Index

10th Amendment 1314th Amendment 2619th Amendment 326th Amendment 2Amendment 150Anti-Federalists 13Anti-racist 3Barack Obama 11Bill of Rights 49Black Lives Matter 17Cartoons 25Censorship 12Census 18Cesar Chavez 6Citizen 164citizenship 31Civil Rights 75Civil War 51Climate change 10Congress 175Conservative 23Constitution 310Court 234COVID-19 54Declaration of Independence 30Democracy 133Democratic party 8Dictatorship 3Digital democracy 2Disinformation 9Dolores Huerta 5Donald Trump 44Eleanor Roosevelt 7Electoral College 30Environment 42Executive Branch 13Executive order 8Fair Labor Standards Act 5Fake news 26Federalists 15First Amendment 28Freedom of religion 4Freedom of speech 8Freedom of the press 24Gender-inclusive language 5House of Representatives 38Impeachment 17Implied powers 15Indigenous people 6Information disorder 2Instant Runoff Voting 4Investigative journalists 7January 6 19Jim Crow 5Joe Biden 24John Quincy Adams 5Judicial 39Judicial branch 18Kamala Harris 8Labor Union 21Landmark case 8Legislative 44Legislative branch 9Liberal 10Local school boards 4Massachusetts Constitution 32Minimum wage 12Misinformation 21Mixed gender 4Monarchy 11National Popular Vote 3Necessary and proper clause 15Nellie Bly 3News 202Newspaper 65Non-binary 3Non-Citizen 13Pandemic 77Persuasion 8Political party 22Political polarization 6Polls 9Popular vote 19President of the United States 10Presidential Cabinet 4Press 194Press conference 10Privacy 8Progressive 18Propaganda 16Protest 83Public education 8Puerto Rico 18Reconstruction 11Regressive taxation 4Republican party 15resourcesforhistoryteachers 38Senate 41Sequoyah 4Shirley Chisholm 10Social Media 111Special interest groups 10Sportswriter 2Strike 28Supreme Court 142Tax 88Tinker v. Des Moines 5Town meeting 16Transgender 25Universal Declaration of Human Rights 6Vaccination 16Vaccine 13Voter fraud 7Voter suppression 10Voting 146Voting rights 31Voting Rights Act of 1965 4W.E.B. DuBois 5Women 213

10th Amendment

Table of Contents

  1. 10th Amendment to the Constitution

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. The 9th and 10th Amendments of the Bill of Rights further express the concept of limited…

The Necessary and Proper Clause

  1. … necessary and proper clause and the 10th Amendment. While the necessary and proper clause…
  2. You can learn more about the 10th Amendment in Topic 6.5 of this book.

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. Standard 6.5: 10th Amendment to the Constitution
  2. … functions. Learn more about The 10th Amendment from National Constitution Center. You…
  3. … pandemic, states have used their 10th Amendment powers to implement emergency public…
  4. The 10th Amendment to the Constitution states that any powers not granted to the federal…
  5. … a move that will again raise 10th Amendment issues of state versus federal authority.
  6. … PASPA unconstitutional under the 10th Amendment.  The federal government had overstepped…
  7. … Anti-Federalists with the inclusion of the 10th Amendment in the Constitution. Anti-Federalists…
  8. Explain why the 10th Amendment to the United States Constitution is important to state…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … exercise such powers under the 10th Amendment, Supreme Court decisions require a “compelling…

14th Amendment

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … just before the passage of the 14th Amendment and he lived nearly a century until just…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … due process of law under the 14th Amendment of the Constitution.

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … in such situations. Under the 14th Amendment, public health laws cannot be “arbitrary,…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … UNCOVER: The Importance of the 14th Amendment
  2. Online Resources for the 14th Amendment
  3. The 14th Amendment was one of three post-Civil War Amendments to the Constitution, the…
  4. … Supreme Court cases involving the 14th Amendment.
  5. … Court decisions based on the 14th Amendment.
  6. … Civil Rights Bill of 1866, the 14th Amendment had five sections:
  7. Since its passage, the 14th Amendment has continued to transform law and society in the…
  8. … reviewing the importance of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, and outlining the…
  9. … wrote these famous words of the 14th Amendment:  
  10. The 14th Amendment is a landmark in United States law. The Bill of Rights protected citizens…
  11. … government. UNCOVER discussed how the 14th Amendment to the Constitution has over time…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … protection of the law under the 14th Amendment. On December 17, 1956, the United States…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … has raised complex Title IX and 14th Amendment questions of sex, gender, and identity…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…
  2. … equal protection clauses of the 14th Amendment; and c) cases involving the Pledge of…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … INVESTIGATE: The Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article I of the Massachusetts…
  2. The 14th Amendment
  3. … including the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts…
  4. The 14th Amendment is explored in Topic 4, Standard 4 in this book. 
  5. … individual - the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts…
  6. … including the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts…
  7. … case, the court held that the 14th Amendment requires states to license marriages between…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. … over policies. In reality, the 14th Amendment's mandate that states must provide "any…

19th Amendment

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … the time of the passage of the 19th Amendment, women were already voting in 15 states…
  2. … established by the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920, but small numbers of…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … made for the significance of the 19th Amendment, for as journalist Lynn Sherr observed,…

26th Amendment

British Influences on American Government

  1. Passed and ratified in 1971, the 26th Amendment to the Constitution gives 18-year-olds…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … Americans, Library of Congress). The 26th Amendment established the right to vote for…

Amendment

Table of Contents

  1. Amendments to the Constitution
  2. 10th Amendment to the Constitution
  3. TOPIC 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court [Standards 8.T5.1-6]

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

British Influences on American Government

  1. … and ratified in 1971, the 26th Amendment to the Constitution gives 18-year-olds…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. The first 10 Amendments of the Bill of Rights are:
  2. … before the passage of the 14th Amendment and he lived nearly a century until just…
  3. … the Constitution’s first 10 Amendments.
  4. … understanding every major clause and Amendment. A section of the site called the…
  5. The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution known as the Bill of Rights consists…
  6. The first ten Amendments to the U. S. Constitution—the Bill of Rights—set forth…
  7. … including signatures; now with its 27 Amendments, it is 7,591 words in length (Constitution…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. Following the 20th Amendment of the Constitution, Presidents of the United States…
  2. … process of law under the 14th Amendment of the Constitution.
  3. … Prior to the passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected not by…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … barely blocked passage of an Amendment to replace the Electoral College with a…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868. It took a Supreme Court decision,…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … (the Constitution’s first 10 Amendments) set forth the rights (protections under…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … parliament. A 1999 constitutional Amendment in France mandated political parties…
  2. … has interpreted several of the Amendments to establish this right (Does the Constitution…
  3. … such situations. Under the 14th Amendment, public health laws cannot be “arbitrary,…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … UNCOVER: The Importance of the 14th Amendment
  2. Online Resources for the 14th Amendment
  3. The 14th Amendment was one of three post-Civil War Amendments to the Constitution,…
  4. … characterized the three post-Civil War Amendments as “sleeping giants . . . that…
  5. … Court cases involving the 14th Amendment.
  6. … the Constitution and its Sixth Amendment was passed, the right to trial and the…
  7. … Court decisions based on the 14th Amendment.
  8. … Constitution through a series of Amendments:
  9. … do in school buildings (First Amendment Rights for Student Protestors). As a result,…
  10. … concepts of what would be the Sixth Amendment in American law.
  11. … Rights Bill of 1866, the 14th Amendment had five sections:
  12. Since its passage, the 14th Amendment has continued to transform law and society…
  13. … reviewing the importance of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, and outlining…
  14. The 9th and 10th Amendments of the Bill of Rights further express the concept of…
  15. … these famous words of the 14th Amendment:  
  16. The 14th Amendment is a landmark in United States law. The Bill of Rights protected…
  17. … UNCOVER discussed how the 14th Amendment to the Constitution has over time extended…
  18. … Guaranteed to all by the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution, it means that defendants…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … time of the passage of the 19th Amendment, women were already voting in 15 states…
  2. … and even while constitutional Amendments, court cases, and state and federal laws…
  3. … were established by the 15th Amendment in 1870 which declared "the right of citizens…
  4. … Library of Congress). The 26th Amendment established the right to vote for 18 to…
  5. … taxes were outlawed by the 24th Amendment in 1964.
  6. … the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920, but small numbers of women had…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … work. The Constitution’s First Amendment includes the right “to petition the…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … Theory, and Teachers’ First Amendment Rights
  2. … classrooms raise the issue of First Amendment rights for teachers in schools. What…
  3. … distinction between the First Amendment speech protections for college professors…
  4. … employees generally do not have First Amendment protection for their on-the-job…
  5. … doesn’t a teacher have the First Amendment right to choose her own reading assignments,…
  6. … category where they have both First Amendment speech rights and limitations on…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … outlawed by the Constitution's 24th Amendment) by requiring former felons to pay…
  2. … protection of the law under the 14th Amendment. On December 17, 1956, the United…
  3. … democracy: the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments became law; Blacks were elected…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. Democracy for All Constitutional Amendment
  2. … individual citizens have proposed an Amendment to the Constitution designed to…
  3. … in politics is to pass a 28th Amendment to the Constitution. Read a text of the…

The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions
  2. … United States Constitution through Amendments, landmark Supreme Court decisions,…

The Necessary and Proper Clause

  1. … and proper clause and the 10th Amendment. While the necessary and proper clause…
  2. … can learn more about the 10th Amendment in Topic 6.5 of this book.

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … has Been the Impact of Those Amendments?
  2. Standard 5.2: Amendments to the Constitution
  3. … the History of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
  4. 3. ENGAGE: What New Amendments to the Constitution Are Needed Today?
  5. … Prohibition and the 18th and 21st Amendments
  6. … Connections: The Equal Rights Amendment on Twitter and other Social Media
  7. … Resources for the Equal Rights Amendment
  8. Online Resources for Amendments to the Constitution
  9. … Constitution in a New Constitutional Amendments interactive from the New York Times…
  10. … Alice Paul wrote the Equal Rights Amendment (or ERA) in 1923. Originally called…
  11. Since 1787, 11,770 Amendments have been proposed but just 27 have been passed—the…
  12. A summary of all Amendments to the Constitution is available from the National Constitution…
  13. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) continues to be a sharply contested constitutional…
  14. What Amendment is most well-known and considered most important? A majority of Americans…
  15. More than 40 constitutional Amendments are introduced in Congress every year. They…
  16. … the 37th state to ratify the Amendment; Nevada having done so in 2017 (NPR, 2017).…
  17. Prohibition was repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933. For a brief overview of…
  18. … ERA in the 1970s, claiming the Amendment would lead to tax dollars being spent…
  19. The Amendment process has produced highly consequential changes to the United States…
  20. … United States passed the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and…
  21. Amendments to balance the federal budget, implement campaign finance reform, punish…
  22. … long passed, although the 27th Amendment was first proposed in 1789 and was not…
  23. … so they established a rigorous Amendment process. While the Constitution has been…
  24. Here is an overview of Amendments 11-27. The most well-known and impactful Amendments…
  25. … the Constitution, including key Amendments. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework…
  26. … Lady Betty Ford was one of the Amendment’s leading supporters.

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … took the addition of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution to do that and the…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … Gender - Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
  2. … Act; Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1970; and the Americans with Disabilities…
  3. … the Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act in 2008. There are more resources…
  4. … following timeline: Constitutional Amendments and Major Civil Rights Acts of Congress,…
  5. … raised complex Title IX and 14th Amendment questions of sex, gender, and identity…
  6. … passage of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments following the Civil War. 

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: First Amendment Rights: Selected Landmark Cases
  2. … Supreme Court Decisions: First Amendment Rights
  3. … for Gun Control Laws and Second Amendment Court Cases
  4. … rights in conflict: the First Amendment, due process, the flag and the Pledge of…
  5. … protection clause of the 14th Amendment. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…
  6. … Court decisions at the First Amendment Encyclopedia from Middle Tennessee State…
  7. … war. The meaning of the Second Amendment to the Constitution is at the center of…
  8. … observed that when the Second Amendment was written, the phrase "the right of the…
  9. The First Amendment of the Constitution states; "Congress shall make no law respecting…
  10. … Petition, and Speech under the First Amendment. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework…
  11. … was a violation of the First Amendment’s establishment clause that prohibits…
  12. … its interpretations of a) First Amendment freedoms; b) the due process and equal…
  13. … interpretations of the First Amendment, the Supreme Court has produced far-reaching…
  14. … it was protected by the First Amendment because it did not substantially disrupt…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. Amendment X of the Constitution: Rights of the States under the Constitution (Part…

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … unconstitutional under the Fifth Amendment. Over time, public attitudes changed…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … The Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution
  2. The 14th Amendment
  3. … the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts Constitution.…
  4. The 14th Amendment is explored in Topic 4, Standard 4 in this book. 
  5. … the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts Constitution.…
  6. … including the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts…
  7. … same-sex couples of their 5th Amendment rights for equal protection under federal…
  8. … on what you learn, propose an Amendment to the Constitution that focuses on the…
  9. The first 10 Amendments of the United States Constitution is known as The Bill of…
  10. … safety and happiness. [Annulled by Amendments, Art. CVI.]
  11. … the court held that the 14th Amendment requires states to license marriages between…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. Standard 6.5: 10th Amendment to the Constitution
  2. … functions. Learn more about The 10th Amendment from National Constitution Center.…
  3. … pandemic, states have used their 10th Amendment powers to implement emergency public…
  4. The 10th Amendment to the Constitution states that any powers not granted to the…
  5. … move that will again raise 10th Amendment issues of state versus federal authority.
  6. … unconstitutional under the 10th Amendment.  The federal government had overstepped…
  7. … with the inclusion of the 10th Amendment in the Constitution. Anti-Federalists…
  8. Explain why the 10th Amendment to the United States Constitution is important to…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … 27. One of the Massachusetts Amendments placed an environmental rights provision…
  2. … Constitution called the Fair Share Amendment. This proposal would impose a 4 cent…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … exercise such powers under the 10th Amendment, Supreme Court decisions require…

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. … Following the passage of the 16th Amendment, it was originally known as the Bureau…
  2. … tax was established by the 16th Amendment in 1916; West Virginia established the…
  3. … institutionalized by the 16th Amendment to the Constitution in 1913. Under a progressive…

Components of Local Government

  1. … and Freedom of Speech, First Amendment Encyclopedia). Learn more about Open Meeting…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … the press clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution. Today, the press means…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … Union, 2019).  Despite the First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom of expression,…
  2. … censorship violated their First Amendment rights of free speech.
  3. … press is set forth in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution:  
  4. … for a redress of grievances” (Amendment 1: U.S. Constitution (Freedom of Religion,…
  5. … Court declared that the First Amendment protects the publication of statements…
  6. … included as a right in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and…
  7. … (2020, p.1) noted of the First Amendment's protection of freedom of the press,…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … company was infringing on the first Amendment rights of free speech. Trump himself…

Anti-Federalists

Table of Contents

  1. Debates Between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … Debate Between Federalists and Anti-Federalists?
  2. … Resources on Federalists and Anti-Federalists
  3. … Constitution, Federalists and Anti-Federalists offered sharply diverging visions for the…
  4. … disagreements between Federalists and Anti-Federalists? The modules for this topic outline…
  5. … groups, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists, emerged with the Federalists arguing…
  6. … our wiki page, Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
  7. The Anti-Federalists feared the Constitution would create a central government that would…
  8. … the Constitution. Like other Anti-Federalists, her opposition to the new government ranged…
  9. … Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists
  10. … debated between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists over ratification of the Constitution…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … by Alexander Hamilton) and the Anti-Federalists (led by Thomas Jefferson). Party divisions…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. Historians credit Anti-Federalists with the inclusion of the 10th amendment in the Constitution.…

Anti-racist

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … Gender-Inclusive, Non-Binary, and Anti-racist Language and Images in State Constitutions,…
  2. Removing Anti-racist Language and Imagery
  3. … have also been acting to combat Anti-racist language and imagery. After 126 years,…

Barack Obama

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … the U.S. to the Presidency of Barack Obama.

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … established in 1970. As President, Barack Obama took numerous steps to extend environmental…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. President Barack Obama delivers his State of the Union address, Feb. 12, 2013  "2013…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … the history, former President Barack Obama called the filibuster a “Jim Crow relic.”

Elections and Nominations

  1. … states depends on the candidate. Barack Obama won Ohio in 2008 and 2012; Donald Trump…
  2. … Presidential elections, only Barack Obama won by a greater popular vote margin. It…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … Oprah Winfrey's endorsement of Barack Obama for President in 2008 has been cited as…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … running for President in 2008, Barack Obama's campaign changed the political advertising…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. In 2009, President Barack Obama signed a Congress-passed apology for the Trail of Tears…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … been held at the base. President Barack Obama ordered the detention facilities closed…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … George W. Bush, Donald Trump, and Barack Obama saying things that they never would…

Bill of Rights

Table of Contents

  1. Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

British Influences on American Government

  1. … the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights which set limits on the power of the…

The Development of the United States Government

  1. … Confederation, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights—as well as the contentious…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … legislature and a constitution with a Bill of Rights. The Northwest Ordinance also outlawed…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … government ranged from the "lack of a Bill of Rights guaranteeing freedom of the press…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … Constitution and What Rights are in the Bill of Rights?
  2. … Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  3. Media Literacy Connections: The Bill of Rights on Twitter
  4. The first 10 Amendments of the Bill of Rights are:
  5. … followed by the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, and…
  6. … Constitution and the text of the Bill of Rights, the impact of W.E.B. Du Bois and the…
  7. The Bill of Rights connects directly to students' legal rights at school. Go here for…
  8. … individuals led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights, the Constitution’s first 10…
  9. The national Bill of Rights has inspired numerous other bills of rights related to economic…
  10. … the Constitution known as the Bill of Rights consists of 472 words. It was signed on…
  11. … the U. S. Constitution—the Bill of Rights—set forth the rights and freedoms of citizens…
  12. When the Bill of Rights were drafted there were no systems of mass communication - no…
  13. … the Rights Enumerated in the Bill of Rights; explain the reasons for the addition of…
  14. … Franklin Roosevelt’s Second Bill of Rights).
  15. … Sanders Calls for a 21st Century Bill of Rights:

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. The Bill of Rights (the Constitution’s first 10 amendments) set forth the rights (protections…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … Franklin D. Roosevelt's Economic Bill of Rights that set forth a "right to employment"…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … the Constitution of 1787 or the Bill of Rights of 1789. While the Constitution guaranteed…
  2. … 9th and 10th amendments of the Bill of Rights further express the concept of limited…
  3. … all of the protections of the Bill of Rights to the actions of state governments, which…
  4. … landmark in United States law. The Bill of Rights protected citizens from infringements…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … under the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. They are rights that protect individuals…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … ideals of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … passed—the first 10 were the Bill of Rights.

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … drafted a Constitution with a Bill of Rights and proposed the structure of a native…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. … under the Constitution (Part of Bill of Rights):
  2. … to create a constitution and Bill of Rights for the Internet:
  3. … United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: The Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article I of the Massachusetts…
  2. Bill of Rights
  3. … individual rights, including the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of…
  4. The Bill of Rights is explored more fully in Topic 2, Standard 5 in this book.  
  5. … rights of the individual - the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of…
  6. … core documents, including the Bill of Rights, the 14th Amendment, and Article 1 of…
  7. … would later be included in the Bill of Rights (“Why Study the Massachusetts Constitution,”…
  8. … Constitution is known as The Bill of Rights. It was proposed in 1789 and ratified by…
  9. The Bill of Rights makes clear what Thomas Jefferson meant by the phrase “inalienable…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. … ratified along with the rest of the Bill of Rights on December 15, 1791. The 10th Amendment…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … (Is the Constitution Important? Bill of Rights Institute, 2011, para. 2). 
  2. … fundamental rights while the federal Bill of Rights has only 10. The more expansive…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … this case can be found at the Bill of Rights Institute.
  2. … this case can be found at the Bill of Rights Institute.
  3. … into the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
  4. … this case can be found at the Bill of Rights Institute.

Black Lives Matter

Introduction for Educators

  1. … standards. Learning pathways include: Black Lives Matter, Student Rights, Influential Women,…

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. Black Lives Matter Activities by Chapter
  2. Black Lives Matter Choice Board

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. … Other learning pathways include: Black Lives Matter, Student Rights, Election 2020, Media…

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. … Other learning pathways include: Black Lives Matter, Influential Women, Election 2020, Media…

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. … people and political parties, Black Lives Matter protests, an economic recession that may…
  2. … Student Rights, Influential Women, Black Lives Matter, Media Literacy, and Current Events.

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. … Rights, Influential Women, Black Lives Matter, Media Literacy, and Election 2020.

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … Capitol rioters as compared with Black Lives Matter (BLM) protestors during the summer of…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … American Revolutionary era to the Black Lives Matter protests in the summer of 2020, music…
  2. … interactive map of George Floyd/Black Lives Matter protests. These turnout numbers would…
  3. … wrote searing songs embracing Black Lives Matter Movement. "The Bigger Picture" by Lil Baby…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … Orlando, Florida, NBA players wore Black Lives Matter t-shirts and conveyed messages of…
  2. As Black Lives Matter protests continued throughout the early summer, the National Football…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … name changes in response to the Black Lives Matter Movement, 26 communities in Massachusetts,…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. The 2020 Black Lives Matter protests that followed the killing of George Floyd have also…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. The Black Lives Matter movement has focused attention on many aspects of African American…

Cartoons

Table of Contents

  1. Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … and groups used advertisements, Cartoons, videos, and other media to spread messages…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … of effigies, pamphlets, songs, Cartoons, and liberty trees to express opposition…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … analysis, editorials, editorial Cartoons, and Op-Ed commentaries. Readers and…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … Articles, Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, Op-Ed Commentaries, Photographs, Press…
  2. Editorial or Political Cartoons
  3. … noted how political or editorial Cartoons are “no laughing matter.”  They…
  4. … articles, editorials, editorial Cartoons, and “op-ed” commentaries. (Massachusetts…
  5. … articles, editorials, editorial Cartoons, Op-Ed commentaries, and news photographs.…
  6. … articles, editorials, editorial Cartoons, Op-Ed commentaries, take news photographs,…
  7. … articles, editorials, political Cartoons, Op-Ed commentaries, news photographs,…
  8. … May 9, 1754. Thomas Nast used Cartoons to expose corruption, greed, and injustice…
  9. … are the new form of political Cartoons. Do you think that this is an accurate…
  10. Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, and Op-Ed Commentaries are forums where writers…
  11. Editorial Cartoons (also known as political Cartoons) are visual images drawn to…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries
  2. … Evaluating Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, and Op-Ed Commentaries
  3. … through Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, and Op-Ed Commentaries in Print and Online?
  4. … Memes and TikToks as Political Cartoons
  5. … writers use editorials, editorial Cartoons, and Op-Ed commentaries to argue for…
  6. Like political Cartoons and comics, memes and Tik Toks have the potential to provide…
  7. Political Cartoons and comics as well as memes and Tik Toks are pictures with a…
  8. … evaluate editorials, editorial Cartoons, and Op-Ed commentaries begins by explaining…
  9. … readers of editorials, editorial Cartoons, and Op-Ed commentaries. Critical readers…
  10. … political memes, Tik Toks, editorial Cartoons, and political comics and then create…

Censorship

Public Service as a Career

  1. … all be able to teach a unit on Censorship without being censored or otherwise retaliated…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … the Red Scare also produced the Censorship of artists, writers, and musicians known…

Freedom of the Press

  1. 2. UNCOVER: Censorship and the Campaign Against Comic Books in the 1950s; Book Banning…
  2. … passed legislation forbidding Censorship of school newspapers unless the censored…
  3. Censorship involves the “suppression of words, images or ideas” that are deemed…
  4. … to be freely expressed without Censorship so people can make up their own minds…
  5. … can be threatened by political Censorship and media pressure.
  6. … efforts to expose and oppose news Censorship from Project Censored: The News That…
  7. … sued, claiming that the adults’ Censorship violated their First Amendment rights…
  8. … focused on three occasions of Censorship: 1) the campaign against comic books and…
  9. … calls for greater comic book Censorship appeared widely in the 1950s following the…
  10. … sponsorship, oversight, control or Censorship. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework…

Census

British Influences on American Government

  1. The Census Bureau reported that there were 42 million adolescents between 10…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … gain more seats. Importantly, Census-taking is far from a perfect process and…
  2. … shift in only a few people in the Census count can lead to the loss or gain…
  3. … of that state as determined by Census: the largest state, California has 52…
  4. The 2020 Census readjusted the distribution of seats in the House, a process…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … determined every ten years by the Census) plus two more for each of the state's…
  2. … electoral votes. Following the 2020 Census, the states with the most electoral…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … Political Parties Today, and the 2020 Census
  2. The 2020 Census and Congressional Redistricting
  3. … following the results of the U.S. Census. The goal is for voting districts to…
  4. … of Representatives. The latest Census data shows declines, in some cases larger…
  5. The release of 2020 Census Data in August 2021 showed dramatic changes in the…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … social and economic problems. The Census Bureau reports that 46.1% of the people…
  2. The first Census in 1790 listed 3.9 million people living in the country - Native…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … multiple jobs just to get by. The Census Bureau has reported that about 13 million…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … in four decades (United States Census Bureau, April 23, 2019). Turnout is often…

Components of Local Government

  1. … every part of every state. The Census Bureau considers towns and cities to be…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … Duke University Reporters' Lab Census, 2020, lists some 290 fact-checking organizations…

Cesar Chavez

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955; Cesar Chavez and the National Farm Workers organized…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. 1.3. Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, Larry Itliong, and the Delano Grape Strike and Boycott
  2. … Mexican American labor activists Cesar Chavez (An American Hero: Biography of Cesar…
  3. … the Scopes Evolution Trial; and Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, Larry Itliong and the…
  4. … strike is a movement to create a Cesar Chavez National Holiday. Presently, Cesar Chavez
  5. … is more information about the Cesar Chavez and the Grape Strike at a resourcesforhistoryteachers…

Citizen

Introduction for Educators

  1. … well as students’ roles as Citizens in a democratic society. It focuses on…
  2. … how to become active, engaged Citizens committed to freedom and justice for all…

Table of Contents

  1. … Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens [Standards 8.T4.1-13]
  2. Becoming a Citizen
  3. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens
  4. Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. … Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. … Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. … Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. … Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. … Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … democracy experienced by common Citizens is at its lowest level since 1990. In…
  2. … the Freedom House report notes, Citizen protests against corruption and for environmental…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … ancient Athens, it was only male Citizens who could vote that were allowed to…
  2. … magistrates and juries made up of Citizens. More information about Athenian democracy…
  3. … technologies might create new ways for Citizens to interact with political leaders…
  4. … practice of ostracism allowed Citizens to vote a man into exile for ten years…
  5. Only free adult men who were Citizens – about 10% of the population – could…
  6. … elections on the Internet; Estonian Citizens can now vote online from anywhere…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … government and most Roman male Citizens had some voting power. Finally, there…
  2. … codes set strict rules for Roman Citizens, many of which would be considered…
  3. … management, and plumbing that its Citizens needed and demanded. Many Americans…
  4. … religious liberty to all male Citizens of France. The United States Code is a…
  5. … "right" or "law."The English words "Citizen," "civil," "civics," and "civilization"…
  6. … and the words we use to discuss Citizenship, government and politics.
  7. … territory. Impoverished Roman Citizens sometimes sold their children into slavery…

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. … freedom by creating a society where Citizens choose to obey laws they themselves…
  2. … the proper relationship of the Citizen to the monarch or the state. They held…
  3. … the Rights of Women and Female Citizen, a stirring call for the equality of women…
  4. … the Rights of Women and Female Citizen (1791), a powerful call for gender equality…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … recently, there have been calls from Citizens to rename the town of Amherst itself.…
  2. … Native Americans did not gain Citizenship until 1924.

