Topic 1

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

Goddess of Democracy
The Goddess of Democracy Statue, Portsmouth Square, San Francisco, Public Domain

Snapshot of Topic 1

Explore the topic's sub-chapters to learn more about the philosophical foundations of the United States political system.

Supporting Question

Massachusetts Standards [8.T1.1-5]

  1. The Government of Ancient Athens
  2. The Government of the Roman Republic
  3. Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government
  4. British Influences on American Government
  5. Native American Influences on American Government

Advanced Placement Standards for U.S. Government

Topic 1: The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

Topic 1 explores the origins of the United States system of democratic government, beginning with Ancient Athens and the Roman Republic and including how Enlightenment thinkers, colonial governments, and Native American tribes influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.  

The word ‘democracy’ comes from the Greek words “demos” and “kratos,” meaning "rule by the people" (Defining Democracy, Museum of Australian Democracy). Although the term does not appear in either the Declaration of Independence or the United States Constitution, democracy is the foundation for government in this country. Americans believe in government of the people, by the people, for the people.  

Democracy, as a framework of government, has evolved over the centuries and now includes concepts that are the foundations of civic and political life in our country: freedom, justice, liberty, individual rights and responsibilities, shared power, and a system of checks and balances among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the government. The following resources show the rise of democracy and its status in the world today:  

More than half the countries in the world consider themselves democracies, although not all are fully democratic (Desilver, 2019). In the modern world, contends education professor John J. Patrick (2006, p.7), an "authentic democracy" includes the following structures, without which a democratic system cannot exist:

Each of the standards in Topic 1 explore the philosophical and historical origins of the United States democratic political system, beginning with the emergence of democratic principles in ancient Greece and Rome and continuing to political philosophies of Enlightenment thinkers, the struggles between monarchs and nobles in medieval England, and the question of how extensively did Native Americans influence on the structure of American government.

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