitive emphasis is stronger than when the focus is more on language alone.

% of Achievement Gap Closed by End of Schooling

(based on data-analytic research)

The strongest programs still close less than 50% of the achievement gap, while weak programs will close none. Students, on the average, score between the 11th & 22nd percentile on national standardized tests.