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady and Citizen Activist.

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … African Americans should be granted Citizenship.
  2. … history, historians and everyday Citizens have the opportunity to explore the…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … ratification and the rights of Citizens. 
  2. … governments where public debate and Citizen awareness had opportunities to influence…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, celebrated every September 17, commemorates…
  2. … the rights guaranteed to all Citizens by the Constitution? This topic's modules…
  3. … forth the rights and freedoms of Citizens living in the United States.  

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … our Court established that no Citizen, not even the President, is categorically…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … rights and responsibilities as Citizens of the United States?
  2. … person must be a natural born Citizen of the United States, at least 35 years…
  3. … cases involving states against Citizens; and cases concerning ambassadors). Original…
  4. … groups of judges, or jury of Citizens who impartially decide what really happened.…

Elections and Nominations

  1. In American elections, Citizens determine, by voting, who will represent them…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … Arizona along with ideas for how Citizens might go about creating their own districts…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens
  2. … labor unions more than individual Citizens play powerful roles in lobbying for…
  3. … Gorsuch discuss the importance of Citizenship and voting (Note: The YouTube version…
  4. In the United States, both Citizens and non-Citizens have rights and responsibilities…
  5. “A Citizen is a participatory member of a political community. Citizenship is…
  6. … rights and responsibilities of Citizens in our democracy. It consists of 13 modules…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. 2. UNCOVER: Citizenship for Puerto Ricans 
  2. 1. INVESTIGATE: Becoming a Citizen Through Immigration Gateways and Ports of Entry
  3. Standard 4.1: Becoming a Citizen
  4. … QUESTION: How has the Meaning of Citizenship in the United States Changed Over…
  5. Online Resources for Becoming a Citizen
  6. Becoming a United States Citizen
  7. … different mirror point of view, Citizenship histories of Puerto Ricans reveals…
  8. … faiths have struggled to obtain Citizenship under the nation’s changing laws…
  9. … following 12 days of massive Citizen protests—the first time a governor had…
  10. Who were the first Citizens of America?
  11. To become a Citizen after birth, you must:
  12. Even "birthright Citizenship," the principle that anyone born in the country is…
  13. … according to the test writers is the Citizens of a state, not all the people…
  14. … centuries automatically became a Citizen (Museum at Eldridge Street, New York,…
  15. … histories of people becoming Citizens of the United States? The modules for this…
  16. … bloodlines in defining attribution of Citizenship at birth. However, two other…
  17. The Citizenship histories of diverse Americans can be accessed at the following…
  18. … how immigration is connected to Citizenship, first in terms of the laws pertaining…
  19. United States Citizenship, however, is more than a set of legal principles that…
  20. … Jones-Shafroth Act (1917) granted U.S. Citizenship to anyone born on the island;…
  21. The Citizenship Test
  22. Becoming a Citizen also costs money. Currently there is a $725 per person non-refundable…
  23. … Administration has made changes to the Citizenship test, making it longer and…
  24. … green card holders can apply for Citizenship (for more information, go to I Am…
  25. … different ways one becomes a Citizen of the United States. (Massachusetts Curriculum…
  26. Broadly defined, Citizenship consists of enjoying the benefits and assuming the…
  27. … bring together the histories of Citizenship, immigration, and America's multicultural…
  28. According to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (para. 1):
  29. To become a Citizen at birth, you must:

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens
  2. 1.INVESTIGATE: The Rights of Citizens and Non-Citizens
  3. … Responsibilities of United States Citizens and Non-Citizens?
  4. Online Resources for the Rights of Citizens and Non-Citizens
  5. … guaranteed to all Americans as Citizens are not universal for all people (even…
  6. … safeguards given to United States Citizens were ignored or bypassed in the name…
  7. … rights and responsibilities of Citizens as compared to non-Citizens. (Massachusetts…
  8. … living in the United States are Citizens; 7% are non-Citizens (Kaiser Family…
  9. What are the rights of Citizens and non-Citizens? The modules for this standard…
  10. … responsibilities (obligations that Citizens are expected to perform) such as…
  11. … under the Constitution apply to Citizens and non-Citizens alike.
  12. In the United States, every Citizen has rights and responsibilities as a member…
  13. … the people relocated were U.S. Citizens or legal permanent resident aliens.  
  14. Non-Citizens, no matter what their immigration status, generally have the same…
  15. Non-Citizens also have rights and responsibilities as members of American society,…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. Individual Citizens also have rights in such situations. Under the 14th Amendment,…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … and the 15th Amendment gave all Citizens the right to vote regardless of race,…
  2. … guaranteed rule of law to all Citizens and provided security of liberty under…
  3. … the privileges or immunities of Citizens of the United States; nor shall any…
  4. … The Bill of Rights protected Citizens from infringements on their rights by the…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. Standard 4.5: Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process
  2. … modern-day image of a solitary Citizen going behind a screen or curtain at a…
  3. … obligation to be true and authentic Citizens of a community” (DemocracyPrep,…
  4. … voting in 15 states (Centuries of Citizenship: A Constitutional Timeline).
  5. What influences Citizens to participate in the political process through voting?…
  6. … members, what Standard 4.5 calls “Citizen participation in the political process.”…
  7. … and actively-engaged democratic Citizens? 
  8. … most commonly recognized form of Citizen participation. Yet, since the first…
  9. … which declared "the right of Citizens cannot be denied or abridged by the United…
  10. Voting offers Citizens the opportunity to participate directly in democratic decision-making,…
  11. … Timeline (Northern California Citizenship Project, 2004), a timeline of the History…
  12. … democracy provides opportunities for Citizens to participate in the political…

Election Information

  1. … manipulate and control their Citizens. Democratic governments, including the…
  2. … debated face-to-face, ordinary Citizens took debating classes, and debating societies…
  3. … participate fully as voters, Citizens, and engaged community members?

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … assumed a political role as public Citizen, and one who was elected to political…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. The reality of an individual Citizen being able to contact elected leaders is…
  2. … representative form of democracy. Citizens vote to decide who will represent…
  3. … elected leaders is a core skill for Citizens interested in expressing ideas and…
  4. … for this topic examine both how Citizens, young and old, can influence their…
  5. … widely favored change strategy for Citizen activists (Battle of the Wallets:…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … and a philosophy of democratic Citizenship. The emergence of common schools created…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … their liberties and freedoms as Citizens of the United States.

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … politicians, journalists, and Citizens thought that homosexuals posed more of…
  2. … men attacked and killed Black Citizens and took over the legally elected government…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. Citizens United Supreme Court Decision
  2. … resources to persuading voters and Citizens to support their positions on issues…
  3. Critics of the Citizens United decision including 20 state legislatures, more…
  4. … by politicians and interested Citizens who want to raise money for political…
  5. … advertising to influence voters and Citizens.

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … spectrum from overturning the Citizens United Supreme Court decision (from progressive…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … slavery. They could not become Citizens. The Court further said the Missouri…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … or policies that deny American Citizens the equal right to vote based on race."…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. … “regulate the enjoyment of Citizens’ civil rights solely on the basis of…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … significant changes over time in Citizens’ lives. (Massachusetts Curriculum…
  2. … entertainers, politicians, and everyday Citizens continued kneeling at different…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … Should More States Adopt Part-time Citizen Legislatures?
  2. Online Resources for Citizen Legislatures
  3. … ENGAGE asked whether part-time Citizen legislatures can more effectively represent…
  4. The idea of part-time Citizen legislatures has supporters and critics. Supporters…
  5. A Citizen Legislature is a government organization whose members are not full-time…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. … legacy of slavery and second-class Citizenship explains in part why African Americans…
  2. … to provide education for its Citizens.
  3. … and the fundamental rights of Citizens” (What is a Constitution? Principles…
  4. … work as field hands. Despite Citizens’ growing opposition, slavery continued…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … these core documents promise all Citizens while also uncovering the long road…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. … inform, persuade, and educate Citizens about their pandemic policies?

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … mandated COVID vaccinations for all Citizens, although some private employers…
  2. … and arrange elections for their Citizens.  

Components of Local Government

  1. … individuals with disabilities, older Citizens, parents with young children, and…

Freedom of the Press

  1. Journalists and Citizens have faced restrictions on the Freedom of the Press throughout…
  2. … the flow of information to its Citizens. 
  3. … control what information its Citizens can access online.  A firewall is a security…
  4. … access to some 800 million Chinese Citizens and represents one of the greatest…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. 3. ENGAGE: Does Every Citizen Need to be Her or His Own Investigative Journalist?
  2. … Rosenstiel declared that every Citizen must become their own investigative journalist…
  3. … explored the question, Does Every Citizen Need to be Her or His Own Investigative…
  4. … conditions and corrupt practices by Citizens and companies. 

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … politicians, experts, and ordinary Citizens to express their views on issues…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … essential responsibility for all Citizens, including students and teachers, who…
  2. … misleading information that everyday Citizens do not. Still, social media companies…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. Policymakers and Citizens alike must decide whether Facebook and other social…

citizenship

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … and the words we use to discuss citizenship, government and politics.

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … Native Americans did not gain citizenship until 1924.

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … African Americans should be granted citizenship.

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. Constitution Day and citizenship Day, celebrated every September 17, commemorates…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … Gorsuch discuss the importance of citizenship and voting (Note: The YouTube version…
  2. … member of a political community. citizenship is gained by meeting the legal requirements…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. 2. UNCOVER: citizenship for Puerto Ricans 
  2. … QUESTION: How has the Meaning of citizenship in the United States Changed Over Time?
  3. … different mirror point of view, citizenship histories of Puerto Ricans reveals longstanding…
  4. … faiths have struggled to obtain citizenship under the nation’s changing laws and…
  5. Even "birthright citizenship," the principle that anyone born in the country is automatically…
  6. … immigrants had to file a petition for citizenship, be able to speak English, reside…
  7. … many dimensions of United States citizenship, including the official rules and procedures…
  8. … bloodlines in defining attribution of citizenship at birth. However, two other tools…
  9. The citizenship histories of diverse Americans can be accessed at the following resourcesforhistoryteachers…
  10. … how immigration is connected to citizenship, first in terms of the laws pertaining…
  11. United States citizenship, however, is more than a set of legal principles that are…
  12. … Jones-Shafroth Act (1917) granted U.S. citizenship to anyone born on the island;…
  13. The citizenship Test
  14. … Administration has made changes to the citizenship test, making it longer and more…
  15. … green card holders can apply for citizenship (for more information, go to I Am a…
  16. Broadly defined, citizenship consists of enjoying the benefits and assuming the responsibilities…
  17. … bring together the histories of citizenship, immigration, and America's multicultural…
  18. According to U.S. citizenship and Immigration Services (para. 1):

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … features of active and engaged citizenship in this country. 
  2. … focused on the suspension of citizenship rights during the internment of Japanese…
  3. … 2018, para. 6-7). Learn more: citizenship Rights and Responsibilities & Constitutional…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … voting in 15 states (Centuries of citizenship: A Constitutional Timeline).
  2. … Timeline (Northern California citizenship Project, 2004), a timeline of the History…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … and a philosophy of democratic citizenship. The emergence of common schools created…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. … legacy of slavery and second-class citizenship explains in part why African Americans…

Civil Rights

Table of Contents

  1. … Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights
  2. Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender and Disability
  3. John Lewis, Congressman and Civil Rights Activist (2020)

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. Katherine Johnson was a pioneer in Civil Rights as well. She was one of the first Black…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … Sylvia Mendez in the struggle for Civil Rights, and the efforts of Mother Jones, Margaret…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … report, the U.S.Commission of Civil Rights (2018) recounted the history as follows:

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement.

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … “often set the terms of the Civil Rights debate” and “his critique of white…
  2. … Americans. In the 1950s and 1960s, Civil Rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … actions by Presidents that advanced Civil Rights for Black Americans:
  2. … Southern senators used it to block Civil Rights legislation. In fact, between Reconstruction…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … about the Accomplishments of the Civil Rights Movement.

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … Should Individuals Who Fought for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Have a National…
  2. To honor his fight for Civil Rights and civil liberties, Fred Koresmatsu Day was enacted…
  3. … honoring those who fought for Civil Rights and civil liberties. In the early 1980s,…
  4. … other individuals who fought for Civil Rights and civil liberties should have a national…
  5. … Recognition for efforts to achieve Civil Rights and civil liberties? 
  6. … fought to establish and preserve Civil Rights and civil liberties throughout American…
  7. … individuals and groups who fought for Civil Rights and civil liberties but who remain…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … July 9, 1868 and based on the Civil Rights Bill of 1866, the 14th Amendment had five…
  2. … activities, you will explore how Civil Rights and social justice advocacy organizations…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. Harvey Milk, Gay Civil Rights Leader
  2. … has been called the first Black Civil Rights leader because of his opposition to slavery…
  3. … resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, Harvey Milk, Gay Civil Rights Leader.

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … by white supremacist groups, Civil Rights organizations including the NAACP, Color…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … compelling stories of the 20th century Civil Rights Movement. In 1951, a 16-year-old…
  2. … Housing Act, Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968.

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: Movements for Civil Rights in United States History
  2. Exploring Civil Rights movements provides insights into how people have created change…
  3. Civil Rights are the freedoms guaranteed to every American under the Constitution and…
  4. … Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights, 2021).
  5. … INVESTIGATE explored movements for Civil Rights by African Americans, Latinos, women,…
  6. … similarly complex. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 bares employers with…
  7. … question in the context in the Civil Rights movements of African Americans, women,…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … being gay or lesbian. People’s Civil Rights and civil liberties were violated by…
  2. … candidate Eugene Debs; and gay Civil Rights pioneers Bayard Rustin and Harvey Milk…
  3. … the Freedmen’s Bureau; the Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed; Black schools and…
  4. … resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page for the Latino Civil Rights Movement.

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … Hughes, Poet, Playwright and Civil Rights Activist.
  2. … post-World War II African American Civil Rights Movement. Nonviolence, he said, “is…
  3. … against the War in Vietnam and for Civil Rights for African Americans at home. Rock…

The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … individuals with disabilities to gain Civil Rights and civil liberties in our nation's…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … dollars being spent on abortion, Civil Rights for same sex couples, women being drafted…
  2. … of speech, the right to vote, Civil Rights for African Americans and women, and Prohibition…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights
  2. … by Black Americans to achieve Civil Rights and constitutional freedoms in American…
  3. … Civil War and its impacts on Civil Rights through the lens of newspapers and advertisements:
  4. … women’s suffrage and movement for Civil Rights. Five Presidents and two founding…
  5. … heroes out of people who opposed Civil Rights while neglecting those who fought to…
  6. … federal government and individual Civil Rights. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework…
  7. … milestone in the struggle for Civil Rights.

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. Standard 5.4: Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability
  2. … Laws Passed by Congress Expanded Civil Rights and Equal Protections for Race, Gender,…
  3. … INVESTIGATE: Race - The 1964 Civil Rights Law and Voting Rights Act of 1965
  4. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
  5. … Congress that have expanded the Civil Rights and equal protection for race, gender…
  6. … that the Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act banned employment discrimination based…
  7. … Classrooms in 1953/Birmingham Civil Rights MuseumImage on Wikimedia Commons by Alacoolwiki,…
  8. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the first federal law to declare equal rights under…
  9. … Education Department's Office of Civil Rights found that a state of Connecticut policy…
  10. … passed by Congress that expanded Civil Rights for people of color, women, and individuals…
  11. … roots in Title IX, a landmark Civil Rights law prohibiting discrimination based on…
  12. … disabilities have struggled to gain Civil Rights and receive equal protection under…
  13. The 1964 Civil Rights Act outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion,…
  14. … efforts by Congress to ensure Civil Rights for Americans as shown in the following…
  15. Learn more about the Civil Rights Act of 1964 from the Wisconsin Historical Society.
  16. … bill designed to amend the 1964 Civil Rights Act by banning discrimination based…
  17. … milestone achievement in the Civil Rights struggle by individuals with disabilities…
  18. … in Masterpiece Cakeshop, LTD v. Colorado Civil Rights Commission that a baker can…
  19. The 1964 Civil Rights Law and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 are two of the most important…
  20. … Disabilities Act (ADA) is a “Civil Rights law that prohibits discrimination against…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. … the enjoyment of citizens’ Civil Rights solely on the basis of race”); Oliver…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … had enormous implications for Civil Rights in the country. It preceded the Brown v.…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … had run an advertisement from Civil Rights groups that included charges about police…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … particularly through its advocacy for Civil Rights, voting rights, school desegregation,…

Civil War

Table of Contents

  1. Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … the American South before the Civil War. ENGAGE asked what Latin words and phrases…
  2. … the American South before the Civil War. In the Jamacian Slave Uprising of 1760-61,…
  3. … United States before and after the Civil War.

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … throughout U.S. history, including the Civil War over slavery, Franklin Roosevelt's…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … concluded that “right up to the Civil War, the management of the government was…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … states in her study of the post-Civil War trial of Andrew Johnson, each case demonstrates…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Lincoln famously conducted the Civil War with a "team of rivals" (Goodwin, 2006).
  2. … the filibuster began after the Civil War when White Southern senators used it to…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … seceded from the Union and the Civil War began.
  2. Since just before the Civil War, American politics has been dominated by “two…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … taken time, protests, and the Civil War to expand the boundaries of who could become…
  2. … a person). At the time of the Civil War, the nation’s population was nearly 31.5…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … Amendment was one of three post-Civil War Amendments to the Constitution, the others…
  2. … characterized the three post-Civil War amendments as “sleeping giants . . . that…
  3. It was not until after the Civil War that equality was deliberately addressed in…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … voting) first began during the Civil War when both Union and Confederate soldiers…

Election Information

  1. … Convention. In the decades before the Civil War, candidates debated face-to-face,…

Public Service as a Career

  1. After the Civil War, many educators promoted education for former slaves and their…
  2. … slaves. During the years before the Civil War, a small number of slaves would learn…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … of the Fraught Years After the Civil War) The sharp contrasts of the Reconstruction…
  2. … that lasted from the end of the Civil War to about 1890 (Cozzens, 2016).
  3. … Reconstruction years after the Civil War." Following the election defeat of Donald…
  4. … period between the end of the Civil War and 1877.

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. In the decades after the Civil War, Pullman employed former slaves as porters at…
  2. … labor actions from before the Civil War (African Americans and the American Labor…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … Legacy of the Slavery and the Civil War Today?
  2. … Volunteer Regiment during the Civil War, and Juneteenth National Independence Day
  3. … Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil…
  4. … Volunteer Regiment During the Civil War
  5. … Volunteer Regiment During the Civil War
  6. Media Literacy Connections: Civil War News Stories and Recruitment Advertisements
  7. … to fight for the Union in the Civil War with the formation of the Massachusetts…
  8. The Civil War cost the lives of more Americans than all the nation’s other wars…
  9. … explore different dimensions of the Civil War and its impacts on civil rights through…
  10. … in the Union Army during the Civil War. But at first they were denied the right…
  11. … historian Stephen B. Oates called the Civil War the "great central experience" of…
  12. … the resourcesforhistoryteachers Events Leading to the Civil War wiki page.
  13. The Civil War happened in a country where the Constitution promised to “secure…
  14. The Civil War is at the center of the constitutional history of the United States.…
  15. In many ways, the Civil War is still with us as a nation today. Black Americans…
  16. … the fundamental cause of the Civil War. Northern Abolitionists sought to abolish…
  17. … generations have passed and the “Civil War is still with us,” declared historian…
  18. … policies and events leading to the Civil War:
  19. … Constitutional issues that caused the Civil War and led to the eventual expansion…
  20. The Civil War happened in the world’s largest slaveholding country at the time…
  21. … that led to the coming of the Civil War to help understand why that war was fought…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … 15th Amendments following the Civil War

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … times in U.S. history from the Civil War to 1973. The U.S. military has been an…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … newspaper at the time of the Civil War, Thomas Morris Chester reported on the activities…
  2. … covered fighting in the Spanish Civil War, World War II, Vietnam, the Middle East…

Climate change

Introduction for Educators

  1. … COVID-19 pandemic, accelerating Climate change, widespread economic inequality, long-denied…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … Massachusetts v. EPA (2006), a landmark Climate change case where the Supreme Court…
  2. … Tracker from the Sabin Center for Climate change at Columbia University School of Law.

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … efforts against racial injustice, Climate change, and poverty while seeking to expand…
  2. … discrimination, create racial equity, fight Climate change; and wear masks to curb the…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … schoolchildren have joined those strikes (Climate change Activist Greta Thunberg, 16,…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … human-caused disasters in this time of Climate change with its accompanying severe weather…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … article How Plastics Contribute to Climate change, Claire Arkin commented “Plastic…
  2. … one place to begin addressing Climate change. National Geographic reports that nearly…
  3. … Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change, agree that urgent governmental action—nationally,…

Congress

Table of Contents

  1. The Roles of Congress, the President, and the Courts
  2. John Lewis, Congressman and Civil Rights Activist (2020)

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … many laws there are (Library of Congress, March 13, 2013).

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. … must always work together with Congress. This is a legacy of Montesquieu's political…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … 16-year-olds or 17-year-olds to vote in Congressional or presidential primaries.…
  2. … elected. The crew functioned like Congress and as a jury. The quartermaster served…
  3. Massachusetts Congresswoman Ayanna Pressley has introduced legislation allowing…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … and adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. Members of Congress represented states, not people, and each state had one vote.…
  2. Congress, under the Articles of Confederation, was relatively powerless. It could…
  3. … "even though the Continental Congress had no standing to resolve disputes between…
  4. … Pennsylvania delegate to the Continental Congress, wrote the first draft, using…
  5. … Issues Affecting Deployment, Congressional Research Service, June 3, 2019).
  6. … "President of the United States in Congress Assembled" under the Articles of Confederation.…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … government, representation in Congress, the rights of individuals, and the issue…
  2. … three-fifths of a person for Congressional representation and taxes. While some…
  3. … determining representation in Congress. Disagreement over this question led to…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … seminal book Silent Spring (1962), Congress passed the Clean Air Acts of 1963,…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … become citizens” (Library of Congress; 36 USC 106: Constitution Day and Citizenship…
  2. … Madison and the other members of Congress spread the word about the Bill of Rights…

Institutions of United States Government

  1. … government are the legislature (Congress), the executive (President), and judiciary…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … political parties would gain votes in Congress (most experts agree that voters…
  2. … first Black woman elected to Congress. In 1972, she became the first Black person…
  3. … State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person…
  4. … that position. When she ran for Congress, her campaign slogan was “unbought…
  5. … eastern Oklahoma that failed when Congress refused to consider statehood bills;…
  6. … Branches and Standard 3, Roles of Congress, the President and the Courts in this…
  7. … non-voting representative in Congress; the District of Columbia has 3 electoral…
  8. Shirley Chisholm, Congresswoman from New York (1965) "Shirley Chisholm NYWTS"…
  9. … in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.…
  10. … granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. The two houses of Congress (Senate and House of Representatives) also have checks…
  2. … and Article 2: Obstruction of Congress (READ: Articles of Impeachment Against…
  3. … independent of the legislative branch (Congress in the U.S.). Parliamentary systems…
  4. … powers does the President and the Congress have to conduct wars, and for what…
  5. … President Trump appeared to withhold Congressionally-approved military aid to…
  6. While the Constitution gives Congress the sole power to declare war and raise and…
  7. … the Constitution states that Congress has the power to declare war and raise and…
  8. … compete with numerous actors — Congress, the courts, interest groups, political…
  9. … to release his tax records to Congressional committees or federal prosecutors…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … QUESTION: What are the Roles of Congress, the President, and the Courts in the…
  2. Standard 3.3:  The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts
  3. … Literacy Connections: Members of Congress Use Social Media
  4. Women of Color in Congress
  5. The Congress in U.S. Government Choice Board
  6. Congressional Committees and Caucuses
  7. Congress Soars to New Heights on Social Media declared the Pew Research Center…
  8. … exploration of how members of Congress use social media:
  9. … the President (executive), the Congress (legislative), and the Supreme Court (judicial). UNCOVER…
  10. … men" of the Supreme Court, asked Congress to appoint six new justices to the Court,…
  11. … The average age of members of Congress has also been getting older and the average…
  12. … brief overview, visit “How Congress Works” from Michigan Congressman Tim Walberg.…
  13. … of the work done by members of Congress happens in committees and caucuses. Committtees…
  14. … government - commonly referred to as Congress, the President, and the Federal…
  15. … enforcing the laws passed by Congress, or if so decided, vetoing laws passed by…
  16. When the 117th Congress convenes in 2021, there will be 142 (or more depending…
  17. … President Kamala Harris, the 117th Congress will have the highest number of women…
  18. … explore the role and powers of Congress in our system of checks and balances in…
  19. … which make up the United States Congress. Congress has authority to make and enact…
  20. … meaning "to meet together" and in Congress it refers to informal groups of senators…
  21. A place in Congress has been a long time coming for women of color. Patsy Mink…
  22. … mandatory retirement ages; 3) Congress passing legislation restricting what areas…
  23. “The Congress in U.S. Government” 2021 Choice Board by Robert W. Maloy, Ed.D.…
  24. … White women in being elected to Congress?

Elections and Nominations

  1. … Elections: Policy Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service).
  2. … Yet, only the states and the Congress have the constitutional authority to postpone…
  3. … for the 2016 Presidential and Congressional elections was over six billion dollars…
  4. … compromise between those who wanted Congress to choose the President and those…
  5. … the President and members of Congress that make it less democratic, features that…
  6. … Trump had won Nebraska’s Second Congressional District (Biden won 2 of the state’s…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. The 2020 Census and Congressional Redistricting
  2. … in legislative gridlock, where Congress and even some state legislatures are unable…
  3. … parties. We often refer to states or Congressional election districts as red (Republican)…
  4. … since states must redraw their Congressional districts every 10 years to determine…
  5. … candidates for President, members of Congress, and many state and local positions.…
  6. … member of a political party (Congressional and Presidential Primaries: Open, Closed,…
  7. … stars, 246 purple hearts, and one Congressional Medal of Honor.

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … control the flow after World War I, Congress passed national-origins quotas in…
  2. … and Latin America. Initially, Congress allowed immigration numbers to rise, but…
  3. … Korea, and Vietnam and received a Congressional Gold Medal in 2016. Sonia Sotomayor,…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … Williamson" by Ansel AdamsLibrary of Congress's Prints and Photographs Division…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … just 23.5% of female members of Congress (Thorton, 2019).
  2. … people out of work, members of Congress including then Senator Kamala Harris and…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … Bingham, a now mostly forgotten Congressman from Ohio, wrote these famous words…
  2. … representatives to a ruling body (the Congress) who acts on behalf of the people's…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … restricting people's right to vote. In Congressional votes in 2021, both were…
  2. … African Americans, Library of Congress). 
  3. … Native Americans, Library of Congress). The 26th Amendment established the right…
  4. … that have been introduced in Congress following the 2020 Presidential election…
  5. … the processes of Elections for Congress and President can be found in Topic 3.4…

Election Information

  1. Congress of Industrial Organizations poster by Ben Shahn (1946)Library of Congress

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … Instagram) endorsed two Democratic Congressional candidates - one candidate won…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: Contacting Congress
  2. Online Resources for Contacting Congress
  3. … is quite different. Members of Congress receive enormous amounts of correspondence…
  4. … can use to go about contacting Congress. UNCOVER explored modern day and historical…
  5. Once Congress installed its first telephone switchboard in 1898, people started…
  6. … difficulties of contacting members of Congress, many people consider consumer…
  7. What is it like to be a Congresswoman or Congressman? Here is one view of A Day…
  8. … distinguishes between how members of Congress think about constituent services…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … 1959. In 1993, the United States Congress passed a resolution formally apologizing…
  2. … United States, an action for which Congress formally apologized a century later.…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … democratic norms. Members of Congress, their staffs, reporters, and other media…
  2. … information of where to find different Congressional offices. Members of the mob…
  3. … available from the Library of Congress and at the National Park Service site Safe…
  4. … by displacing the power of the Congress to certify the election" (2021, para.…
  5. … attacked the nation's Capitol as Congress was meeting to certify the results of…
  6. … M. Highsmith from a Library of Congress collection
  7. … investigations (Menard, 2020, p. 73). Congress followed with hearings by the House…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … 1946 to 1948 from the Library of Congress/Public Domain

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. Members of Congress and Political Donors
  2. … money usually wins in races for Congress (Koerth, 2018). But the story is more…
  3. … for office. A typical member of Congress has a median income of $1.1 million (Senator:…
  4. … PAC was formed in 1944 by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (a labor union…
  5. … $4,124,304,874 for all the races for Congress. $1.2 million was the average amount…
  6. … Photography by Jack Delano/Library of Congress | Public Domain
  7. … suspending donations to members of the Congress who voted against certifying the…
  8. … legislatures, more than 260 members of Congress, and millions of individual citizens…
  9. … to candidates for President, Congress, or national political parties.

The Necessary and Proper Clause

  1. … Constitution, the framers gave Congress both defined and assumed powers. "Defined"…
  2. "The Congress shall have Power ... To make all Laws which shall be necessary and…
  3. … necessary and proper clause states Congress can make the laws needed to carry…
  4. … Sebelius, the Supreme Court said Congress could not use the necessary and proper…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … amendments are introduced in Congress every year. They range across the political…
  2. … was not ratified until 1992. Congress would need to vote to void its earlier deadline…
  3. … until 1972 when it was passed by Congress and sent to the states for ratification.…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … died, and a dozen were awarded Congressional Medals of Honor. In addition to heroism…
  2. … Compromiser,” Henry Clay served in Congress for nearly 40 years, in both the…
  3. … passenger” (quoted in Library of Congress, nd). 

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … QUESTION: How Have Laws Passed by Congress Expanded Civil Rights and Equal Protections…
  2. … remains substantially weakened till Congress sets a new standard for detemining…
  3. … significance of laws passed by Congress that have expanded the civil rights and…
  4. … from United States Library of Congress’s Prints and Photographs Division, Public…
  5. … late 20th century laws passed by Congress that expanded civil rights for people…
  6. … protection under the law. Actions by Congress to address discrimination and injustice…
  7. … will investigate how members of Congress took to Twitter to discuss, promote,…
  8. … have been periodic efforts by Congress to ensure civil rights for Americans as…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. … President Barack Obama signed a Congress-passed apology for the Trail of Tears…
  2. … final say in deciding whether Congressional legislation is constitutional.
  3. … constitutionality of laws passed by Congress. In other decisions, including McCulloch…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … of the late 1700s, approved by Congress as our anthem in 1931, played routinely…
  2. … of the Constitution states; "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment…
  3. Presently, Congress is considering the Cameras in the Courtroom Act, introduced…
  4. … Pledge was formally adopted by Congress in 1942, but the phrase "under God" was…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. “The Congress shall have the power to . . . regulate commerce with foreign nations,…
  2. … States: An Introduction, National Congress of American Indians, 2019).
  3. … 2014 convention of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) that, stated…
  4. … proposal was never voted on by Congress. Instead, Oklahoma which had been formerly…

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … Workers and the Implied Powers of Congress
  2. … Franklin Roosevelt proposed, and Congress passed, the Fair Labor Standards Act…
  3. … and a navy. Article I states Congress has the power “to provide for the common…
  4. … powers of the government function. Congress has the explicit power "to raise and…
  5. … wage laws are an example of both Congress and state governments using their implied…
  6. … multiple debates surrounding what Congress should do with its implied powers regarding…
  7. … the “Elastic Clause”) gives Congress implied powers; that is powers not named…
  8. … the 18 direct powers given to Congress are the power to levy and collect taxes,…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. Passed by Congress in 1996, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) defined marriage…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. … and proper clause that states Congress can make the laws needed to perform its…
  2. … COVID-19 from the Library of Congress.

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … "law enforcement officers" or "Congressmen" or "Members of Congress" or if they…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … Impose Vaccination Requirements, Congressional Research Service, May 22, 2019).
  2. Can the President or Congress enact a nationwide mask mandate? The independent…

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. … office, 1920(Credit: Library of Congress/Public Domain)
  2. The Constitution gives Congress the power to tax and spend, otherwise known as…
  3. … President and approved by the Congress).  Military spending now accounts for…

Freedom of the Press

  1. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … frequency on which members of Congress appear on cable and broadcast news, researchers…
  2. … employee, who appeared before a Congressional committee to add details to the…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. An exhibit from the Library of Congress noted how political or editorial cartoons…
  2. … newspaper in 1919 (Library of Congress: An Illustrated Guide/Prints and Photographs).

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … December 31, 2018). Members of Congress, on average, have six different social…
  2. … Facebook, Google, and Twitter said in Congressional testimony on November 1, 2017.…
  3. … adversaries in Mueller's office and in Congress."

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … History and Constitutional Issues, Congressional Research Service, July 13, 2011).…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … manipulated images. The Library of Congress has documented how a famous photo…

Conservative

Introduction for Educators

  1. … individualism by the Republican Party and Conservative media outlets like Fox News.…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … people and political parties. Conservative political groups and Republicans tend to…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … along ideological lines, with Conservative justices and Conservative viewpoints prevailing…
  2. … Republicans, progressives and Conservatives, it is hard to get 60 votes on any but…
  3. … same-sex marriage (upsetting Conservative and religious groups), and is continuing…
  4. … of the Court's steady set of Conservative rulings on issues facing workers, people…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … corporate elites and socially Conservative white working class voters who have partly…
  2. … increasingly more divisive; and "Conservative and liberal have become almost perfect…
  3. The resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, The Conservative Movement in American…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … recent consumer boycotts. In 2019, Conservative groups called for a boycott of Dick’s…
  2. … engaged -- and invested in -- Conservative causes."

Public Service as a Career

  1. … common template developed by Conservative political organizations.

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … Amendment’s federal income tax (from Conservative groups).
  2. … become a part of the Constitution. Conservative and Christian activists, notably Phyllis…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … through all aspects of society. Conservative white politicans in red states seek to…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … candidates known as Movement Conservatives - individuals from the wing of the Republican…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … division of American politics. Conservative politicians have resisted using government…

Components of Local Government

  1. … Republican groups are encouraging Conservative-minded individuals to run for local…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … (Democrats, Republicans, progressives, Conservatives). The same event is likely to…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … Doctrine coincided with the rise of Conservative talk radio. Unrestrained by norms…
  2. … learn more by listening to How Conservative Talk Radio Transformed American Politics,…
  3. … over 65-years-old and those with Conservative political views shared considerably…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … associated with a politically Conservative, pro-Donald Trump news publisher, The Epoch…

Constitution

Introduction for Educators

  1. … Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, is that all people are created equal…

Table of Contents

  1. Amendments to the Constitution
  2. United States and Massachusetts Constitutions
  3. Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  4. Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil…
  5. The Constitutional Convention
  6. … Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution
  7. 10th Amendment to the Constitution
  8. TOPIC 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court [Standards 8.T5.1-6]

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … Independence or the United States Constitution, democracy is the foundation for government…
  2. … Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the structure of U.S. government.…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … Council of 500). There was a Constitution and an assumption of the rule of law presided…
  2. … rights, c) legislative bodies, d) Constitution writing, d) rule of law. (Massachusetts…
  3. … rights violated the Maryland state Constitution that sets the legal voting age in…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. In drafting the Constitution and envisioning a democratic society for the United States,…

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. The Constitutional Rights Foundation has characterized Locke as a “reluctant” democrat…
  2. … Montesquieu was inspired by Britain's Constitutional monarchy, England during the…
  3. … Revolution and the framers of the U.S. Constitution.
  4. The idea of a Constitutional government with three separate branches of the state would…
  5. Locke supported England's Constitutional monarchy and promoted democratic governments…
  6. … England's Glorious Revolution and Constitutional Monarchy, Montesquieu believed that…
  7. … all the people would govern” (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 2019, para. 10).…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … exceptions. New Jersey’s first Constitution in 1776 gave voting rights to “all…
  2. … only ceremonial functions in Constitutional democracies. Queen Elizabeth II, 94 years…
  3. … Declaration of Independence or the Constitution, it offers another historical example…
  4. … (Who Voted in Early America? Constitutional Rights Foundation 1991).  
  5. … 1971, the 26th Amendment to the Constitution gives 18-year-olds the right to vote…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … The Great Law of Peace was the Constitution of the Iroquois Confederacy. Here is the…
  2. … influence the writers of the U.S. Constitution, and in so doing, shape the governmental…
  3. … Iroquois Confederacy’s unwritten Constitution, included rules of democratic self-government…
  4. … Confederacy). However, none of the Constitutions of the 13 colonies included First…
  5. … Iroquois Democracy & the U.S. Constitution, a website with learning plans from Portland…
  6. … other founders as they wrote the Constitution. The founders adopted the Iroquois nation's…

The Development of the United States Government

  1. … Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights—as well as the…
  2. How did the framers of the Constitution attempt to address issues of power and freedom…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … law. It is the United States Constitution that “establishes the shape of government,…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … Rebellion and the Coming of the Constitution
  2. … an elected legislature and a Constitution with a Bill of Rights. The Northwest Ordinance…
  3. … and the Articles ended when the Constitutional Convention was convened in 1787.
  4. … Rebellion led to the convening of the Constitutional Convention and the writing of…
  5. … Union were the nation’s first Constitution and established its first central government.…
  6. … Rebellion in the writing of the new Constitution. ENGAGE used the example of modern-day…
  7. … never fully addressed by the Constitution and it has remained ever-present throughout…
  8. … Shays’ Rebellion) leading to the Constitutional Convention. (Massachusetts Curriculum…
  9. … Confederation and the writing of the U.S. Constitution. The activity asks you to investigate…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. 2.UNCOVER: Thomas Jefferson's Draft Constitution (1776) and Thurgood Marshall's Bicentennial…
  2. … Three-Fifths Compromise Make the Constitution a Pro-Slavery Document?
  3. … the Major Compromises at the Constitutional Convention and how Have They Impacted…
  4. Standard 2.3:  The Constitutional Convention
  5. Online Resources for the Constitutional Convention
  6. … website). However, in his Draft Constitution for Virginia of 1776 (never debated and…
  7. Mural of the Constitutional Convention at the United States Capitol"The Constitutional…
  8. … debates and compromises of the Constitutional Convention of 1787. INVESTIGATE examined…
  9. … resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page Constitutional Convention and the Founders.
  10. … in Philadelphia to begin the Constitutional Convention. Ranging in age from 26 (New…
  11. At the outset of the Constitutional Convention, delegates were divided over how much…
  12. … produced contentious debates at the Constitutional Convention. 
  13. … connections between slavery and the Constitution.
  14. Identify the various leaders of the Constitutional Convention and analyze the major…
  15. … Hawaii. Marshall stated that the Constitution was “defective from the start.”
  16. … the text of the document, the Constitution, in Marshall’s mind, provided important…
  17. At the Constitutional Convention, delegates debated whether slaves should be counted…
  18. … history-shaping developments of the Constitutional Convention and its key compromises:…
  19. The men who wrote in the Constitution's Preamble that "we the people" seek to "form…
  20. … of American government at the Constitutional Convention - has been perpetuated throughout…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … Federalists believed that the Constitution would create a needed change in the structure…
  2. During the writing of the Constitution, Federalists and Anti-Federalists offered sharply…
  3. … the ratification of the U.S. Constitution is known for the sharp divide it created…
  4. … Federalist supporters of the Constitution included James Madison, Alexander Hamiton,…
  5. … at: "Observations on the new Constitution, and on the foederal and state conventions.…
  6. While men did the writing of the Constitution, the voices of women were heard in the…
  7. The Anti-Federalists feared the Constitution would create a central government that…
  8. … states, ratification of the new Constitution just barely happened. The Massachusetts…
  9. … Anti-Federalist opponent of the Constitution. Like other anti-federalists, her opposition…
  10. The new Constitution was finally approved on June 21, 1788 when New Hamsphire became…
  11. … Anti-Federalists over ratification of the Constitution (e.g., federalism, factions,…
  12. … significant opposition to the new Constitution and its approval was very much in doubt…
  13. … Articles of Confederation, the Constitution was proposed, created, and sent to the…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … What are the Articles of the Constitution and What Rights are in the Bill of Rights?
  2. 1.INVESTIGATE: The Articles of the Constitution and the Many Bills of Rights in United…
  3. Standard 2.5:  Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  4. Constitution Writing Around the Globe
  5. Online Resources for the Constitution
  6. … you: Constitute: The World's Constitutions to Read, Search and Compare that includes…
  7. Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, celebrated every September 17, commemorates the…
  8. … Independence was first, followed by the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, the Louisiana…
  9. The Constitution set forth the following primary ideas about government (Six Big Ideas…
  10. … guaranteed to all citizens by the Constitution? This topic's modules explore this…
  11. The U.S. Constitution is not the country’s only Constitution - each state has its…
  12. "Laws govern people; Constitutions govern governments," noted historian Jill Lepore…
  13. Haitian Constitution of 1801 and the Haitian Constitution of 1805 offer a fascinating…
  14. … drafted and adopted their own Constitutions. These Constitutions stressed the rights…
  15. The Interactive Constitution website from the National Constitution Center has videos,…
  16. The first 10 amendments to the Constitution known as the Bill of Rights consists of…
  17. … first ten amendments to the U. S. Constitution—the Bill of Rights—set forth the…
  18. Comparing and contrasting state Constitutions at the time of the American Revolution…
  19. The writing of a Constitution, as historian Linda Colley shows in her book The Gun,…
  20. The Constitution of the United States has a Preamble and seven articles:
  21. … Colley's view, propelled the Constitution writing process across the globe: 1) the…
  22. … links to the Pennsylvania State Constitution of 1776 (widely regarded as the most…
  23. … Preamble and each Article in the Constitution, and the Rights Enumerated in the Bill…
  24. "Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States"by Howard Chandler Christy…
  25. The Constitution establishes the legal and structural framework of the United States…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … implications for American politics. Constitutionally, such a state would automatically…
  2. … the first three articles of the Constitution:
  3. The above Articles of the Constitution are intended to establish three co-equal branches…
  4. … the first three articles of the Constitution. UNCOVER told the story of Shirley Chisholm,…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … Republic of North Korea. Its Constitution states the country is a "dictatorship of…
  2. Constitutional and legal scholars agree that impeachment in the United States is a…
  3. While the Constitution gives Congress the sole power to declare war and raise and support…
  4. … have resolved the fundamental Constitutional question: Was "impeachment to be understood…
  5. … those given to the office by the Constitution and those a President gains from what…
  6. … inclusion in the United States Constitution, notes Constitutional scholar Frank O.…
  7. … given to the President by the Constitution combined with the ways a person in that…
  8. … the military and although the Constitution states that Congress has the power to declare…
  9. … Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution, “a President, Vice President and all…
  10. The Constitution established a systems of checks and balances so that no part of the…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … as the court-packing plan. A Constitutional crisis ensued that was averted only when…
  2. … not formerly included in the Constitution (the idea was explicitly rejected at the…
  3. … facing delinquency hearings have a Constitutional right to an attorney as well as…
  4. Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution sets the requirements for someone to become…
  5. … tradition of the Senate, but not a Constitutional requirement, the filibuster began…
  6. Following the 20th Amendment of the Constitution, Presidents of the United States take…
  7. … maintaining what the American Constitution Society has termed the "gaval gap" (Women's…
  8. … under the 14th Amendment of the Constitution.
  9. … interpreting the law, determining the Constitutionality of that law, and then applying…
  10. … every 10 years. Based on the Constitution, every state has at least one seat. The…
  11. … result of a compromise at the Constitutional Convention to protect the interests of…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … states and the Congress have the Constitutional authority to postpone voting or the…
  2. … Although it has not been done, it is Constitutionally possible for states to change…
  3. … history. It was created at the Constitutional Convention as a compromise between those…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … Rally Revolutionary People's Constitutional Convention 1970" | Public Domain
  2. … Democrat, Southern Democrat, and Constitutional Union parties. Following Lincoln’s…
  3. By law, under the Constitution, state legislatures must divide their state into voting…
  4. … with debates over the federal Constitution of 1787 between the Federalists (led by…
  5. … parties: America First, Communist, Constitution, Labor and Veterans.
  6. … Green Party in 22 states; and the Constitution Party in 15 states.

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. In modern society, public and private…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … the island; the island’s 1954 Constitution established its status as a commonwealth…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. Constitutional safeguards given to United States citizens were ignored or bypassed…
  2. The Bill of Rights (the Constitution’s first 10 amendments) set forth the rights…
  3. … rights of individuals under the Constitution apply to citizens and non-citizens alike.
  4. … them or their homes. Since the Constitution uses the term "people" or "person" rather…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … the national parliament. A 1999 Constitutional amendment in France mandated political…
  2. … privacy is not mentioned in the Constitution, the Supreme Court has interpreted several…
  3. … oppressive and unreasonable” (Constitutional Powers and Issues During a Quarantine,…
  4. However, long-standing Constitutional law gives the states and their governors greater…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … post-Civil War Amendments to the Constitution, the others being the 13th Amendment…
  2. … "equality" did not appear in the Constitution of 1787 or the Bill of Rights of 1789.…
  3. … inspire those who looked to the Constitution to support their efforts to create a…
  4. The National Constitution Center has overviews of more Supreme Court cases involving…
  5. Before the Constitution and its Sixth Amendment was passed, the right to trial and…
  6. … deliberately addressed in the Constitution through a series of amendments:
  7. … overbearing government. In the Constitution, limited government relates to free markets…
  8. … of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, and outlining the boundaries of student…
  9. … to be expressly written in the Constitution and that delegated powers of the Federal…
  10. Students "do not shed their Constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression…
  11. … This amendment extended people's Constitutional protections to actions by state governments…
  12. … how the 14th Amendment to the Constitution has over time extended America’s fundamental…
  13. … their peers in public schools. Constitutional protections do not necessarily apply.…
  14. … by the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution, it means that defendants have:

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … Supreme Court that ruled the Constitution did not grant women the right to vote (Virginia…
  2. Throughout U.S. history and even while Constitutional amendments, court cases, and…
  3. … vote explicitly set forth in the Constitution, voting is the most commonly recognized…

Election Information

  1. … of American politics since the Constitutional Convention. In the decades before the…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … Supreme Court affirmed women’s Constitutional right to use contraceptives. There…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … American government should work. The Constitution’s First Amendment includes the…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … decision made racial segregation Constitutional, establishing the doctrine of “separate…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … guaranteed to everyone under the Constitution.
  2. … guaranteed to every American under the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. They are…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … affirm or deny the ideals of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
  2. … tax (a practice outlawed by the Constitution's 24th Amendment) by requiring former…
  3. … of democracy and the nation's Constitution. The INVESTIGATE and UNCOVER modules for…
  4. … inside the state of Alabama was unConstitutional because it denied African Americans…
  5. … fundamentally negated America’s Constitutional freedoms. The Klu Klux Klan emerged…
  6. … live up to the ideals of the Constitution. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. Democracy for All Constitutional Amendment
  2. … proposed an amendment to the Constitution designed to establish rules to limit campaign…
  3. … corporations and organizations have the Constitutional right to spend money to promote…
  4. … pass a 28th Amendment to the Constitution. Read a text of the proposed Democracy for…

The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

  1. Topic 5: The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions
  2. … evolving nature of the United States Constitution through amendments, landmark Supreme…

The Necessary and Proper Clause

  1. … aspects of the United States Constitution. Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18 of the…
  2. … most important provision in the Constitution" (The Necessary and Proper Clause).
  3. In writing the Constitution, the framers gave Congress both defined and assumed powers.…
  4. … all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States,…
  5. … lines a federal crime under the Constitution's Commerce Clause.
  6. … laws needed to carry out its Constitutional functions, the 10th Amendment states powers…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. FOCUS QUESTION: How has the Constitution Been Amended and What has Been the Impact…
  2. Standard 5.2: Amendments to the Constitution
  3. … ENGAGE: What New Amendments to the Constitution Are Needed Today?
  4. … Resources for Amendments to the Constitution
  5. … scholars think about changes to the Constitution in a New Constitutional Amendments…
  6. … summary of all Amendments to the Constitution is available from the National Constitution
  7. … continues to be a sharply contested Constitutional topic. An Associated Press/NORC…
  8. More than 40 Constitutional amendments are introduced in Congress every year. They…
  9. … total needed for passage of a Constitutional amendment. Virginia then passed the ERA…
  10. … order to become a part of the Constitution. Conservative and Christian activists,…
  11. … changes to the United States Constitution. INVESTIGATE looked at the Prohibition Era…
  12. The authors of the Constitution recognized that change would be needed from time to…
  13. Article V of the Constitution deals with how to amend (change) the laws of the land.
  14. … significance of changes in the Constitution, including key amendments. (Massachusetts…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. Standard 5.3: Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual…
  2. … Americans to achieve civil rights and Constitutional freedoms in American society.
  3. … always led by white officers. (Constitutional Rights Foundation, 2020, para. 1)
  4. … Independence and the United States Constitution promised liberty and justice for all,…
  5. … of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution to do that and the 13th Amendment did not…
  6. … happened in a country where the Constitution promised to “secure the blessings of…
  7. … Civil War is at the center of the Constitutional history of the United States. Before…
  8. … true, in point of fact, that the Constitution was made exclusively by the white race."…
  9. … the Missouri Compromise was unConstitutional on the grounds that the federal government…
  10. … Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Other people in the North did not…
  11. Analyze the Constitutional issues that caused the Civil War and led to the eventual…
  12. … standard we explore key events and Constitutional issues that led to the coming of…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … shown in the following timeline: Constitutional Amendments and Major Civil Rights…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. "The Constitution means what the Supreme Court says it means," said Professor Eric…
  2. … woman's access to abortion are unConstitutional. So the law is never fixed, but always…
  3. … originalist interpretation of the Constitution.
  4. … powers of the newly adopted U.S. Constitution. He established the principle of Judicial…
  5. … branch the final decision on the Constitutionality of laws passed by Congress. In…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … students do not “shed their Constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression…
  2. Watch the video Constitution Hall Pass: Tinker v. Des Moines from the National Constitution
  3. … of the Second Amendment to the Constitution is at the center of the debates around…
  4. … Detainees have not been afforded Constitutional rights to fair trials under the military…
  5. … the United States by the Cuban Constitution of 1902.
  6. The First Amendment of the Constitution states; "Congress shall make no law respecting…
  7. … 4 margin ruled that it was unConstitutional for the federal government to require…
  8. … wearing armbands as a form of Constitutionally protected free speech, unless the actions…

The Structure of Massachusetts State and Local Government

  1. … Massachusetts (such as the Massachusetts Constitution and the leadership structure…
  2. … it appeared in the state’s Constitution in 1780 (the states of Kentucky, Pennsylvania…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … Sequoyah Convention drafted a Constitution with a Bill of Rights and proposed the…
  2. … self-governing) entity by the United States Constitution, Article 1/Section 8:

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. … United States and Massachusetts Constitutions
  2. FOCUS QUESTION: How Does a Constitution Organize Government for People?
  3. Media Literacy Connections: A Constitution for the Internet
  4. A Constitution is the law of a state or a nation. Throughout American history, the…
  5. Amendment X of the Constitution: Rights of the States under the Constitution (Part…
  6. Under the United States Constitution, certain powers are reserved for the federal government…
  7. … have the opportunity to create a Constitution and bill of rights for the Internet:
  8. … provisions of the United States Constitution and the Massachusetts Constitution that…
  9. In addition to the federal Constitution, every U.S. state and territory has its own…
  10. … federal and Massachusetts state Constitution.
  11. … imprisonment (Reparations for Slavery? Constitutional Rights Foundation). 
  12. … writing of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
  13. The Internet has no Constitution and the laws about its use and rights of people using…
  14. A Constitution sets forth “the basic principles of the state, the structures and…
  15. … end. The Massachusetts state Constitution was used in a 1781 Berkshire County court…
  16. … Court declared slavery was unConstitutional under the Massachusetts State Constitution.…

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … and Implied Powers of the U.S. Constitution
  2. … enumerated and implied powers. The Constitution gives the federal government the enumerated…
  3. … States and the Massachusetts Constitution. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…
  4. … United States and Massachusetts Constitutions have both enumerated (directly stated)…
  5. … United States and Massachusetts Constitutions.
  6. … excluding women from the draft unConstitutional? Should Congress use its implied powers…
  7. … that is powers not named in the Constitution, but necessary for governing the country.…
  8. … Article 1 Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution. Among the 18 direct powers given to…
  9. … Columbia’s minimum wage law as unConstitutional under the Fifth Amendment. Over…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution
  2. Massachusetts Constitution, Article I
  3. … Resources for the Massachusetts Constitution
  4. … Article 1 of the Massachusetts Constitution. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…
  5. … the First of the Massachusetts Constitution is hereby annulled and the following is…
  6. … Article 1 of the Massachusetts Constitution. UNCOVER examined the history of marriage…
  7. … Article 1 of the Massachusetts Constitution. Each of these documents serve as foundations…
  8. The Massachusetts Constitution, including Article I, was drafted by John Adams, the…
  9. Modified Text of Massachusetts Constitution Article I
  10. Original Text of Massachusetts Constitution Article I
  11. … learn, propose an amendment to the Constitution that focuses on the right to privacy…
  12. … Amendments of the United States Constitution is known as The Bill of Rights. It was…
  13. Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution focuses on the rights of people (see Table…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. Standard 6.5: 10th Amendment to the Constitution
  2. … debate, especially given the Constitution's necessary and proper clause that states…
  3. The 10th Amendment to the Constitution states that any powers not granted to the federal…
  4. … Supreme Court declared the PASPA unConstitutional under the 10th Amendment.  The…
  5. … of the 10th amendment in the Constitution. Anti-Federalists were worried about a concentration…
  6. … Amendment to the United States Constitution is important to state government and identify…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … the Federal and Massachusetts Constitutions
  2. … Language and Images in State Constitutions, Laws, and Materials
  3. … Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution
  4. … the Massachusetts and Federal Constitutions
  5. … proposal at Voters to Decide on Constitution Change that Allows 'Millionaire's Tax'…
  6. In the United States, Constitutions establish the essential framework for democratic…
  7. … Massachusetts, guided by the Massachusetts Constitution, continues to expand liberties…
  8. … government documents, laws, and Constitutions as well. The Massachusetts State Constitution
  9. … the Massachusetts and federal Constitutions. UNCOVER looked at ongoing efforts to…
  10. … Knowing about the Massachusetts Constitution" discusses key differences between the…
  11. … 1780, the Massachusetts State Constitution is the oldest still-functioning written…
  12. … historians, the Massachusetts Constitution is the more expansive and democratic document…
  13. … differences as well. The Massachusetts Constitution has been amended 120 times; the…
  14. Revising language in state Constitutions, state laws, and city codes to be more inclusive…
  15. … provided by the Massachusetts Constitution that are not provided by the U.S. Constitution.…
  16. … proposed change to the Massachusetts Constitution called the Fair Share Amendment.…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … Democrats. Nevertheless, legally and Constitutionally, state governments have power…
  2. … governor's orders violated the town's Constitutional right to opt-out of emergency…
  3. … Face-Covering Requirements and the Constitution, Price & Diaz, American Constitution

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. The Constitution gives Congress the power to tax and spend, otherwise known as the…
  2. … by the 16th Amendment to the Constitution in 1913. Under a progressive income tax…
  3. … Jean-Baptiste Le Roy, “Our new Constitution is now established, everything seems…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … of the First Amendment to the Constitution. Today, the press means forms of publication…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … Amendment to the United States Constitution:  
  2. … conviction, thereby establishing "a Constitutional principle the doctrine that, with…
  3. … protections written into the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
  4. … grievances” (Amendment 1: U.S. Constitution (Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press,…
  5. … Amendment to the United States Constitution and in Article 16 of the Massachusetts…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … Fairness Doctrine: History and Constitutional Issues, Congressional Research Service,…

Court

Introduction for Educators

  1. … multimedia resources, landmark Court cases, LGBTQ history resources, women’s…

Table of Contents

  1. … Congress, the President, and the Courts
  2. Significant Supreme Court Decisions
  3. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court [Standards 8.T5.1-6]

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … "Republicans" or "Democrats." The Supreme Court's architexture recalls a Roman…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … written laws. Disputes were settled in Courts. There were separate branches…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … charters, travel narratives, Court hearings, first-hand accounts of captives,…
  2. … case before the Vermont Supreme Court. She died in 1821 at age 97.

The Development of the United States Government

  1. … well as efforts by people and Courts to balance states rights and federal power…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … the state government and local Courts that were auctioning off their homes…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … first African American Supreme Court Justice gave what has become known as…
  2. … executive (the president), and a Court system.

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … policy has been established in Court, namely Massachusetts v. EPA (2006), a…

Institutions of United States Government

  1. … (President), and judiciary (Supreme Court). States also have three branches…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … Congress, the President and the Courts in this topic.
  2. … shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … Trump v. Mazars, the Supreme Court rejected the claim that the President did…
  2. … Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. A super majority (67 out of 100 members)…
  3. … numerous actors — Congress, the Courts, interest groups, political appointees…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Congress, the President, and the Courts in the United States Government?
  2. … Congress, the President, and the Courts
  3. … (legislative), and the Supreme Court (judicial). UNCOVER explored the history…
  4. … government is made up of federal Courts and the Supreme Court.  
  5. … is one of a number of Supreme Court cases that directly impacted the lives…
  6. Each year, the Court will receive some 7,000 to 8,000 requests for review, known…
  7. … "nine old men" of the Supreme Court, asked Congress to appoint six new justices…
  8. … information, link to Do Supreme Court Dissents Make a Difference to the Law?
  9. … the average age of the Supreme Court justices is 67-years-old.
  10. … Judicial Branch, the Supreme Court, and State Courts
  11. … of the United States Supreme Court"EqualJusticeUnderLaw" by UpstateNYer is…
  12. … States also has a system of state Courts that function along side federal Courts.…
  13. … viewpoints prevailing ("The Supreme Court's Enigmatic 'Shadow Docket' Explained,"…
  14. … landmark In re Gault decision, the Court agreed, establishing the rule that…
  15. The United States has a dual Court system consisting of the federal judicial…
  16. … filibuster spending bills or lower Court judicial appointments. The filibuster…
  17. 3.1 ENGAGE:  What Supreme Court Cases Should All Teenagers Know?
  18. … national publicity when the Supreme Court issued an unsigned, single paragraph…
  19. … Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. With Joe Biden's Inauguration in 2021,…
  20. The Supreme Court has not always had 9 justices. Originally there were 6, a…
  21. … the President, and the Federal Courts - have their own roles and powers, as…
  22. … woman appointed to the federal Courts in 1928. In 1939, Jane Bolin became the…
  23. … be heard in state or federal Court.
  24. In addition to the Supreme Court, there are 94 federal district Courts and 13…
  25. … American Government, the Supreme Court has achieved a position of judicial…
  26. … was brought before a juvenile Court judge and sentenced to seven years in a…
  27. … relief hearing. More recently, the Court has begun resolving politically-charged…
  28. … different levels of the American Court system. Looking across federal Courts…
  29. The federal Courts hold the power of interpreting the law, determining the constitutionality…
  30. State Courts and Racial Disparities
  31. The Supreme Court has both original jurisdiction (in cases involving conflicts…
  32. … nine Justices of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President and confirmed…
  33. … or Restructuring the Supreme Court
  34. … James Earle Fraser on the Supreme Court Building's main steps"Contemplation…
  35. To learn more, check out How Courts Work from the American Bar Association.…
  36. … to the 60 to 70 cases that the Court hears each term with full briefings, oral…
  37. … proposals for reforming the Supreme Court: 1) increasing the number of justices;…
  38. … urged reforms in light of the Court's steady set of conservative rulings on…
  39. … differences in sentencing in state Courts and the larger criminal justice system…
  40. A Court is a place where people go to resolve disputes legally and peacefully.…
  41. … and/or restructuring the Supreme Court to the center of American politics.…
  42. … Judicial Branch and key Supreme Court decisions should every teenager know.
  43. The Supreme Court

Elections and Nominations

  1. … in 2020 by the state's Supreme Court, Maine will become the first-ever state…
  2. … 6, 2020). In 2020, the Supreme Court unanimously upheld state laws that remove,…
  3. … included the Bush v. Gore Supreme Court case in which the Court stopped a recount…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. In the video below, Supreme Court Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Neil Gorsuch…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … Amendment in 1868. It took a Supreme Court decision, United States v. Wong…
  2. … principles that are applied in a Court of law; citizenship is the product of…
  3. … Rican, is a current Supreme Court Justice. Deborah Aguiar-Velez is the author…
  4. … home country. An immigration Court makes the final decision as to asylum. In…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … Rights Established by the Supreme CourtImage from Office of the U.S. Attorney,…
  2. … appealed his case to the Supreme Court which upheld his conviction. That conviction…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … the Constitution, the Supreme Court has interpreted several of the amendments…
  2. … precedent, set by the Supreme Court in Gibbons v. Odgen (1824) is that the…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … has overviews of more Supreme Court cases involving the 14th Amendment.
  2. … were among the landmark Supreme Court decisions based on the 14th Amendment.
  3. … every person deserved a trial in Court and a lawyer to defend them, no matter…
  4. According to the United States Courts, "the Rule of law is a principle under…
  5. … School District vs. B.L. Supreme Court decision (the so-called school cheerleader…
  6. … the legal basis for the Supreme Court’s subsequent decisions desegregating…
  7. … schoolhouse gate" declared the Supreme Court in the 1969 Tinker v. Des Moines case…
  8. … till the 1963 landmark Supreme Court case Gideon v. Wainwright to ensure that…
  9. … J. Ross (2015) contends that Courts have retreated from the broad protections…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … Minor’s case was heard in the same Courtroom in St. Louis, Missouri where…
  2. … while constitutional amendments, Court cases, and state and federal laws expanded…
  3. … v. Happersett (1875) Supreme Court Case
  4. … Suffrage Association, challenged in Court voting restrictions against women.  
  5. … Native American Vote. A Federal Court found North Dakota’s voter identification…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … Connecticut (1965), the Supreme Court affirmed women’s constitutional right…

Public Service as a Career

  1. How will the Courts rule on divisive concept laws? What about the Court of public…
  2. … challenge educational segregation in Court. Although she lost the 1849 Roberts…
  3. … raised by such questions, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit in…
  4. … of the New York statute, the Court ruled in favor of the professors, overturning…
  5. … Ceballos (2006), the Supreme Court ruled that public employees generally do…
  6. … otherwise retaliated against?” the Court said. “On the other side, doesn’t…
  7. … power and control. The Supreme Court’s 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision made…
  8. Basically, the Courts have decided that teachers are in a special category where…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. Court cases involving transgender student rights at school center around three…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … voters. In June 2021, the Supreme Court allowed voter suppression laws in Arizona…
  2. A district Court ruled that segregation on buses inside the state of Alabama…
  3. … Amistad in 1839 and was defended in Court by the former President, John Quincy…
  4. … Smith—in the Browder v. Gayle Court case challenging segregation on the city’s…
  5. In a famous Court case, John Scopes, a public school science teacher, went to…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. Citizens United Supreme Court Decision
  2. … Federal Election Commission Supreme Court decision changed the rules about…

The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions
  2. … amendments, landmark Supreme Court decisions, social and political movements,…

The Necessary and Proper Clause

  1. … United States (1997), the Supreme Court ruled that requiring states to follow…
  2. … Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court said Congress could not use the necessary…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … overturning the Citizens United Supreme Court decision (from progressive and…
  2. … issue is likely to go the Supreme Court for resolution.

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. Dred Scott v Sanford Supreme Court Case
  2. … Dred Scott, a Black man, sued in Court for the freedom of his wife and daughters…
  3. Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Robbins Curtis who began his law career in Northfield,…
  4. … could not become citizens. The Court further said the Missouri Compromise was…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … County v. Holder, the Supreme Court rejected the VRA's "coverage formula" (Section…
  2. … County, Georgia case, the Supreme Court held that the Title VII of the 1964…
  3. Court decisions are divided as to what is discriminatory conduct. In Bostock…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. 3. ENGAGE: Do Supreme Court Dissents Make a Difference to the Law? 
  2. … Chief John Ross, and Supreme Court Cases Involving Native Americans
  3. … Connections: Reading Supreme Court Dissents Aloud
  4. … of Tears and Native American Court Cases
  5. Andrew Jackson ignored the Court, declaring, "John Marshall has made his decision,…
  6. … cases come before the Supreme Court, how cases are argued, and how the Court
  7. … the course of her career on the Court, Ruth Bader Ginsburg (RBG) authored many…
  8. … Constitution means what the Supreme Court says it means," said Professor Eric…
  9. … Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), the Court held that anyone charged with a crime…
  10. … the only woman justice on the Court at the time, dissented passionately, declaring…
  11. … 2009 that reversed the Supreme Court’s decision. Ginsburg's dissent is credited…
  12. … Removal Act went to the Supreme Court led by John Marshall. In a famous case,…
  13. … before the United States Supreme Court are decided by a majority vote of the…
  14. … QUESTION: How Does the Supreme Court Use the Power of Judicial Review to Interpret…
  15. … Ginsburg (RBG) produced one of the Court’s most dramatic dissent read alouds…
  16. … historic dissents in Supreme Court history: Benjamin Robbins Curtis in the…
  17. … million settlement in federal Court. However, the Supreme Court (by a 5 to…
  18. … July), the United States Supreme Court decides between 70 and 80 cases and…
  19. … his leadership, the ‘Marshall Court’ shaped the law and government of the…
  20. … spoken directly by a Supreme Court justice might influence people's thinking.
  21. … the greatest dissents do become Court opinions and gradually over time their…
  22. … notable occasions, however, the Court changes its earlier interpretations in…
  23. … Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; Andrew Jackson, the 7th President and…
  24. Courts in the United States operate on the principle of stare decisis (translated…
  25. … that can, over time, lead the Court and public opinion in new directions. As…
  26. … Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was born in Fauquier, Virginia in 1755.…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … QUESTION: How Do Landmark Supreme Court Cases Impact Our Lives?
  2. Standard 5.6c: Supreme Court Decisions: Rights in Conflict
  3. Standard 5.6a: Supreme Court Decisions: First Amendment Rights
  4. Standard 5.6b: Supreme Court Decisions: Due Process and Equal Protection
  5. Standard 5.6: Significant Supreme Court Decisions
  6. … for School Prayer and Religion Court Cases
  7. … Connections: Television Cameras in Courtrooms
  8. … Control Laws and Second Amendment Court Cases
  9. … Resources for the Flag-Related Court Cases
  10. … plaintiffs won their case in federal Court, making it the first time in U.S.…
  11. How has the Supreme Court interpreted the rights of individuals in key areas…
  12. … time in history, the Supreme Court announced it would make publicly available…
  13. … by eight years. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall represented…
  14. … by a 7 to 2 vote, the Supreme Court agreed with the students, declaring in…
  15. … Moines (1969) - Landmark Supreme Court Ruling on Behalf of Student Expression.
  16. … 5.6c below] in which Supreme Court Decisions have made significant changes…
  17. … more about signficiant Supreme Court decisions at the First Amendment Encyclopedia…
  18. … should be allowed in the Supreme Court and other Courtrooms, while other people…
  19. … regulate it or seek to prevent it. Courts, Breyer said, "must be more skeptical…
  20. … should be allowed in judicial Courtrooms, and if so, how Supreme Court proceedings…
  21. … politics. Although the Supreme Court established in West Virginia State Board…
  22. In 2008, the Supreme Court's decision in District of Columbia v. Heller expanded…
  23. … spoke English. The district Court judge ruled in favor of the Maestas' family,…
  24. … school all the way to the Supreme Court.
  25. … considering the Cameras in the Courtroom Act, introduced in 2019, which would…
  26. … school in an era of social media. Courts have established that schools in general…
  27. … viewpoint won a significant Supreme Court victory in Printz v. United States…
  28. … case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in June 2018, centers on a high school…
  29. … landmark decision by the Supreme Court. In just the past 70 years:
  30. … v. Vitale (1962), the Supreme Court ruled that requiring prayer in public schools…
  31. Significant Supreme Court decisions known as landmark cases make huge changes…
  32. … First Amendment, the Supreme Court has produced far-reaching legal decisions,…
  33. The Court said school officials could not block wearing armbands as a form of…
  34. A U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that although her post was "crude, rude, and juvenile,"…
  35. … 1996, a small number of federal Courts of appeals and district Courts have…
  36. … mothers took the school system to Court. The U.S. Court of Appeals overturned…
  37. The Supreme Court, by an 8 to 1 majority, agreed that the student cannot be…

The Structure of Massachusetts State and Local Government

  1. … governor, legislature, and state's Court system. There are a total of 7,383…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … operate police departments and Courts, provide education and other social services,…
  2. The Supreme Court reaffirmed that principle in its decision in Worcester v.…
  3. … 2020, the United States Supreme Court declared that much of eastern Oklahoma…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. … Barrington, the town where Mum Bett’s Court case was heard.
  2. … until the 1780s when a series of Court cases led to its end. The Massachusetts…
  3. … justice of the state’s Supreme Court declared slavery was unconstitutional…

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … Oregon in 1914. But a 1923 Supreme Court decision struck down the District…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … Should You Go to Small Claims Court?
  2. 2. UNCOVER: Marriage Equality Court Cases
  3. … Resources for Marriage Equality Court Cases
  4. … proceedings are not settled in these Courts. Anyone 18 or over can file a claim.…
  5. … following the state’s Supreme Court decision, Goodridge v. Massachusetts…
  6. … example, in A Guide to Small Claims Court Cases, written by Legal Aid of North…
  7. However, going to Court involves time off from work or school - a potential…
  8. … the steps in the small claims Court process from “What Do I Need to Know…
  9. … history of marriage equality Court cases. ENGAGE asked when should an individual…
  10. … government, political groups, and the Courts. Standard 6.4 offers an opportunity…
  11. … was overturned by the Supreme Court in U.S. v Windsor (2013) which held that…
  12. … and settle disputes outside of Court through negotiations between the parties…
  13. In Massachusetts, Small Claims Court is a place where people go to settle financial…
  14. Small claims Courts have their origins in a longstanding American belief in…
  15. … Obergefell v. Hodges Supreme Court decision, means that same-sex couples can…
  16. … many advantages to small claims Court. Court proceedings do not involve costly…
  17. … first major same-sex marriage Court case took place in Hawaii in 1993. The…
  18. In the Obergefell case, the Court held that the 14th Amendment requires states…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. The Court’s decision dramatically changed the practice of sports gambling,…
  2. In 2018, however, the Supreme Court declared the PASPA unconstitutional under…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … cases, the United States Supreme Court has expanded LGBTQIA rights:
  2. … Constitution were the basis for Court decisions that ended slavery in the state…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … students are based on a 1922 Supreme Court ruling in the case Zucht v. King.…
  2. … Jacobson v. Massachusetts Supreme Court decision discussed in the UNCOVER section…
  3. … Massachusetts (1905), the Supreme Court upheld the authority of states to enforce…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. … made up of the Supreme Judicial Court, the Appeals Court, and the Trial Court.…
  2. … can also elect State Supreme Court Justices.

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … Lovell v. City of Griffin, Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes authored…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … Notable Freedom of the Press Court Cases
  2. … Notable Freedom of the Press Court Cases
  3. … Kuhlmeier (1988), the Supreme Court disagreed with the students, ruling that…
  4. Landmark freedom of the press Court cases include:
  5. … 6 to 3 decision, the Supreme Court ruled against the Nixon Administration citing…
  6. The Supreme Court overturned Near's conviction, thereby establishing "a constitutional…
  7. … INVESTIGATE examined notable Court cases where the rights of journalists were…
  8. The Supreme Court declared that the First Amendment protects the publication…
  9. … publishing the paper and convicted in Court under a Minnesota Public Nuisance…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … news of legal proceedings and Court decisions as well as births, deaths, and…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … of the United States Supreme Court, is reported to have said that he always…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. A subsequent naval Court of inquiry concluded that the ship was destroyed by…

COVID-19

Introduction for Educators

  1. … crises of our era," including the COVID-19 pandemic, accelerating climate change,…
  2. … governments to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … Century Digital Government and the COVID-19 Pandemic
  2. … Massachusetts, during the spring 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. The unit covers one week…
  3. … Amherst Website"May 2020 during COVID-19 PandemicPublic Domain 
  4. … the realities created by the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) the impact of the Olympic marathon…
  5. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased efforts by governments to function digitally…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … Massachusetts during the spring 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. The plans offer one week…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic again pitted states against the federal government…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … mail-in voting resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. 
  2. … questions about immigration policies, COVID-19 pandemic regulations, federal executions…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … President Trump used the global COVID-19 pandemic as an reason to block migrants…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. Media Literacy Connections: COVID-19 Information Evaluation
  2. … an event as unprecendented as COVID-19? How do you know? In what ways? As a nation,…
  3. … were then expected to enforce COVID-19 rules, but lacked the resources to do so…
  4. … government's responses to the COVID-19 pandemic impacted people's personal lives…
  5. The U.S. response to the 2020 COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic revealed the interconnections…
  6. … to distinguish fake news about COVID-19 from the truthful and reliable information…
  7. … nations did better addressing the COVID-19 pandemic, a New York Times reporter…
  8. … economic dislocations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has pushed the direct government…
  9. … Privacy Called into Question During COVID-19 Pandemic). Although the right to…
  10. … Lives and Government Responses to COVID-19
  11. The COVID-19 pandemic blended civic, political, and private lives in unique ways.…
  12. … health emergency such as the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Other modules examine women's…
  13. … severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has led to very different…
  14. … people's freedoms in response to COVID-19. China locked down some 60 million people,…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … Massachusetts, during the spring 2020 COVID-19 pandemic when schools went to all…
  2. The COVID-19 pandemic renewed calls for the United States to expand vote by mail…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … business practices during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public Service as a Career

  1. … the nation's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In late August, 2020, the Trump…
  2. … in job applications due to the COVID-19 pandemic has created a significant number…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … 2019, and that was before the COVID-19 pandemic created widespread unemployment…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. During the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 2020), for the first time in history, the Supreme…

The Structure of Massachusetts State and Local Government

  1. … the Trump Presidency, and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … current government responses to the COVID-19 pandemic are two revealing historical…
  2. … disputes over responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, health care (the Affordable…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, states have used their 10th Amendment powers…
  2. … government policies during the COVID-19 Pandemic? Does your state government use…
  3. … Local Government Responses to COVID-19 from the Library of Congress.
  4. … the media to communicate their COVID-19 pandemic policies. 

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. 2. UNCOVER: COVID-19, Vaccinations, Face Masks, and Jacobson v. Massachusetts (1905)
  2. … Fall 2021 (Key Questions about COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates, KFF, April 2021).
  3. … requiring individuals to get COVID-19 shots by a number of Republican governors…
  4. … 2021, admidst the spread of the COVID-19 Delta variant, California, New York,…
  5. The COVID-19 pandemic has generated intense political debates over whether state,…
  6. … a way to combat the spread of COVID-19 by increasing vaccinations among unvaccinated…
  7. … requiring children to have a COVID-19 vaccine to attend school.

Components of Local Government

  1. While the COVID-19 virus has made it more difficult for people to participate in…
  2. … extracurricular activities. During the COVID-19 pandemic, school boards around…
  3. … meetings were upended by the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the spring of 2020,…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … during a nationwide spike in COVID-19 cases, a video created by the right wing…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … violation of their dangerous COVID-19 misinformation policies (NPR, August 5,…
  2. … Quanitfying Sources and Themes in COVID-19 infodemic).
  3. … labels on 98 million pieces of COVID-19 misinformation.

Declaration of Independence

Introduction for Educators

  1. … American ideal, articulated in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, is that all…

Table of Contents

  1. The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … does not appear in either the Declaration of Independence or the United States Constitution, democracy…
  2. … influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the structure of…

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. … Jefferson's famous quote from the Declaration of Independence was based on Lockean philosophy: "We…

British Influences on American Government

  1. The Declaration of Independence stated: “But when a government continually violates the rights of…
  2. … influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence or the Constitution, it offers another…
  3. … July 10, 1858. The idea that the Declaration of Independence does not apply to Blacks, Lincoln said,…

The Development of the United States Government

  1. … documents of our democracy—the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence
  2. The principles of the Declaration of Independence, declared Frederick Douglass in his 1852 Fourth…
  3. … July 4, 1776 was not the first Declaration of Independence in the colonies (Worcester, Massachusetts…
  4. Modeled after the Declaration of Independence, the Declaration of Sentiments contained a list of the…
  5. The Declaration of Independence is a key document of the American Revolution, but by the time it was…
  6. … Congress on July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence consists of 1,320 of the most famous words…
  7. "Declaration of Independence" by John Trumbull | Public Domain
  8. … freedom it protects. Still the Declaration of Independence remains the outstanding example of the…
  9. Since the Revolution, how has the Declaration of Independence shaped Americans' thinking about freedom,…
  10. … purpose of government in the Declaration of Independence. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…
  11. … independence. Modelled after the original Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … bondage in a nation where the Declaration of Independence had declared "all men are created equal"…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … were ranked from 1 to 100. The Declaration of Independence was first, followed by the Constitution,…
  2. … Revolution, the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence, and framework of government…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … live up to the ideals of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. In modern society,…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … happiness” (a phrase from the Declaration of Independence). The Pledge of Allegiance declares there…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … Concord. Three years later in the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson affirmed the importance…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … history (1989, para 14). The Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution promised…
  2. … at odds with the ideals of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Other people in…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. … Resolves, a precursor to the Declaration of Independence’s claim at all people are free. W.E.B.…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … “inalienable rights” in the Declaration of Independence. People’s rights exist “prior to…

Democracy

Introduction for Educators

  1. BUILDING Democracy FOR ALL
  2. … on this Google Doc: Building Democracy for All eBook References. 
  3. … and Trumpism and its attacks on Democracy and the rule of law. The challenging…
  4. Building Democracy for All has been developed by a collaborative writing team of…
  5. Building Democracy for All is organized around seven major topics and 50 learning…
  6. … Companion YouTube Channel, UMass Democracy for All provides video introductions…
  7. … that the promise and reality of Democracy has been denied Black Americans, women,…
  8. … teachers and students, Building Democracy for All offers instructional ideas, interactive…
  9. … contemporary experiences. To build Democracy for all, as the book is titled, we…
  10. … companion edition to our Building Democracy for All eBook entitled Critical Media…
  11. Building Democracy for All is based on our belief that civic learning will be impactful…
  12. Welcome to Building Democracy for All - an interactive, multimodal, multicultural,…

Table of Contents

  1. … something. You must do something. Democracy is not a state. It is an act, and each…

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. Building Democracy For All is designed so that teachers and students can follow…

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. Building Democracy for All Chapters
  2. Building Democracy For All is designed so that teachers and students can follow…

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. Building Democracy for All Chapters
  2. Building Democracy For All is designed so that teachers and students can follow…

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. Building Democracy for All Chapters
  2. … about the future of American Democracy. Our Election 2020 Learning Pathway provides…
  3. Building Democracy For All is designed so that teachers and students can follow…

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. Building Democracy for All Chapters
  2. Building Democracy For All is designed so that teachers and students can follow…

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. Democracy in the World Today
  2. Democracy comes from the Greek words “demos” and “kratos,” meaning "rule…
  3. … second decade of the 21st century, Democracy and democratic institutions continue…
  4. Democracy, as a framework of government, has evolved over the centuries and now…
  5. … report assessed the state of Democracy in 165 of the world's countries. Only 9%…
  6. … researchers with the Varities of Democracy project have noted, there is "no single…
  7. … Brendan Nyhan (2020) has noted that Democracy is not a binary concept; countries…
  8. … countries experiencing declines in Democracy have exceeded countries with gains…
  9. … one researcher, an "authentic Democracy" includes the following structures, without…
  10. "Democracy is at risk," declared the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: Athenian Democracy and 21st Century Digital Government - Before…
  2. A Foundation for Democracy
  3. Media Literacy Connections: Democracy in Social Media Policies and Community Standards
  4. … Governments and the End of Athenian Democracy
  5. Online Resources for Athenian Democracy and Digital Government
  6. Democratic Schools and School Democracy
  7. Democracy was not the only accomplishment that modern day America owes to Ancient…
  8. … effectively ending the era of Athenian Democracy. You can learn more from the book…
  9. Athens' "first Democracy," limited though it was, operated on two principles new…
  10. Athenian Democracy's foundational principles included equality, harmony, debate,…
  11. As a political system, Democracy is said to have begun in the Greek city-state of…
  12. … (2015), "we actually practice Democracy very rarely in our everyday lives" (para.…
  13. … undemocratic elements of Athenian Democracy, particularly in terms of women’s…
  14. … political practices of Athenian Democracy are relevant to understanding how democracies…
  15. … democratic experience, but practicing Democracy also means exercising one’s rights…
  16. … widely discussed as examples of Democracy being practiced in American society.…
  17. … openly cynical about the idea of Democracy in schools or the larger society.
  18. The origins of Democracy in ancient Athens invites us to explore how Democracy and…
  19. … could vote in Athens' limited Democracy. Women, children, slaves, and foreigners…
  20. … examined children's experiences with Democracy, participation, and trust in how…
  21. … Athens to be the beginning of Democracy and explain how the democratic concepts…
  22. … of ancient Athens impact how Democracy became established in the United States?…
  23. Democracy was not the only form of government among the city-states of ancient Greece.…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … the Development of Modern-Day Democracy
  2. … did liberty, government, and Democracy mean and for whom did they exist during…
  3. … monarchy (rule by one) or a direct Democracy (rule by all). It had democratic features…
  4. … and political problems in every Democracy where it was practiced—including colonial…

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. … good. He advocated for direct Democracy where everyone’s votes determine what…

British Influences on American Government

  1. Pirate Democracy in the Atlantic World
  2. … meetings were a form of direct Democracy. All White men in a community participated…
  3. … hangings, Acosta found examples of Democracy and separate branches of government…
  4. How did experiments in Democracy and democratic government that began in the 13…
  5. … although often harshly. While pirate Democracy may not have directly influenced…
  6. But monarchy is not Democracy and rule by one person does not make possible either…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … America that had a participatory Democracy government with executive, legislative,…
  2. You can learn more at Iroquois Democracy & the U.S. Constitution, a website with…

The Development of the United States Government

  1. … the founding documents of our Democracy—the Declaration of Independence, the…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … liberties as members of American Democracy. Imagine that these groups had access…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … constitutions do not always support Democracy or expand rights and liberties for…
  2. … in the ideas and structures of Democracy set forth in these documents?

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … is a "dictatorship of people's Democracy," but it is ruled by one strongman leader,…
  2. … dictators and their threats to Democracy in Strongman: The Rise of Five Dictators…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … sustain the rule of law in a Democracy.
  2. … of American politics. No other Democracy in the world gives lifetime appointments…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … administration of any advanced Democracy" (Toobin, 2020b, p. 37). States organize…
  2. … our country’s 21st century Democracy? Why or Why Not?
  3. … prominent feature of American Democracy. A poll is a survey given to a small sample…
  4. … Leonhardt ("The Electoral College and Democracy," 2020, December 14) have summarized…
  5. … people are a hallmark of American Democracy. Yet as commentator Perry Bacon, Jr.…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … individual in maintaining a healthy Democracy?
  2. … responsibilities of citizens in our Democracy. It consists of 13 modules ranging…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. Representative Democracy
  2. Representative Democracy is the principle that people elect individuals to represent…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. Democracy Prep Public Schools
  2. Still, it is important to ask: How Democracy Prep did promote civic participation…
  3. … number of people participate, then Democracy gives way to a system of government…
  4. … Suppression is Destroying Our Democracy.
  5. … results. Students chose to apply to Democracy Prep so they may have been inclined…
  6. The founders of the Democracy Prep public school network believe they have a successful…
  7. … responsibilities that a person has in the Democracy. For more, read Lift Every…
  8. … more, go to The Expansion of Democracy during the Jacksonian Era.
  9. … Mail? an excerpt from the book Democracy in America? What Has Gone Wrong and What…
  10. Describe how a Democracy provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the…

Election Information

  1. … propaganda on elections in a Democracy, it is important to explore how politicians…
  2. In a Democracy, free and fair elections require that voters have access to reliable…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … essential ingredient of a vibrant Democracy. Unlike dictators or despots, effective…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … has a representative form of Democracy. Citizens vote to decide who will represent…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … rights.  This concept is central to Democracy—here and around the world. In…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … attempted to subvert American Democracy with a lie about election fraud that he…
  2. … political courage are essential to a Democracy, for as the 35th President John…
  3. … which is actually hostility to Democracy” (quoted in "Was the Assault on the…
  4. … people affirmed the ideals of Democracy and the nation's Constitution. The INVESTIGATE…
  5. … extending core American ideals of Democracy: the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments…
  6. … truth and the future of American Democracy."
  7. … is an essential quality in a Democracy. INVESTIGATE profiled three examples of…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … Political Protest Happens in a Democracy?
  2. … to protest is essential in a Democracy. It is a means for people to express dissatisfaction…
  3. … role of political protest in a Democracy. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. Democracy for All Constitutional Amendment
  2. … private interest groups in a Democracy, including policy organizations in shaping…
  3. … influences voters and shapes Democracy.
  4. … Constitution. Read a text of the proposed Democracy for All amendment, introduced…
  5. Democracy is not free, observes French economist Julia Gage in The Price of Democracy

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … and questioned the survival of Democracy as a form government.

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … schools are the nurseries of Democracy" and our system of government works only…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. … Concepts, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, August…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … the Core Documents of American Democracy?
  2. … individual rights is essential to Democracy in this country. INVESTIGATE explored…
  3. … serve as foundations for our Democracy and have been influenced and shaped by historical…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. … men - is at the center of how Democracy in the 21st century.

Components of Local Government

  1. … Governments, Social Media and Digital Democracy
  2. … town meeting is a form of direct Democracy in which people from the town, rather…
  3. … meetings as a form of direct Democracy used in some communities in Massachusetts…
  4. … of town meeting-style direct Democracy is still to be decided, but new formats…
  5. … can technology revolutionize Democracy? One starting point for considering this…
  6. … what has been called digital Democracy (or e-Democracy or e-government). In theory,…
  7. … Massachusetts community called it "Democracy only for those with access to transportation;…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … Fourth Branch of government in our Democracy because it is intended to report openly…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … plays an essential role in a Democracy, but the work of investigation is long and…
  2. … from the Past, a report from Democracy Fund.

Democratic party

Introduction for Educators

  1. … promoted since the New Deal by the Democratic party and liberal/progressive individuals…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … D.C. lean strongly toward the Democratic party).  

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Kamala Harris, the successful 2020 Democratic party Vice-Presidential nominee was born…
  2. … largest paristan lean toward the Democratic party; Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and…
  3. … prominent candidate for the 2020 Democratic party nomination for President.

Elections and Nominations

  1. … close race narrowly won by the Democratic party. In fact, the 2020 Presidential Election…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … and find political dirt on the Democratic party.

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … for its hostile tone" toward Democratic party nominees Joe Biden and Kamala Harris (The…

Dictatorship

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. Strongmen: Dictatorship as a Form of Government
  2. … constitution states the country is a "Dictatorship of people's democracy," but it…
  3. Dictatorship and authoritarianism are the political opposites of democratically-based…

Digital democracy

Components of Local Government

  1. … Governments, Social Media and Digital democracy
  2. … promote what has been called Digital democracy (or e-democracy or e-government). In theory,…

Disinformation

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … civil liberties, and spreading Disinformation and propaganda to inflame people's attitudes…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … financial crisis at a time when Disinformation was becoming very easy to share online.…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … responsible for an extensive Disinformation campaign in the months leading to the 2016…
  2. … intelligence operatives. Russian Disinformation, spread on social media, appears to…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. The Disinformation Dozen
  2. … Spanish-American War, and present-day Disinformation and hoax websites. ENGAGE asked…
  3. … just 12 people (the so-called "Disinformation Dozen"), running multiple accounts across…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … and groups who seek to spread Disinformation and untruths.
  2. … found that "politically relevant Disinformation" reached over 158 million views in the…

Dolores Huerta

British Influences on American Government

  1. … Helen Keller, Alice Paul, and Dolores Huerta - to name just a few - reveal the legacy…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … female Mexican American union leader, Dolores Huerta "Dolores Huerta Mural" by Yreina…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. 1.3. Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, Larry Itliong, and the Delano Grape Strike and Boycott
  2. … Biography of Cesar E. Chavez) and Dolores Huerta (Biography from Dolores Huerta.org)…
  3. … Evolution Trial; and Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, Larry Itliong and the Delano Grape…

Donald Trump

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … 2019/2020 impeachment inquiry into Donald Trump’s infamous phone call with the President…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … Presidential Administration of Donald Trump has dramatically altered the environmental…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … articles of impeachment against Donald Trump: Article 1: Abuse of Power and Article…
  2. Impeachment proceedings against Donald Trump followed from a complaint by an intelligence…
  3. As President, Donald Trump and his advisors including Attorney General William Barr…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … society governed by older people. Donald Trump was 70 after being elected in 2016,…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … Obama won Ohio in 2008 and 2012; Donald Trump won the state in 2016. No Republican…
  2. … a democratic society. In 2016 Donald Trump won the Electoral College and the Presidency…
  3. … rank their preferences between Donald Trump (Republican), Joe Biden (Democrat), Jo…
  4. … counties and 81 million votes; Donald Trump won 2,588 counties and 74 million votes.…
  5. … votes and 74 electoral votes, if Donald Trump had received a few thousand more votes…
  6. … with 81,283,098 votes (51.3%), Donald Trump received 74,222,958 (46.8%), and third…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … election and the impeachments of Donald Trump show both parties being reshaped in…
  2. … the Presidency. In 2016, when Donald Trump lost the popular vote but defeated Hillary…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … Hillary Clinton received in 2016. Donald Trump received 11 million more votes than…
  2. … 2020). In 2018, Michael Cohen, Donald Trump's former lawyer, pled guilty to multiple…
  3. In 2016, Donald Trump won the Presidency even though he lost the popular vote to Hillary…
  4. … defeated 2020 Presidential candidate Donald Trump and his supporters, voter fraud…

Election Information

  1. … one of the three debates with Donald Trump, yet although she won the national popular…
  2. … debate between Joe Biden and Donald Trump in 2020.

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … with companies associated with Donald Trump, his family or the Trump Organization.…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. Investigations into the Events and Donald Trump's Role
  2. … exactly the kind of activities that Donald Trump has used to gain and hold power.
  3. … Following the election defeat of Donald Trump and the failed January 6, 2021 insecurrection,…
  4. … Post concluded that President Donald Trump was at the center of what happened: "Trump…
  5. … inciteful speech by President Donald Trump, a mob of thousands of White supremactists,…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … opposition from then President Donald Trump and his political supporters who sought…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … mask-wearing became a centerpiece of Donald Trump's unsuccessful campaign for a second…

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. … and deductions in the tax laws. Donald Trump famously paid only $750 in federal income…

Components of Local Government

  1. … immigration policies of President Donald Trump’s administration, communities all…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … relevance against the backdrop of Donald Trump's actions related to Russian interference…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … American Presidency Project). Donald Trump changed the news conference format dramatically,…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … to the public. As President, Donald Trump maintains a personal and an official Twitter…
  2. … discredit Hillary Clinton and elect Donald Trump.
  3. … political spectrum. For example, a Donald Trump rally video may generate recommendations…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … President, in speeches and tweets, Donald Trump promoted numerous conspiracy theories,…
  2. … documented how former President Donald Trump and the Republican Party have used the…
  3. … Twitter permanently suspended Donald Trump from its platform. Other major social media…
  4. Fact Checking Donald Trump
  5. … mail-in voting made by President Donald Trump (MIT Technology Review). Trump claimed…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … watch a video of George W. Bush, Donald Trump, and Barack Obama saying things that…
  2. … politically conservative, pro-Donald Trump news publisher, The Epoch Times.
  3. … suspending the personal account of Donald Trump, citing the risk of further incitement…
  4. … Presidential candidates including Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders have channels on…

Eleanor Roosevelt

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. Eleanor Roosevelt has been called the “First Lady of the World." One of her most important…
  2. Eleanor Roosevelt was the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and one of the most influential…
  3. 2.UNCOVER: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  4. Online Resources for Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights
  5. … Sentiments. UNCOVER explored Eleanor Roosevelt and the writing of Universal Declaration…
  6. … activist throughtout her life, Eleanor Roosevelt worked for women’s rights and the end…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … Eisenhower Presidency. In March 1933, Eleanor Roosevelt was the first First Lady to hold…

Electoral College

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … Slave Trade Compromise; and the Electoral College Compromise.

Elections and Nominations

  1. … Elections, the Popular Vote, and the Electoral College
  2. The Electoral College
  3. … Presidential Elections and the Electoral College
  4. … abolish or substantially reform the Electoral College as an outdated institution that does…
  5. … political system in which the Electoral College determines presidential winners. 
  6. … number of electoral votes in the Electoral College are based on state population, but the…
  7. Electoral College from the National Archives offers more information about how this feature…
  8. … voting or the meeting of the Electoral College to choose the presidential and vice presidential…
  9. In the Electoral College system, the candidate with the most popular votes is not necessarily…
  10. The Electoral College is not an institution of higher education with a physical campus.…
  11. The Electoral College gives a greater electoral impact to states with a smaller numbers…
  12. Having the Electoral College as part of the United States system of government has brought…
  13. … view of the usefulness of the Electoral College for our country’s 21st century democracy?…
  14. The Electoral College has a fascinating history. It was created at the Constitutional Convention…
  15. … columnist David Leonhardt ("The Electoral College and Democracy," 2020, December 14) have…
  16. … election process and the role of the Electoral College. UNCOVER reviewed disputed elections…
  17. The Geography of States and the Electoral College
  18. … that question in terms of the Electoral College, disputed elections in U.S. history, the…
  19. … nationwide, Gore lost in the Electoral College when he lost the state of Florida by 537…
  20. … prevailed with a majority in the Electoral College. It is one of six elections that historians…
  21. 1) The Electoral College system can deny victory to the candidate who wins the popular vote…
  22. … represent a candidate in the Electoral College. Each state's popular vote winner receives…
  23. … Additionally, Biden won the crucial Electoral College vote 306 to 232.
  24. … survived? In Why Do We Still Have the Electoral College? historian Alexander Keyssar (2020)…
  25. … debates around what to do with the Electoral College. Many call for its elimination as…
  26. … are also proposals to keep the Electoral College, but change how it functions:

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … defeated Hillary Clinton in the Electoral College, third party candidates received 6% of…

Election Information

  1. … vote, she did not receive enough Electoral College votes to become President.  

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … to stop the certification of Electoral College ballots by any means. He called these individuals…

Environment

Introduction for Educators

  1. … together in collaborative learning Environments. Topics and standards are accompanied…

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. … Great Depression, and looming Environmental disasters are contributing to uncertainty…

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. … Have Primary Responsibility for Environmental Policies?

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … protests against corruption and for Environmental protections, particularly in Ukraine…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … corridors. In democratic classroom Environments, students are involved “on a regular…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … and transforming their diverse Environments. [AP U.S. History Key Concept 1.1]
  2. … lifestyles to the geographic and Environmental conditions where they lived. You can…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … Have Primary Responsibility for Environmental Policies?
  2. … vs. Federal Power in Modern-Day Environmental Politics
  3. … the first Earth Day (1970), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established…
  4. … have primary responsibilty for Environmental policies?
  5. … has dramatically altered the Environmental policies of the federal government.
  6. The Trump Administration's Environmental policies have placed the federal government…
  7. … and reversing other Trump-era Environmental and energy policies. You can track Joe…
  8. … Trump Administration's Major Environmental Deregulations, Brookings, December 15,…
  9. … How President Trump is Changing Environmental Policy, National Geographic, 2017;…
  10. … California which has enacted stricter Environmental protection laws than most of…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … drilling, that will have lasting Environmental impacts. If a Health & Human Services…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … eliminating entirely social and Environmental regulations, infrastructure spending,…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … women, student activists, and Environmentalists. This longstanding effort (also called…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … non-profit organizations, and Environment and conservation. INVESTIGATE discussed…
  2. … Non-Profit Organizations, and Environment and Conservation. 

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … health care, education, and the Environment for all Americans.

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … 2019-2020 season in a bubble Environment in Orlando, Florida, NBA players wore Black…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … resulting in a combination of Environmental and societal impacts. In the 1930s, overfarming…
  2. … education (the Common Core), Environmental regulations including air pollution standards,…
  3. … devastating impacts on the natural Environment.

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … Massachusetts amendments placed an Environmental rights provision into the state’s…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … Governments Ban to Help Save the Environment?
  2. Media Literacy Connections: Environmental Campaigns Using Social Media
  3. Online Resources for Environmental Action and Climate Justice
  4. … Actions to Address Climate and Environment
  5. … has a significant impact on the Environment, including using up finite fossil fuels,…
  6. … government promote one of their Environmental policies so that it gains momentum? 
  7. Environmental and climate justice organizations make extensive use of Twitter, Facebook,…
  8. … multimedia and social media for Environmental policies. 
  9. … laws intended to help save the Environment. Establishing rules and regulations about…
  10. … effects of human impact on the Environment. People, as well as governments, are…
  11. … to respond to the climate and Environment crisis:
  12. However, while Environmental and climate justice organizations put funding into media…

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. … transportation, housing, energy, Environment, food, agriculture and everything else. 

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … in highly polarized political Environments.  The Rand Corporation's 2018 report,…

Executive Branch

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … largely ceremonial; there was no Executive Branch of government like there is today. Hanson…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. The Executive Branch has the following checks and balances on the other branches:

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … (USPS) - is an agency in the Executive Branch of the United States government. It is the…
  2. … Bureau of Investigation (FBI), an Executive Branch agency as well as the history of electing…
  3. The Executive Branch is headed by the President, who is the head of state and Commander-in-Chief…
  4. … Resources for the President and the Executive Branch
  5. 1. INVESTIGATE: The Executive Branch and the President
  6. … controversial of all federal government Executive Branch agencies. It was created by executive…
  7. … from the standpoint of a) the Executive Branch - the role of the FBI and the Post Office…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … elections in the legislative and Executive Branches and the process of nomination/confirmation…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … within the federal government's Executive Branch. Since 2016, however, despite growing…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. Executive Branch
  2. The Executive Branch is made up of the Governor, the governor's cabinet, the state treasurer,…

Executive order

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … government's executive agencies; issuing Executive orders to bypass lengthy legislative…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … branch agencies. It was created by Executive order on July 26, 1908 by Attorney General…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … 1944, two years after signing Executive order 9066, President Roosevelt revoked the order.…
  2. … Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive order 9066 which mandated moving 120,000 Japanese-Americans…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … 2009, President Obama issued an Executive order baring gender discrimination in hiring…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … prohibited. President Biden's Executive order said "children should be able to learn…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … vaccinated and the governor issued an Executive order against the use of "vaccine passports"…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … speech. Trump himself issued an Executive order intending to limit legal protections…

Fair Labor Standards Act

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … workers did not come about till the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … proposed, and Congress passed, the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, setting the minimum wage…
  2. … chores around a private home" (Fair Labor Standards Act Advisor).
  3. … agriculture are not covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act. Children as young as 12 can be hired…
  4. … rights as young workers. The Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) also set the maximum work week at…

Fake news

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. … work on how to make sense of Fake news:
  2. … coverage on social media & fighting Fake news:

Teacher-Designed Learning Plans

  1. Is It Real or Fake news?

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … you been able to distinguish Fake news about COVID-19 from the truthful and reliable…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … campaign-style attacks on reporters, "Fake news," and political opponents. He regularly…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. Media Literacy Connections: Fake news Investigation and Evaluation
  2. … important. One way to identify Fake news stories from 2016 written by Russian sources…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. FOCUS QUESTION: What is Fake news and Information Disorder and How Can Students…
  2. 1. INVESTIGATE: Defining “Fake news” and Finding Reliable Information
  3. Online Resources for Fake news & Fact Checking
  4. Sources of Fake news
  5. People’s willingness to believe Fake news is encouraged by what historian Richard…
  6. Is It Real or Is It Fake news?
  7. For social media platforms, Fake news is good business. Attracted by the controversies…
  8. … standard’s INVESTIGATE examined Fake news - information that creators KNOWS is…
  9. … famous historical example of Fake news was the role of Yellow Journalism at the…
  10. … news? One answer is that creating Fake news is both very easy and highly profitable.…
  11. … text-to-speech version of Fighting Fake news from The New York Times UpFront (September…
  12. Promoting Fake news can be highly profitable for politicians who use misinformation…
  13. A small number of Fake news creators can have an enormous impact on public attitudes…
  14. Fake news comes from many sources. Political groups seek to gain votes and support…
  15. … to more about the history of Fake news:
  16. While there is much Fake news online, it is shared by a very small number of people.…
  17. Fake news distributed on social media feeds conspiracy theories while promoting…
  18. … information and distributing Fake news has long been part of American politics.  

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … part of the larger problem of Fake news on social media platforms like Facebook.…

Federalists

Table of Contents

  1. Debates Between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … Key Points of Debate Between Federalists and Anti-Federalists?
  2. Online Resources on Federalists and Anti-Federalists
  3. The Federalists believed that the Constitution would create a needed change in the…
  4. … writing of the Constitution, Federalists and Anti-Federalists offered sharply diverging…
  5. … the main disagreements between Federalists and Anti-Federalists? The modules for…
  6. Two groups, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists, emerged with the Federalists
  7. … learn more at our wiki page, Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
  8. The Anti-Federalists feared the Constitution would create a central government that…
  9. … Constitution. Like other anti-Federalists, her opposition to the new government ranged…
  10. Standard 2.4:  Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists
  11. … key ideas debated between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists over ratification…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … Democratic-Republican party over the Federalists in the 1812 election. Political…
  2. … Constitution of 1787 between the Federalists (led by Alexander Hamilton) and the…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. Historians credit Anti-Federalists with the inclusion of the 10th amendment in the…

First Amendment

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … cannot do in school buildings (First Amendment Rights for Student Protestors). As a result,…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … should work. The Constitution’s First Amendment includes the right “to petition the…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … Race Theory, and Teachers’ First Amendment Rights
  2. … classrooms raise the issue of First Amendment rights for teachers in schools. What can…
  3. … sharp distinction between the First Amendment speech protections for college professors…
  4. … employees generally do not have First Amendment protection for their on-the-job speech.…
  5. … doesn’t a teacher have the First Amendment right to choose her own reading assignments,…
  6. … category where they have both First Amendment speech rights and limitations on those…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … Americans (77 percent) know the First Amendment and its protections of freedom of speech,…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: First Amendment Rights: Selected Landmark Cases
  2. … 5.6a: Supreme Court Decisions: First Amendment Rights
  3. … areas of rights in conflict: the First Amendment, due process, the flag and the Pledge…
  4. … Supreme Court decisions at the First Amendment Encyclopedia from Middle Tennessee State…
  5. The First Amendment of the Constitution states; "Congress shall make no law respecting…
  6. … Petition, and Speech under the First Amendment. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…
  7. … the day was a violation of the First Amendment’s establishment clause that prohibits…
  8. … changed its interpretations of a) First Amendment freedoms; b) the due process and equal…
  9. In its interpretations of the First Amendment, the Supreme Court has produced far-reaching…
  10. … juvenile," it was protected by the First Amendment because it did not substantially disrupt…

Components of Local Government

  1. … Meeting Laws and Freedom of Speech, First Amendment Encyclopedia). Learn more about Open…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … freedom of the press clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution. Today, the press…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … Liberties Union, 2019).  Despite the First Amendment’s guarantee of freedom of expression,…
  2. … adults’ censorship violated their First Amendment rights of free speech.
  3. … the press is set forth in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution:  
  4. … Supreme Court declared that the First Amendment protects the publication of statements…
  5. … was included as a right in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and…
  6. … Osborne (2020, p.1) noted of the First Amendment's protection of freedom of the press,…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … company was infringing on the First Amendment rights of free speech. Trump himself issued…

Freedom of religion

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … rights of individuals including Freedom of religion, a lack of property requirements to vote,…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … the "basic rights, such as the Freedom of religion and speech, the right to due process and…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … particular, intended to establish Freedom of religion as a core principle of American life…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … (Amendment 1: U.S. Constitution (Freedom of religion, Speech, Press, Assembly and Petition).

Freedom of speech

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … their constitutional rights to Freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate"…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … in Norman Rockwell’s famous Freedom of speech painting) is deeply ingrained in popular…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … Amendment and its protections of Freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and the press;…
  2. … impactful amendments have dealt with Freedom of speech, the right to vote, civil rights…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … their constitutional rights to Freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.” 
  2. … exercise thereof; or abridging the Freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of…

Components of Local Government

  1. … speak (Open Meeting Laws and Freedom of speech, First Amendment Encyclopedia). Learn more…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … exercise thereof; or abridging the Freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of…

Freedom of the press

Table of Contents

  1. Freedom of the press
  2. TOPIC 7: Freedom of the press and News/Media Literacy [Standards 8.T7.1-6]

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the press andNews/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the press and News/Media Literacy

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … a bill of rights guaranteeing Freedom of the press and the rights of individuals, to the indirect,…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … cruel and unusual punishment, Freedom of the press and right to petition" and stated that…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … standards and modules about the Freedom of the press and news/media literacy, consider the…
  2. … the press and protected by the Freedom of the press clause of the First Amendment to the Constitution.…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … QUESTION: What is the History of Freedom of the press in the United States?
  2. Standard 7.1: Freedom of the press
  3. 1. INVESTIGATE: Notable Freedom of the press Court Cases
  4. Online Resources for Notable Freedom of the press Court Cases
  5. Landmark Freedom of the press court cases include:
  6. … have faced restrictions on the Freedom of the press throughout United States history. Freedom…
  7. … an opportunity to explore how Freedom of the press can be threatened by political censorship…
  8. Freedom of the press is set forth in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution:  
  9. To learn about the history of Freedom of the press, INVESTIGATE examined notable court cases…
  10. … In extending the protection of Freedom of the press, the Court said, “debate on public issues…
  11. Explain why Freedom of the press was included as a right in the First Amendment to the United…
  12. Freedom of the press is a bedrock principle of our democratic system of government. It establishes…
  13. … asserted the importance of the Freedom of the press in Article 16:  Massachusetts Declaration…

Gender-inclusive language

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. From Gendered language to Gender-inclusive language
  2. … examine the effort to incorporate Gender-inclusive language in state constitutions and laws. In…
  3. … looked at ongoing efforts to add Gender-inclusive language to constitutions and laws. ENGAGE asked…
  4. … have moved toward using such Gender-inclusive language at varying levels, from laws that are drafted…
  5. … individuals and groups who are not men (Gender-inclusive language, The Writing Center, University…

House of Representatives

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … held virtually; in May 2020 the House of Representatives voted to allow remote voting and virtual…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … legislature with a Senate and a House of Representatives. UNCOVER explored the visions of equality…
  2. … of the national legislature: a House of Representatives whose membership was based on population…
  3. … received one-third more seats in the House of Representatives than if only the free population…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … or more representatives in the House of Representatives (depending on the size of its population).…
  2. On April 21, 2021, the U.S. House of Representatives voted along party lines (Democrats in favor;…
  3. … shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … houses of Congress (Senate and House of Representatives) also have checks and balances on each…
  2. On December 18, 2019, the House of Representatives passed two articles of impeachment against Donald…
  3. … Impeachment Managers from the House of Representatives who are presenting the case against the…
  4. … as follows: Any member of the House of Representatives can suggest the body begin an impeachment…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … member of the Senate and the House of Representatives is now active on social media, including…
  2. … INVESTIGATE: The Legislative Branch: House of Representatives and the Senate
  3. … elected by the members of the House of Representatives and is third in line for the presidency. …
  4. … elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Stacie Laughton, a self-identified trans…
  5. House of Representatives
  6. The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each of whom is elected every two years. There…
  7. … still being decided) women in the House of Representatives, besting the previous record of the…
  8. … Legislative Branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate which make up the United…
  9. … for Massively Expanding the US House of Representatives, in One Chart,” VOX, June 4, 2018).
  10. … Docket" Under Review by the U.S. House of Representatives, American Bar Association, April 14,…
  11. … color in Congress, elected to the House of Representatives in 1965. She was followed by Shirley…
  12. … would have fewer seats in the House of Representatives. Newer scholarship contends that the two…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … representatives they have in the House of Representatives (as determined every ten years by the…
  2. … Runoff Voting from the Minnesota House of Representatives Research Department.
  3. … the first since 1801 when the House of Representatives elected Thomas Jefferson president. Moreover,…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … determine the 435 seats in the House of Representatives. The latest Census data shows declines,…
  2. … INVESTIGATE to learn more about the House of Representatives.

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … island's representative to the House of Representatives - known as a Resident Commissioner (although…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … senators and 435 members of the House of Representatives, there are some 7000 state legislatures,…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … time occupied the floor of the House of Representatives - one individual even posed sitting in…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … spent by a candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives in 2016. Republicans and incumbents…
  2. … concluded that members of the U.S. House of Representatives do adjust their votes based on what…
  3. … widely used in elections for the House of Representatives, Senate, and President, and in some…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … Leahy. The VRAA was passed by the House of Representatives in December, 2019.
  2. … end of February, 2021, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Equality Act, a bill designed…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … Network) began broadcasting the House of Representatives in 1979 and the Senate in 1986.

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. … made up of the State Senate and House of Representatives

Impeachment

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … widely used during the 2019/2020 Impeachment inquiry into Donald Trump’s infamous…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. The word "Impeachment" means ‘accusation’ or ‘charge’. The process happens…
  2. … Literacy Connections: Writing an Impeachment Press Release
  3. … Representatives passed two articles of Impeachment against Donald Trump: Article…
  4. … activity, you will write an Impeachment Press Release for one of the Presidential…
  5. … to remove from office through Impeachment. A Prime Minister has not limit on how…
  6. … and legal scholars agree that Impeachment in the United States is a political process,…
  7. Online Resources for Presidential Impeachment
  8. Impeachment proceedings against Donald Trump followed from a complaint by an intelligence…
  9. In theory, Impeachment is intended to serve as a way to remove from office someone…
  10. Impeachment was part of English law long before its inclusion in the United States…
  11. Previously, Impeachment proceedings had been initiated against Andrew Johnson (1868),…
  12. Procedurally, Impeachment is a process where, according to Article II, Section 4 of…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Justice can only be removed by Impeachment from the House and conviction from the…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … concerns. The 2020 election and the Impeachments of Donald Trump show both parties…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … Chief Defense Counsel during the Impeachment of President Andrew Johnson. 

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … Presidential election and the 2019-2020 Impeachment inquiry over the withholding…

Implied powers

Table of Contents

  1. Enumerated and Implied powers

The Necessary and Proper Clause

  1. … more about the enumerated and Implied powers of government in Topic 6.3 of this book.

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … Difference Between Enumerated and Implied powers?
  2. Standard 6.3: Enumerated and Implied powers
  3. … Wage Laws, Young Workers and the Implied powers of Congress
  4. … INVESTIGATE: The Enumerated and Implied powers of the U.S. Constitution
  5. … Resources for Enumerated and Implied powers
  6. … government’s enumerated and Implied powers. The Constitution gives the federal government…
  7. Distinguish among the enumerated and Implied powers in the United States and the Massachusetts…
  8. … summarize how enumerated and Implied powers of the government function. Congress has…
  9. … state governments using their Implied powers to enact change in society. “Minimum…
  10. … outlined what those enumerated and Implied powers are in the federal constitution. UNCOVER…
  11. … differences between enumerated and Implied powers in the United States and Massachusetts…
  12. … what Congress should do with its Implied powers regarding military service. Should the…
  13. … “Elastic Clause”) gives Congress Implied powers; that is powers not named in the…

Indigenous people

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … lives of an enormous number of Indigenous people. Twenty million, 95% of the indigenous…
  2. … explorers and colonists. These Indigenous peoples adapted cultures and lifestyles to the…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … Americans, farmers, workers, Indigenous peoples, and more) have set forth their declarations…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … discussed citizenship histories of Indigenous peoples, Africans who came to America involuntarily…
  2. … marginalized the experiences of Indigenous people as well as those who came to this country…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … fully inclusive histories of Indigenous peoples?

Information disorder

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … QUESTION: What is Fake News and Information disorder and How Can Students Become Critical…
  2. … is part of a wider problem of Information disorder, a condition that results when "bad information…

Instant Runoff Voting

Elections and Nominations

  1. Instant Runoff Voting (IRV)—also called rank-choice voting (RCV)—is a widely discussed idea…
  2. … votes. Here is an Explanation of Instant Runoff Voting from the Minnesota House of Representatives…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. Ranked Choice Voting or Instant Runoff Voting (IRV)
  2. Ranked Choice or Instant Runoff Voting is being adopted by communities around the country as…

Investigative journalists

Freedom of the Press

  1. … learn more about the history of Investigative journalists as whistleblowers.

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. 2. UNCOVER: Investigative journalists and Whistleblowers: Nellie Bly, Ida Tarbell, Ida B. Wells,…
  2. … the International Consortium of Investigative journalists (ICIJ) released its Pandora Papers report,…
  3. Investigative journalists have helped to create social and political change throughout history,…
  4. … nationally, means there are fewer Investigative journalists on the job.
  5. … century and mid-20th century Investigative journalists - Nellie Bly, Ida Tarbel, Upton Sinclair,…
  6. … States has a history of courageous Investigative journalists willing to “speak truth to power”…

January 6

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … (Twitter by the Numbers, Omnicore, January 6, 2021). How would you have helped…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … Presidential election and the January 6, 2021 Insurrection at the Capitol: the…
  2. … (Brennan Center for Justice, January 6, 2021). The U.S. Cybersecurity & Infrastructure…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … Media Framing of the Events of January 6, 2021
  2. 3.1. The January 6, 2021 Insurrection at the Capitol
  3. … organize not only a rally on January 6, 2021, but also the march that led to the…
  4. … You can read the memo here. The January 6 Insurrection and the Eastman memo were…
  5. The public's understanding of January 6 depends in large part on how the media chose…
  6. … of Donald Trump and the failed January 6, 2021 insecurrection, Republican-led state…
  7. … justice. Examples include the January 6, 2021 Insurrection at the nation's Capitol,…
  8. … different media framing of the January 6, 2021 events at the Capitol.
  9. … into the events surrounding the January 6 assault on the Capitol. The Post concluded…
  10. … a Battle of Words to Describe January 6, 2021. Here’s Why It Matters). The following…
  11. … and most recently during the January 6, 2021 attack on the nation's Capitol by…
  12. … were three groups involved on January 6: 1) those who protested lawfully and without…
  13. Shortly after noon on January 6, 2021 following a inciteful speech by President…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … form of protest following the January 6, 2021 Insurrection at the Capitol. In February,…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … type that contributed to the January 6, 2021 Insurrection at the nation's Capitol.

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. Finally, following the violent January 6, 2021 insurrectionist attack on the Capitol,…

Jim Crow

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Obama called the filibuster a “Jim Crow relic.”

Public Service as a Career

  1. … life experiences of Blacks were Jim Crow laws, oppressive policies instituted…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim Crow (2019) (see the New York Times Book…
  2. … that like the Black Codes and Jim Crow laws of the Reconstruction era, will disproportionately…
  3. You can learn more at a Jim Crow Era wiki page on the resourcesforhistoryteachers…

Joe Biden

Introduction for Educators

  1. … 2021 within the context of what Joe Biden in his 2021 presidential inaugural address…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … rival, former Vice President Joe Biden and his son. Latin is also used for mottos,…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. Following the election of Joe Biden in 2020, Republican led states (asserting their…
  2. … energy policies. You can track Joe Biden's environmental actions as President at…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … commentator Alexis Grenell declared Joe Biden should be the last American President,…
  2. … investigation into former Vice-President Joe Biden and his son, Hunter. Impeachment…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … person ever inaugurated President. Joe Biden was 78 when he became the 46th President…
  2. … most of Democratic President Joe Biden’s legislative proposals and, therefore,…
  3. … Justice of the Supreme Court. With Joe Biden's Inauguration in 2021, the oath has…
  4. … Housing & Urban Development). Joe Biden has proposed having the most women ever…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … Presidents from George Washington to Joe Biden, counting Grover Cleveland who was…
  2. … electoral votes; since 1964, only Joe Biden as a Democratic candidate has won the…
  3. … it as a decisive victory for Joe Biden; others see it as a close race narrowly…
  4. … between Donald Trump (Republican), Joe Biden (Democrat), Jo Jorgensen (Libertarian),…
  5. … every Presidential winner except Joe Biden since 1964 has won Florida.
  6. … (2021). In the 2020 election, Joe Biden won 551 counties and 81 million votes;…
  7. It was not close. Joe Biden was elected nation’s 46th President with 81,283,098…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … 1900 (NPR, November 25, 2020). Joe Biden became the first candidate running for…

Election Information

  1. … watched the first debate between Joe Biden and Donald Trump in 2020.

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … preventing Congress from approving Joe Biden as the 46th President and Kamala Harris…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … of the policies that President Joe Biden wanted to have passed during his first…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. … 2021 was nominated by President Joe Biden to serve as the United States Attorney…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … toward Democratic Party nominees Joe Biden and Kamala Harris (The Guardian, September…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … Times report that fake videos of Joe Biden "admitting to voter fraud" had been…

John Quincy Adams

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. 1.1. Joseph Cinque, John Quincy Adams, and the Amistad Case
  2. … Sengbe Pieh (Joseph Cinque), John Quincy Adams and the Amistad Case.
  3. … court by the former President, John Quincy Adams.
  4. … their actions: Joseph Cinque, John Quincy Adams, and the Amistad Case; John Scopes and…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … Secretary of State under President John Quincy Adams. He was a contender for the Presidency…

Judicial

Table of Contents

  1. … Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … the legislative, executive, and Judicial branches of the government.

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … the legislative, executive, and Judicial branches (see the resourcesforhistoryteachers…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … with executive, legislative, and Judicial branches. The Great Law of Peace was…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … the executive, legislative, and Judicial branches. along with hundreds of agencies,…
  2. Article III, Section 1: The Judicial Power of the United States shall be vested…
  3. … the legislative, executive, and Judicial - that have different powers and perform…
  4. … the legislative, executive, and Judicial branches, as set forth in the first three…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. The Judicial branch has the following checks and balances on the other branches:
  2. … "impeachment to be understood as a Judicial matter" or "was impeachment designed…
  3. … executive, the legislative, and the Judicial].”

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. The Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches have specific roles and powers…
  2. The Judicial Branch of the federal government is made up of federal courts and…
  3. 3. INVESTIGATE:  The Federal Judicial Branch, the Supreme Court, and State Courts
  4. … State Courts vs. Federal Courts, Judicial Learning Center, 2019). State courts…
  5. Online Resources for the Judicial Branch
  6. The Federal Judicial Branch
  7. … system consisting of the federal Judicial branch (that includes the Supreme Court)…
  8. … spending bills or lower court Judicial appointments. The filibuster is now a flashpoint…
  9. … the first woman elected to a Judicial in the United States in 1920; Genevieve…
  10. … a Student Challenge from the Judicial Learning Center to decide whether a case…
  11. … Court has achieved a position of Judicial supremacy, meaning the law is whatever…
  12. … LGBTQIA legislators; and c) the Judicial Branch and key Supreme Court decisions…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … nomination/confirmation of individuals in the Judicial and executive branches.…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. … Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review 
  2. Explain the Principle of Judicial Review established in Marbury v. Madison and…
  3. … who established the power of Judicial review for the Supreme Court. UNCOVER reviewed…
  4. … Supreme Court Use the Power of Judicial Review to Interpret the Law?
  5. … established the principle of Judicial Review whereby the Court has the final…
  6. … decision formulated the concept of Judicial review, giving the Judicial branch…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … streaming) should be allowed in Judicial courtrooms, and if so, how Supreme Court…
  2. … individual rights and liberties” (Judicial Learning Center, 2015, para. 2).

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … the executive, legislative, or Judicial branch of a government to take action.

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. Judicial Branch
  2. … government's legislative, executive, and Judicial structure is similar to the…
  3. … state’s legislative, executive and Judicial branches of government. UNCOVER…
  4. The Judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Judicial Court, the Appeals Court,…
  5. … - executive, legislative and Judicial - that check and balance each other.

Freedom of the Press

  1. … Press,” a controversial and preJudicial newspaper intended to expose corruption…

Judicial branch

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … the legislative, executive, and Judicial branches of the government.

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … the legislative, executive, and Judicial branches (see the resourcesforhistoryteachers…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … with executive, legislative, and Judicial branches. The Great Law of Peace was the constitution…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … the executive, legislative, and Judicial branches. along with hundreds of agencies, commissions,…
  2. … the legislative, executive, and Judicial branches, as set forth in the first three articles…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. The Judicial branch has the following checks and balances on the other branches:

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. The Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches have specific roles and powers within…
  2. The Judicial branch of the federal government is made up of federal courts and the Supreme…
  3. 3. INVESTIGATE:  The Federal Judicial branch, the Supreme Court, and State Courts
  4. Online Resources for the Judicial branch
  5. The Federal Judicial branch
  6. … system consisting of the federal Judicial branch (that includes the Supreme Court) and…
  7. … LGBTQIA legislators; and c) the Judicial branch and key Supreme Court decisions should…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. … of judicial review, giving the Judicial branch the final decision on the constitutionality…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … the executive, legislative, or Judicial branch of a government to take action.

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. Judicial branch
  2. … state’s legislative, executive and Judicial branches of government. UNCOVER presented…
  3. The Judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Judicial Court, the Appeals Court, and the…

Kamala Harris

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … of the country for 14 years. Kamala Harris, the successful 2020 Democratic Party Vice-Presidential…
  2. … in addition to Vice President Kamala Harris, the 117th Congress will have the highest…
  3. … been elected President. In 2020, Kamala Harris, a Black, South Asian, and daughter…
  4. … President in 2020 included Senators Kamala Harris, Kirsten Gillibrand, Amy Klobuchar,…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … Congress including then Senator Kamala Harris and Representatives Maxine Waters, Ro…

Election Information

  1. … Vice Presidential debate between Kamala Harris and Mike Pence, then write purposefully…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … Biden as the 46th President and Kamala Harris at the 49th Vice-President.

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … Party nominees Joe Biden and Kamala Harris (The Guardian, September 1, 2020, para.…

Labor Union

Introduction for Educators

  1. … government regulations, opposing Labor Unions, and cutting back social safety networks…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … in laws as well as efforts by Labor Unions to create change in conditions for workers…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … political action committees, and Labor Unions more than individual citizens play…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … Americans, Native Americans, Labor Unions, and other groups.

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions
  2. … Political Action Committees, and Labor Unions Play in American Politics?
  3. … Committees (PACs and SuperPACs), and Labor Unions
  4. Online Resources for Labor Unions
  5. Labor Unions
  6. … issues, and the changing roles of Labor Unions and big businesses in American society.
  7. … Action Committees (PACs), and Labor Unions are constantly engaging in political advocacy…
  8. … of Industrial Organizations (a Labor Union group) to help reelect President Franklin…
  9. African Americans were involved in Labor Unions and labor actions from before the…
  10. … political actions committees, and Labor Unions seek to influence public policy through…
  11. The first U.S. Labor Union is reported to have been the Federal Society of Journeyman…
  12. … consequences of labor strikes. A Labor Unions and Radical Political Parties in the…
  13. … Political Action Committees, and Labor Unions seek to influence public policy. Each…
  14. … relationship between PACs and Labor Unions and the media and consider how these organizations'…
  15. … addition to those activites, Labor Unions engage in direct action for change or strikes.…
  16. A Labor Union is an organization of workers who negotiate with employers to gain better…
  17. … can be formed by corporations, Labor Unions, trade unions, and various groups of…

Landmark case

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. Landmark cases can change fundamentally how society operates. In Gideon v. Wainwright…
  2. … in what have become known as Landmark cases. The 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision,…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … First Amendment Rights: Selected Landmark cases
  2. A Landmark case is a case that has an “lasting effect on the application of a certain…
  3. … Supreme Court decisions known as Landmark cases make huge changes in people's lives,…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … curriculum in schools. In a series of Landmark cases, the United States Supreme Court…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. In a Landmark case, Jacobson v. Massachusetts (1905), the Supreme Court upheld the authority…

Freedom of the Press

  1. In the Landmark case, Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988), the Supreme Court…

Legislative

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … checks and balances among the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … participation, voting rights, and Legislative bodies (the Assembly and the Council…
  2. … participation and voting rights, c) Legislative bodies, d) constitution writing,…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … balances to control the power of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches…

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. … combination of a king checked by a Legislative body, and Rousseau an “extreme”…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … political institutions (colonial Legislative assemblies), and decidedly undemocratic…
  2. … House of Burgesses was the first Legislative assembly in the American colonies. The…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … democracy government with executive, Legislative, and judicial branches. The Great…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … enterprise. There are the executive, Legislative, and judicial branches. along with…
  2. … government has three branches - the Legislative, executive, and judicial - that have…
  3. Article I, Section 1: All Legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress…
  4. … identified the powers of the Legislative, executive, and judicial branches, as set…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … executive orders to bypass lengthy Legislative processes; and using social media…
  2. … people who is independent of the Legislative branch (Congress in the U.S.). Parliamentary…
  3. The Legislative branch has the following checks and balances on the other branches:
  4. … departments [the executive, the Legislative, and the judicial].”

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. The Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches have specific roles and powers within…
  2. 2. INVESTIGATE: The Legislative Branch: House of Representatives and the Senate
  3. … Democratic President Joe Biden’s Legislative proposals and, therefore, it should…
  4. The Legislative Branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate which…
  5. Online Resources for the Legislative Branch
  6. … speaking against a proposed unfair Legislative bill. He speaks and speaks, blocking…
  7. … be elected President; b) the Legislative Branch and the growing number of LGBTQIA…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … the process of elections in the Legislative and executive branches and the process…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … is the practice of redrawing Legislative district lines in order to help one political…
  2. … policy issues. This results in Legislative gridlock, where Congress and even some…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … women candidates in municipal, Legislative and European elections" (French Women…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … public meetings, testify before Legislative bodies, discuss essays on civics and…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … of Supervisors, the city’s Legislative body. 

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … occasionally resulted in sweeping Legislative action, examples of which are explored…

The Structure of Massachusetts State and Local Government

  1. … There are a total of 7,383 state Legislative seats in the country, and the Republican…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … Hampshire, and Michigan (MA Indigenous Legislative Agenda).
  2. … represent people than full-time Legislative bodies. UNCOVER explored the roles and…
  3. … legal right of the executive, Legislative, or judicial branch of a government to…
  4. … Legislatures organizes the 50 state Legislative bodies into five major categories,…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. … law cannot “commandeer the Legislative process of the states by compelling to enact…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. States have acted Legislatively on both sides of the required vaccine or no required…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. Legislative Branch
  2. The Legislative branch is made up of the State Senate and House of Representatives: 
  3. The state government's Legislative, executive, and judicial structure is similar to…
  4. … the structure of the state’s Legislative, executive and judicial branches of government.…
  5. … co-equal branches - executive, Legislative and judicial - that check and balance…

Components of Local Government

  1. … Select Board or a Mayor) and Legislative branch (a town meeting or town/city council),…
  2. … purpose of implementing state Legislative policy concerning public schools and locally…

Legislative branch

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … people who is independent of the Legislative branch (Congress in the U.S.). Parliamentary…
  2. The Legislative branch has the following checks and balances on the other branches:

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. 2. INVESTIGATE: The Legislative branch: House of Representatives and the Senate
  2. The Legislative branch consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate which make…
  3. Online Resources for the Legislative branch
  4. … be elected President; b) the Legislative branch and the growing number of LGBTQIA legislators;…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. Legislative branch
  2. The Legislative branch is made up of the State Senate and House of Representatives: 

Components of Local Government

  1. … Select Board or a Mayor) and Legislative branch (a town meeting or town/city council), depending…

Liberal

Introduction for Educators

  1. … Deal by the Democratic Party and Liberal/progressive individuals and groups.…

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … Philippines, Turkey and more), Liberal democracy is being replaced by electoral…
  2. … types of democracy (electoral, Liberal, participatory, deliberative, and egalitarian)…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … rights while progressive and Liberal groups and Democrats tend to expand individual…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … the 2000 election (upsetting Liberal and progressive groups), legalized same-sex…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … divisive; and "conservative and Liberal have become almost perfect synonyms for…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … to free markets and classical Liberalism, drawing on Adam Smith's philosophy…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … decision (from progressive and Liberal groups) to repealing the 16th Amendment’s…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … election, having created a fake Liberal-leaning news publication and staffing…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … (62%) is about Democrats and Liberals (Legum, 2019, para. 5).

Local school boards

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. Having student representatives on Local school boards or other educational decision-making…
  2. Allowing students to vote on Local school boards is complicated, and in some places, a contentious…

Components of Local Government

  1. … conservative-minded individuals to run for Local school boards to then implement anti-critical…
  2. Local school boards are one of the most important components of local government and a tremendously…

Massachusetts Constitution

Table of Contents

  1. United States and Massachusetts Constitutions
  2. Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

The Structure of Massachusetts State and Local Government

  1. … to Massachusetts (such as the Massachusetts Constitution and the leadership structure of the state's…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. Standard 6.2: United States and Massachusetts Constitutions
  2. … United States Constitution and the Massachusetts Constitution that define and distribute powers…
  3. … the United States (1788) and Massachusetts Constitutions (1780), two of the oldest governing documents…
  4. … African to be freed under the Massachusetts Constitution that included the phrase “all men are…
  5. … State Constitution. Learn more: Massachusetts Constitution and the Abolition of Slavery.

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … in the United States and the Massachusetts Constitution. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for…
  2. The United States and Massachusetts Constitutions have both enumerated (directly stated) and implied…
  3. … powers in the United States and Massachusetts Constitutions.

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … Amendment, and Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution
  2. Massachusetts Constitution, Article I
  3. Online Resources for the Massachusetts Constitution
  4. … Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts Constitution. (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework…
  5. Article I of Part the First of the Massachusetts Constitution is hereby annulled and the following…
  6. … Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts Constitution. UNCOVER examined the history of marriage…
  7. … Amendment, and Article 1 of the Massachusetts Constitution. Each of these documents serve as foundations…
  8. The Massachusetts Constitution, including Article I, was drafted by John Adams, the second President…
  9. Modified Text of Massachusetts Constitution Article I
  10. Original Text of Massachusetts Constitution Article I
  11. Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution focuses on the rights of people (see Table 6.4).

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … INVESTIGATE: Comparing the Federal and Massachusetts Constitutions
  2. … Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution
  3. … Massachusetts, guided by the Massachusetts Constitution, continues to expand liberties and protections…
  4. … Things Worth Knowing about the Massachusetts Constitution" discusses key differences between the…
  5. … of men" (see John Adams & the Massachusetts Constitution by Mass.gov).
  6. According to many historians, the Massachusetts Constitution is the more expansive and democratic…
  7. … other differences as well. The Massachusetts Constitution has been amended 120 times; the federal…
  8. … additional protections provided by the Massachusetts Constitution that are not provided by the U.S.…
  9. … elections is a proposed change to the Massachusetts Constitution called the Fair Share Amendment.…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … Constitution and in Article 16 of the Massachusetts Constitution; explain that freedom of the press…

Minimum wage

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … Adopt a Living Wage Rather Than a Minimum wage?
  2. 2. UNCOVER: Federal Minimum wage Laws, Young Workers and the Implied Powers of Congress
  3. … Standards Act of 1938, setting the Minimum wage at $0.25 an hour ($1.00 in 1938 is…
  4. … demonstrates the gap that exists between Minimum wage and a living wage. In 2019,…
  5. In 2019, the federal Minimum wage was set at $7.25 per hour. That same year, 29 states…
  6. Minimum wage laws are an example of both Congress and state governments using their…
  7. … UNCOVER looked at the history of Minimum wage laws as an example of the implied powers…
  8. Express Your Ideas about the Minimum wage
  9. … there was no such thing as a Minimum wage or a Minimum wage law.
  10. Massachusetts passed the nation’s first Minimum wage law in 1912, followed by Oregon…
  11. … cannot live adequately earning a Minimum wage.

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … declarations, all gender restrooms, Minimum wage laws, fracking policies, ride-hailing…

Misinformation

Election Information

  1. … must be able to separate harmful Misinformation that is propaganda from fairly presented…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … Facebook to protest hate speech and Misinformation on the site.

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … involvement in the spread of Misinformation online. Given journalism's potential to…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … Digital News, and the Spread of Misinformation
  2. … uncovered the alarming reality that Misinformation spreads faster and goes further than…
  3. … information and what is fake and false Misinformation.
  4. … Fatah’s post in this article: How Misinformation Spreads on Social Media—And What…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … inflamatory language and outright Misinformation to attract millions of listeners. Conservative…
  2. … where they encounter not just Misinformation, but advertising. Business organizations…
  3. … instant news and widely shared Misinformation has become one of the dominant development…
  4. … profitable for politicians who use Misinformation to entice people to donate money to…
  5. … 65% of shares of anti-vaccine Misinformation on social media came from just 12 people…
  6. … leave one open to distortion, Misinformation, and uninformed decision-making based on…
  7. … media companies in dealing with Misinformation in the Engage module for Topic 7/Standard…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … about the deliberate posting of Misinformation and outright lies on social media by…
  2. … violation of their dangerous COVID-19 Misinformation policies (NPR, August 5, 2020).…
  3. … 2019). They can be used to spread Misinformation and influence voters. Researchers and…
  4. Misinformation and lies have been an ongoing feature of Trump's online statements as…
  5. Misinformation about Politics and Public Health
  6. … extremist viewpoints and harmful Misinformation).
  7. … held the spread health-related Misinformation on Facebook was a major threat to users…

Mixed gender

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. … national education system with Mixed gender schools; such education would give women…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. Online Resources for Mixed gender Sports and Games
  2. … contends that co-educational Mixed gender sport competition should be encouraged in…
  3. Mixed gender Sports

Monarchy

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … (Arnush, 2005). There was also Monarchy (rule by one individual who inherited…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … Republic was neither strictly a Monarchy (rule by one) or a direct democracy…

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. … Rights of Man (1790), she opposed Monarchy and aristocracy.  In 1792, she published…
  2. … inspired by Britain's Constitutional Monarchy, England during the time period…
  3. … supported England's constitutional Monarchy and promoted democratic governments…
  4. … Revolution and Constitutional Monarchy, Montesquieu believed that in an ideal…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … nobles challenging an all-powerful Monarchy, beginning with the Magna Carta and…
  2. Monarchy is a system of government where a single leader inherits political power…
  3. But Monarchy is not democracy and rule by one person does not make possible either…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … government that would act like a Monarchy with little protection for civil liberties.…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … and sugar planters (Hawaiian Monarchy Overthrown by America-Backed Businessmen).…

National Popular Vote

Elections and Nominations

  1. National Popular Vote Interstate Compact and Proportional Allocation of Electoral Votes
  2. … the Electoral College with a National Popular Vote for President. Historically speaking, efforts…

Election Information

  1. … Trump, yet although she won the National Popular Vote, she did not receive enough electoral…

Necessary and proper clause

Table of Contents

  1. The Necessary and proper clause

The Necessary and Proper Clause

  1. Online Resources for the Necessary and proper clause
  2. … QUESTION: What is the Role of the Necessary and proper clause?
  3. Standard 5.1: The Necessary and proper clause
  4. History of the Necessary and proper clause
  5. Reviewing the origins of the Necessary and proper clause, Doug Linder of the University of Missouri-Kansas…
  6. The Necessary and proper clause (also known as the Elastic Clause) is one of the most far-reaching…
  7. … provision in the Constitution" (The Necessary and proper clause).
  8. … text and commentary about the Necessary and proper clause from National Constitution Center's Interactive…
  9. Uses of the Necessary and proper clause during the 20th Century are listed on its Wikipedia page,…
  10. … inherent tension between the Necessary and proper clause and the 10th Amendment. While the necessary…
  11. Explain the Necessary and proper clause and why it is often referred to as the “elastic clause.”…
  12. … said Congress could not use the Necessary and proper clause to justify the individual mandate feature…

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … use of the other 17 powers. The Necessary and proper clause (sometimes called the “Elastic Clause”)…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. … especially given the Constitution's Necessary and proper clause that states Congress can make the…

Nellie Bly

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … Journalists and Whistleblowers: Nellie Bly, Ida Tarbell, Ida B. Wells, Upton Sinclair,…
  2. … century investigative journalists - Nellie Bly, Ida Tarbel, Upton Sinclair, and…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … female war correspondent was Nellie Bly who covered World War I from the front lines…

News

Introduction for Educators

  1. … conservative media outlets like Fox News. Individualism favors cutting taxes,…

Table of Contents

  1. Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions
  2. Digital News and Social Media
  3. TOPIC 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy [Standards 8.T7.1-6]

Updates & Latest Additions

  1. … reflect current events, breaking News, and relevant posts. Discover the latest…

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press andNews/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy
  2. … on how to make sense of fake News:
  3. … social media & fighting fake News:
  4. … Concepts/Engaging Media Literacy: News and Information Evaluation
  5. Scholarly work with News analysis component:

Teacher-Designed Learning Plans

  1. Is It Real or Fake News?

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … words appear regularly in the News. Quid pro quo, meaning an exchange of…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … writer, authoring a six-days-a-week Newspaper column titled My Day that ran…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … National History Day and U.S. News & World Report magazine, conducted a People’s…
  2. … could read. The printing press, Newspapers, and growing literacy among people…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … county in the nation (The Morning Newsletter: A Changing Country, New York…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … closed captions, go to the CBS News page). 

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … Connections: Immigration in the News
  2. Focusing on News and current events, this activity asks you to compare and…
  3. … Issue? from the St. Mary's College Newsletter to get a sense of the wide…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … greatly. Some women are in the News all the time; others are hardly ever mentioned.…
  2. … been able to distinguish fake News about COVID-19 from the truthful and reliable…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … practices, read the following News story: After Stunning Democratic Win,…

Election Information

  1. … activities, you will examine how News outlets covered the 2020 Vice Presidential…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … 2021, para. 5). According to Newsela, activism happens "when people fight…
  2. … March of the Mill Children, the Newsboys Strike, the Little Rock Nine, the…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … Rights Mixtape from the Student News Network for an historical overview of…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … videos, the pictures that accompany News bulletins, the choice of who to interview…
  2. … shown live on television cable News networks and streamed on social media.…
  3. … evidenced by this report from PBS Newshour (There’s a Battle of Words to…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … photograph from The Plain Dealer Newspaper
  2. … Difference, a video from CBS News, introduces political protest and how it…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, April 10, 1886/Public Domain
  2. … giving over the past decade (ABCNews, April 20, 2021). Las Vegas casino mogul…
  3. … organizations relied mainly on Newspapers, direct mail, and television advertising…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … the media of the day (radio, Newspapers, music) to influence public policy.…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … Literacy Connections: Civil War News Stories and Recruitment Advertisements
  2. … civil rights through the lens of Newspapers and advertisements:

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … Of, National Education Policy Newsletter, July 9, 2020).
  2. … the soccer tournament (Yahoo! News, August 5, 2021).

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … age can be employed to "deliver Newspapers; perform in radio, television,…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … difference do you think it makes if News reporters say "policemen" or "law…
  2. An article from WGBH News, "4 Things Worth Knowing about the Massachusetts…
  3. … Transgender and Queer History. Newsela, a web resource used by 25 million…
  4. … Springfield (Massachusetts) Republican Newspaper in 1901, but it was not till…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … people of the press to report the News about what happens in our neighborhood,…
  2. … identified four alarming trends is how News is presented to readers and viewers…
  3. … of the press in reporting the News in 21st century America's digital age.…
  4. … fact-based media that report the News fully, objectively and ethically in…
  5. … Times and the Washington Post Newspapers, national television networks like…
  6. … organizations) that bring us the News. It is known as the Fourth Estate or…
  7. … the freedom of the press and News/media literacy, consider the following question:…
  8. The News is everything of importance that happens when we are not physically…
  9. … century, journalists and the Newspaper industry have been known as the press.
  10. … means forms of publication from Newspapers to blogs.
  11. … online information. They get News and political information from Google, Facebook,…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … forbidding censorship of school Newspapers unless the censored material would…
  2. … students, ruling that a school Newspaper was not a “forum for public expression.”…
  3. … for the New York Weekly Journal Newspaper. The paper had been highly critical…
  4. … they encounter in all forms of News media.
  5. … efforts to expose and oppose News censorship from Project Censored: The News
  6. … Times and The Washington Post Newspapers from publishing classified Defense…
  7. … the school-sponsored student Newspaper. The articles dealt with divorce and…
  8. … Snapchat and many independent News sites (The Great Firewall of China).
  9. … suppress what people could read in Newspapers and other publication formats.…
  10. … publication of statements in Newspapers, even false ones, about the conduct…
  11. … government. It establishes that News reporters and News organizations must…
  12. … controversial and prejudicial Newspaper intended to expose corruption in government.…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: History of Newspapers, Then and Now
  2. … Connections: Objectivity and the News from All Sides
  3. Changing Outlets for the News
  4. Online Resources about Newspapers
  5. While online and television News expands, a Brookings Institution researcher…
  6. … Today's Front Pages from 500+ Newspapers worldwide.
  7. … recent history of four major News outlets (BuzzFeed, Vice, The Washington…
  8. … acts and records) as the first Newspaper. Carved on stone or metal and posted…
  9. … question: How is the decline of print Newspapers and the rise of digital media…
  10. … complexity are the ways that TV News outlets cover political News. Analyzing…
  11. Create a Graphic History of The Newsboys Strike of 1899
  12. News Deserts
  13. … the site AllSides to see how News is presented differently depending on the…
  14. Today, print Newspapers are being replaced by many different kinds of television…
  15. … constantly evaluating all the News and information they receive from multiple…
  16. Construct a News Timeline
  17. Sources of Political News
  18. … their actions. The decline of Newspapers, locally and nationally, means there…
  19. … INVESTIGATE summarized the history of Newspapers, the current decline of print…
  20. … will practice evaluating the News from different sides; that is, from different…
  21. … Corporation report Truth Decay, the News we read and view is a combination…
  22. Print Newspapers, television News shows, online News sites, and social media…
  23. Broadcast News outlets have become the main source of political and education…
  24. More than a century ago, the Newspaper was how people in the United States…
  25. … and 2016, more than 500 daily Newspapers went out of business, and the downsizing…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. Standard 7.3: Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions
  2. 1. INVESTIGATE: News Articles, Editorials, Editorial cartoons, Op-Ed Commentaries,…
  3. … Functions of Different Types of Newspaper Writing?
  4. Online Resources for Newspapers
  5. Media Literacy Connections: News Photographs & Newspaper Design
  6. News Photographs
  7. News Articles and the Inverted Pyramid
  8. News articles follow an Inverted Pyramid format. The lead, or main points of…
  9. … reporter and create or remix the News
  10. … conference is a meeting where News reporters get to ask public figures and…
  11. … about these different forms of News writing, they can compose their own stories…
  12. Explain the different functions of News articles, editorials, editorial cartoons,…
  13. … changed how people receive the News from Newspapers. The 1930s to the 1970s…
  14. Newspapers include multiple forms of writing, including News articles, editorials,…
  15. … war correspondent for a major Newspaper at the time of the Civil War, Thomas…
  16. Photographs in print Newspapers and online News sites convey powerful messages…
  17. … to act as a critical viewer of Newspaper photographs and as a member of a…
  18. Photographs are a fundamental part of Newspapers today. We would be taken back…
  19. Reporters of the News are obligated to maintain journalistic integrity at…
  20. … to answer questions from the News media. Corporate executives, sports figures…
  21. … Project). Donald Trump changed the News conference format dramatically, often…
  22. INVESTIGATE looked at News articles, editorials, political cartoons, Op-Ed…
  23. … and still being drawn today in Newspapers and online, Doonesbury by Gary Trudeau…
  24. … are written by the editors of a Newspaper or media outlet to express the opinion…
  25. … specialized sports magazines. As Newspapers expanded in the 19th century,…
  26. … photograph published in a US Newspaper was on March 4, 1880. Prior to then,…
  27. … emerged as a central part of print Newspapers and magazines (the famous magazine…
  28. … the local Trinidad, Colorado Newspaper before moving on to the Denver Post…
  29. … than 60 years in hundreds of Newspapers nationwide. Throughout its history,…
  30. The meaning of a News photograph depends on multiple levels of context as well…
  31. … efforts to objectively present the News and at the same time become ways to…
  32. Print and television News reporters make multiple decisions about how they…
  33. … opposite, the editorial page of Newspapers and other News publications. They…
  34. Check out Reading and Writing the News in our Bookcase for Young Writers for…
  35. … Iran Hostage Crisis in 1979, ABC News vaulted to the top of the TV News show…
  36. … read the sports pages of the Newspaper first because “the sport section…
  37. … and most dangerous roles in the News media. They travel to war zones, often…
  38. … angle and perspective? Why did a Newspaper editor choose to publish one image…
  39. News articles report what is happening as clearly and objectively as possible,…
  40. … strips that ran in Black-owned Newspapers across the country in the 1940s…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. Standard 7.4 Digital News and Social Media
  2. … What are the Roles of Digital News and Social Media in a Democratic Society?
  3. … INVESTIGATE: Social Media, Digital News, and the Spread of Misinformation
  4. Media Literacy Connections: Fake News Investigation and Evaluation
  5. … Resources for Social Media and News Diets
  6. Young People and the News
  7. Fake and False News
  8. In News and America’s Kids: How Young People Perceive and Are Impacted by…
  9. … created a fake liberal-leaning News publication and staffing it with fake…
  10. … important. One way to identify fake News stories from 2016 written by Russian…
  11. … challenges to social media and digital News. INVESTIGATE had students and…
  12. … now the most common source of News for young people ages 13–18 (Robb, 2017).…
  13. … political dimensions of digital News and social media.
  14. … more, check out How Facebook's News Feed can be Fooled into Spreading Misinformation,…
  15. … fooled by false and fake online News. Stanford University researchers found…
  16. … million people watched the evening News broadcasts of ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox…
  17. … be their own fact checker and News analyst - determining for themselves what…
  18. … the modern computer revolution, Newspapers, magazines, movies, radio and television…
  19. When getting News from online sources, not everyone is sure just what type…
  20. Where people go to get the News is changing rapidly in today's digital age.…
  21. People get News today from sources ranging from social media (e.g., Twitter,…
  22. … to help you act as a critical News evaluator.
  23. … benefits and challenges of digital News and social media to a democratic society.…
  24. … are not always aware of how the News is being delivered to them. Social media…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. FOCUS QUESTION: What is Fake News and Information Disorder and How Can Students…
  2. … to Evaluate the Credibility of News?
  3. … INVESTIGATE: Defining “Fake News” and Finding Reliable Information
  4. Online Resources for Fake News & Fact Checking
  5. … for Detecting Fake and False News
  6. Sources of Fake News
  7. People’s willingness to believe fake News is encouraged by what historian…
  8. Is It Real or Is It Fake News?
  9. Fake and false News is part of a wider problem of Information Disorder, a condition…
  10. … the expansion of fake and false News in the media. The fairness doctrine was…
  11. … say they actively seek out the News several times a day. They report watching,…
  12. … social media platforms, fake News is good business. Attracted by the controversies…
  13. … statements are proven wrong. News and social media organizations now devote…
  14. … standard’s INVESTIGATE examined fake News - information that creators KNOWS…
  15. … expanding problem of fake and false News, defined as “information that is…
  16. … famous historical example of fake News was the role of Yellow Journalism at…
  17. … an abundance of fake and false News? One answer is that creating fake News
  18. … from fact-based journalists and News organizations. To gain an overview of…
  19. … evaluate the reliability of a News story you read online
  20. Promoting fake News can be highly profitable for politicians who use misinformation…
  21. A small number of fake News creators can have an enormous impact on public…
  22. Fake News comes from many sources. Political groups seek to gain votes and…
  23. … more about the history of fake News:
  24. … whom in today's multifaceted News and information landscape.
  25. … commentary and analysis about the News (Americans and the News Media: What…
  26. While there is much fake News online, it is shared by a very small number of…
  27. … dominant types of fake and false News:
  28. … assume most people are not active News consumers. They believe that a large…
  29. What type of News consumer are you?
  30. Whatever type of News consumer you are, making sense of online and print information…
  31. … yellow journalism headlines and News stories, the United States declared war…
  32. … different type of sources (e.g., News, images, videos, podcasts):
  33. Fake News distributed on social media feeds conspiracy theories while promoting…
  34. … information and distributing fake News has long been part of American politics.  

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … they a media company, like a Newspaper or magazine, that has a responsibility…
  2. … place of Op-Ed commentaries in Newspapers and other media outlets in a digital…
  3. … political commentary from actual News when viewing a webpage or a print publication.…
  4. … that the fundamental purpose of Newspapers and their editorial pages is "not…
  5. … conservative, pro-Donald Trump News publisher, The Epoch Times.
  6. … of the larger problem of fake News on social media platforms like Facebook.…
  7. … as well as James Bennett urge Newspapers to not only publish wide viewpoints,…

Newspaper

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … writer, authoring a six-days-a-week Newspaper column titled My Day that ran from…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … could read. The printing press, Newspapers, and growing literacy among people meant…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … findings to a school or local Newspaper

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … photograph from The Plain Dealer Newspaper

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … from Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, April 10, 1886/Public Domain
  2. … organizations relied mainly on Newspapers, direct mail, and television advertising…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … the media of the day (radio, Newspapers, music) to influence public policy. But…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … civil rights through the lens of Newspapers and advertisements:

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … age can be employed to "deliver Newspapers; perform in radio, television, movie,…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … Springfield (Massachusetts) Republican Newspaper in 1901, but it was not till the…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … Times and the Washington Post Newspapers, national television networks like NBC,…
  2. … century, journalists and the Newspaper industry have been known as the press.
  3. … means forms of publication from Newspapers to blogs.
  4. … Americans who grew up reading Newspapers and magazines, watching television, listening…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … forbidding censorship of school Newspapers unless the censored material would disrupt…
  2. … students, ruling that a school Newspaper was not a “forum for public expression.”…
  3. … for the New York Weekly Journal Newspaper. The paper had been highly critical of…
  4. … Times and The Washington Post Newspapers from publishing classified Defense Department…
  5. … the school-sponsored student Newspaper. The articles dealt with divorce and teen…
  6. … suppress what people could read in Newspapers and other publication formats. ENGAGE…
  7. … publication of statements in Newspapers, even false ones, about the conduct of…
  8. … controversial and prejudicial Newspaper intended to expose corruption in government.…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: History of Newspapers, Then and Now
  2. Online Resources about Newspapers
  3. … deserts”—counties with only one or no local Newspapers (visit Local Journalism…
  4. … Today's Front Pages from 500+ Newspapers worldwide.
  5. … Abramson (2019) detailed how print Newspapers, the "guardians of truth" of times…
  6. … acts and records) as the first Newspaper. Carved on stone or metal and posted in…
  7. … question: How is the decline of print Newspapers and the rise of digital media…
  8. Today, print Newspapers are being replaced by many different kinds of television…
  9. … everyday people cannot function like Newspaper reporters whose full-time job is…
  10. … their actions. The decline of Newspapers, locally and nationally, means there are…
  11. … INVESTIGATE summarized the history of Newspapers, the current decline of print…
  12. Print Newspapers, television news shows, online news sites, and social media platforms…
  13. More than a century ago, the Newspaper was how people in the United States learned…
  14. … and 2016, more than 500 daily Newspapers went out of business, and the downsizing…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … Functions of Different Types of Newspaper Writing?
  2. Online Resources for Newspapers
  3. … Connections: News Photographs & Newspaper Design
  4. … people receive the news from Newspapers. The 1930s to the 1970s have been called…
  5. Newspapers include multiple forms of writing, including news articles, editorials,…
  6. … war correspondent for a major Newspaper at the time of the Civil War, Thomas Morris…
  7. Photographs in print Newspapers and online news sites convey powerful messages to…
  8. … to act as a critical viewer of Newspaper photographs and as a member of a Newspaper
  9. Photographs are a fundamental part of Newspapers today. We would be taken back and…
  10. … and still being drawn today in Newspapers and online, Doonesbury by Gary Trudeau…
  11. … are written by the editors of a Newspaper or media outlet to express the opinion…
  12. … specialized sports magazines. As Newspapers expanded in the 19th century, the so-called…
  13. … photograph published in a US Newspaper was on March 4, 1880. Prior to then, sketch…
  14. … emerged as a central part of print Newspapers and magazines (the famous magazine…
  15. … the local Trinidad, Colorado Newspaper before moving on to the Denver Post where…
  16. … than 60 years in hundreds of Newspapers nationwide. Throughout its history, the…
  17. … opposite, the editorial page of Newspapers and other news publications. They are…
  18. … for material on the history of Newspapers, picture books about Newspapers, and…
  19. … read the sports pages of the Newspaper first because “the sport section records…
  20. … angle and perspective? Why did a Newspaper editor choose to publish one image and…
  21. … strips that ran in Black-owned Newspapers across the country in the 1940s and 1950s,…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … the modern computer revolution, Newspapers, magazines, movies, radio and television…
  2. … in today's digital age. Print Newspaper readership is declining rapidly, being…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … American Revolution, efforts to sell Newspapers during The Great Moon Hoax of 1835,…
  2. … William Randolph Hearst, American Newspapers expressed outrage about the tragedy,…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … they a media company, like a Newspaper or magazine, that has a responsibility to…
  2. … place of Op-Ed commentaries in Newspapers and other media outlets in a digital…
  3. … that the fundamental purpose of Newspapers and their editorial pages is "not to…
  4. … as well as James Bennett urge Newspapers to not only publish wide viewpoints, but…

Non-binary

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … also refer to themselves as “Non-binary” or “gender non-conforming.”

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. 2. UNCOVER: Gender-Inclusive, Non-binary, and Anti-Racist Language and Images in…
  2. … everyday users to find inclusive, Non-binary terms in order to eliminate bias not…

Non-Citizen

Table of Contents

  1. … Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … United States, both citizens and Non-Citizens have rights and responsibilities in…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens
  2. 1.INVESTIGATE: The Rights of Citizens and Non-Citizens
  3. … of United States Citizens and Non-Citizens?
  4. … for the Rights of Citizens and Non-Citizens
  5. … responsibilities of citizens as compared to Non-Citizens. (Massachusetts Curriculum…
  6. … United States are citizens; 7% are Non-Citizens (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2020).…
  7. … are the rights of citizens and Non-Citizens? The modules for this standard explore…
  8. … Constitution apply to citizens and Non-Citizens alike.
  9. … member of a democratic society. Non-Citizens have rights too, although they differ…
  10. Non-Citizens, no matter what their immigration status, generally have the same rights…
  11. Non-Citizens also have rights and responsibilities as members of American society,…

Pandemic

Introduction for Educators

  1. … era," including the COVID-19 Pandemic, accelerating climate change, widespread…
  2. … governments to respond to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. … modern times. The coronavirus Pandemic, partisan divides between people and political…

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. The coronavirus Pandemic has caused massive unemployment throughout the country.…

Teacher-Designed Learning Plans

  1. Power and the Pandemic

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … including the impacts of the COVID Pandemic, the report assessed the state of…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … Government - Before and After the Pandemic
  2. … Digital Government and the COVID-19 Pandemic
  3. … during the spring 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic. The unit covers one week of instructional…
  4. … changes produced by the 2020 Pandemic
  5. What will the post-Pandemic governments of the future look like? Everyone from…
  6. … Website"May 2020 during COVID-19 PandemicPublic Domain 
  7. … realities created by the COVID-19 Pandemic, 2) the impact of the Olympic marathon…
  8. … virtual in 2020 during the COVID Pandemic.
  9. The COVID-19 Pandemic has increased efforts by governments to function digitally…
  10. … in-person schooling during the Pandemic. The parents claimed student member voting…
  11. Before the Pandemic, the northern European country of Estonia claimed to have the…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … during the spring 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic. The plans offer one week of remote instructional…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … Autonomy, July 25, 2021). The Pandemic has demonstrated the country's reliance…
  2. In 2020, the COVID-19 Pandemic again pitted states against the federal government…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … voting resulting from the COVID-19 Pandemic
  2. … immigration policies, COVID-19 Pandemic regulations, federal executions policies,…
  3. … suppresses information about a Pandemic, lives will be lost due to misinformed…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … election because of the coronavirus Pandemic. Yet, only the states and the Congress…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … change; and wear masks to curb the Pandemic. But, as two political scientists…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … Trump used the global COVID-19 Pandemic as an reason to block migrants and asylum…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … Payments to People During the Pandemic
  2. … civic interests in a time of a Pandemic, a process that has many political dimensions.
  3. … government's responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic impacted people's personal lives…
  4. … the 2020 COVID-19 (coronavirus) Pandemic revealed the interconnections and tensions…
  5. … immediacy in a time of a global Pandemic and heightened international tensions.…
  6. … dislocations caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic has pushed the direct government…
  7. … aid to those impacted by the Pandemic, the most recent coming from the $1.9 trillion…
  8. … into Question During COVID-19 Pandemic). Although the right to privacy is not…
  9. … Power of the States to Control a Pandemic, Explained). The ruling precedent, set…
  10. … during the “Spanish Flu” Pandemic of 1918-1919 (Legal Authorities for Isolation…
  11. The COVID-19 Pandemic blended civic, political, and private lives in unique ways.…
  12. … emergency such as the 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic. Other modules examine women's political…
  13. … and duration of the COVID-19 Pandemic. This has led to very different responses…
  14. … national government used the Pandemic to order draconian restrictions on people's…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … during the spring 2020 COVID-19 Pandemic when schools went to all remote learning.…
  2. The COVID-19 Pandemic renewed calls for the United States to expand vote by mail…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … practices during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Public Service as a Career

  1. … nation's response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. In late August, 2020, the Trump Administration's…
  2. … applications due to the COVID-19 Pandemic has created a significant number of…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … and corridors (Education in a Pandemic, U.S. Department of Education, Office of…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … day before the attack despite Pandemic restrictions on public access to the building.…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … that was before the COVID-19 Pandemic created widespread unemployment throughout…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. During the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 2020), for the first time in history, the Supreme…

The Structure of Massachusetts State and Local Government

  1. … Presidency, and the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … Plan: Government Power and the Pandemic
  2. … summer 2020, as the coronavirus Pandemic raged in the United States, serious disagreements…
  3. … 6.1.2  Government Power and the Pandemic Matrix
  4. Government Power and the Pandemic is a learning plan developed by Amy Cyr, a middle…
  5. … government responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic are two revealing historical examples…
  6. … over responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic, health care (the Affordable Care Act…
  7. … have - the power to act in a Pandemic. Read each scenario, record your initial…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. Media Literacy Connections: Pandemic Policy Information in the Media
  2. … INVESTIGATE: State Government Pandemic Policies
  3. Throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic, states have used their 10th Amendment powers…
  4. At different times as the Pandemic has evolved, state coronavirus-related restrictions…
  5. … policies during the COVID-19 Pandemic? Does your state government use the media…
  6. … to communicate their COVID-19 Pandemic policies. 

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … Messengers, the Media and the Pandemic
  2. Online Resources on the History of Pandemics and Vaccines
  3. … and Local Governments and the Pandemic
  4. … Whitmer for her responses to the Pandemic in that state.
  5. The COVID Pandemic has been marked by sharp disagreements between state and local…
  6. … During the 1918-1919 influenza Pandemic, there were mask-wearing ordinances, particularly…
  7. … trusted messengers about the Pandemic?
  8. The COVID-19 Pandemic has generated intense political debates over whether state,…

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. … 2020, as the nation loosened Pandemic-related restrictions, the French Government…

Components of Local Government

  1. … local government, the COVID-19 Pandemic has also forced many communities to create…
  2. In fact, the Pandemic only heightened the already-present complexities of town…
  3. … activities. During the COVID-19 Pandemic, school boards around the nation have…
  4. … were upended by the COVID-19 Pandemic. Throughout the spring of 2020, communities…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … English language articles about the Pandemic, researchers at Cornell University…

Persuasion

Election Information

  1. Online Resources for Persuasion, Propaganda and Political Language
  2. 1. INVESTIGATE: Persuasion, Propaganda, and Political Language in Elections
  3. … a powerful tool for political Persuasion and propaganda. Looking at the first two…
  4. The goal of propaganda is Persuasion, and to fully understand the impacts of propaganda…
  5. … issues. INVESTIGATE examined how Persuasion, propaganda, and political language…
  6. … question by examining the impact of Persuasion, propaganda, and political language…
  7. Understanding how Persuasion, propaganda, and political language are used in elections…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … book has more about the uses of Persuasion, propaganda, and language in political…

Political party

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … well as individual politicians, Political party organizations, and political interest…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … ENGAGE: Should Voters Join a Political party?
  2. Online Resources for Political party Membership 
  3. Young People and Political party Membership
  4. What about young people and Political party membership? The Center for Information & Research…
  5. … district lines in order to help one Political party win elections and maintain political…
  6. … overview of the party system. This Political party Timeline Prezi features a historical…
  7. … Americans who are not members of a Political party. Importantly, registered voters can…
  8. … whether every voter should join a Political party?
  9. A voter’s Political party choices are different in other states. In California, for…
  10. … examining the evolution of the Political party system, the roles of third parties and…
  11. A recognized Political party is an organization that has followed a state's rules for…
  12. In politics today, a new Political party needs to utilize social media to communicate…
  13. … choice whether or not to join a Political party.  
  14. Mention the term Political party and many people think of today’s two major parties…
  15. Members of a Political party work together to win elections and influence the making of…
  16. … sense for every voter to join a Political party? Party membership enables one to vote…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … their Democrat peers, suggesting Political party affiliation was a stronger influence…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … are young, do not belong to a Political party, and are predominantly Asian American or…
  2. … an advantage to either major Political party nor does it increase chances for election…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … campaigns as well as for their Political party -- increasingly turn to out-of-district…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … America: How an Industry Took Over a Political party That Took Over the United States…

Political polarization

The Role of Political Parties

  1. Political Parties and Political polarization
  2. In Political polarization, members of political partiers move away from each other toward ideological…
  3. … offer voters can serve to deepen Political polarization. Most Americans tend to agree on society's…
  4. … of some researchers, increased Political polarization is directly connected to growing economic…
  5. … parties and their members known as Political polarization.

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … bias in coverage contributes to Political polarization, dislike of opposing viewpoints, and…

Polls

Elections and Nominations

  1. … Political Impacts of Public Opinion Polls
  2. … Trump, trailing badly in the Polls, suggested delaying the November presidential…
  3. … and reporting public opinion Polls and then you will explore what happens when…
  4. Public Opinion Polls have become an prominent feature of American democracy.…
  5. … important to understand what Polls can and cannot tell us about what people…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … vote when they arrive at the Polls on election day. In states without SDR,…
  2. But the FiveThirtyEight Pollsters also found other reasons for not voting besides…
  3. … long lines and delays at the Polls. State laws governing early voting vary…

Election Information

  1. … voters subsequently respond at the Polls. In one study, based on the 2004 debate…

Popular vote

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Senators were elected not by Popular vote, but by state legislatures (United States…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … INVESTIGATE: Presidential Elections, the Popular vote, and the Electoral College
  2. National Popular vote Interstate Compact and Proportional Allocation of Electoral…
  3. … system, the candidate with the most Popular votes is not necessarily the winner, as…
  4. … someone other than the state's Popular vote winner.
  5. … government. The candidate with the most Popular votes is the winner in all elections…
  6. … received a half-million more Popular votes than Bush nationwide, Gore lost in the…
  7. … which the "winner" received less Popular votes but prevailed with a majority in the…
  8. … trailing by more than 7 million Popular votes and 74 electoral votes, if Donald Trump…
  9. … to the candidate who wins the Popular vote as happened in the elections of 2016 (Trump/Clinton),…
  10. … Electoral College. Each state's Popular vote winner receives a designated number…
  11. … Barack Obama won by a greater Popular vote margin. It mattered that Biden was a Democrat;…
  12. … Electoral College with a national Popular vote for President. Historically speaking,…
  13. … believe only a direct election by Popular vote can accurately express the will of…
  14. A Popular vote is the vote cast by each individual voter in an election. Virtually…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … Nader who won nearly 3% of the Popular vote took enough votes away from Democrat Al…
  2. … won six states and 27% of the Popular vote; Debs received nearly one million votes…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … Presidency even though he lost the Popular vote to Hillary Clinton by 2,864,974 votes…

Election Information

  1. … although she won the national Popular vote, she did not receive enough electoral college…

President of the United States

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … from Maryland, was the first "President of the United States in Congress Assembled" under the Articles…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … as a major party candidate for President of the United States
  2. … executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. The President of the United States is often referred to as the most powerful person in the world. although…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … first woman of color elected Vice-President of the United States.

Elections and Nominations

  1. … more electoral votes becomes President of the United States.

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … attorney and later the second President of the United States, agreed to defend the soldiers despite…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … Socialist Party candidate for President of the United States in 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920 (Debs…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … drafted by John Adams, the second President of the United States.  Written in 1787, it was adopted…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … political leaders (including the President of the United States) questions about major topics and issues.…

Presidential Cabinet

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. The Presidential Cabinet
  2. … of the Biden Administration's Presidential Cabinet.
  3. … the first woman to serve in a Presidential Cabinet in 1933; Robert Weaver became the first…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … Perkins who was appointed to a Presidential Cabinet; Margaret Sanger who assumed a public…

Press

Introduction for Educators

  1. … designed to promote creative self-exPression and critical thinking among students.…
  2. … life includes exploring how opPressed groups and courageous individuals have…

Table of Contents

  1. Competing Information in a Free Press
  2. Freedom of the Press
  3. TOPIC 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy [Standards 8.T7.1-6]

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press andNews/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. … may lead to a second Great DePression, and looming environmental disasters…
  2. VOTING RIGHTS AND VOTER SUPPressION

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. Topic 7: Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy
  2. Popular Press coverage on social media & fighting fake news:

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … of free elections and a free Press while others focus on social and economic…
  2. … judiciary, attacking the free Press, curtailing civil liberties, and spreading…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … subordinated, their voice is often supPressed, and the value of their voice…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … Africans rose up against their opPressors in a violent, bloody struggle. It…
  2. … in North America) to their opPression; and the lasting impact of the Latin…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … from society and victims of opPression (including slavery and indentured servitude…
  2. … England and France turned to supPressing piracy as a threat to their empires.
  3. Massachusetts Congresswoman Ayanna Pressley has introduced legislation allowing…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … First American peoples are imPressive, but not well-known. Just east of present-day…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. Throughout U.S. history, opPressed and disenfranchised groups (women, African…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … Roosevelt's responses to Great DePression and the New Deal, and 20th century…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … rights guaranteeing freedom of the Press and the rights of individuals, to…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … people could read. The printing Press, newspapers, and growing literacy among…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … screen. Dr. Strangelove (1964) exPresses people's fears of nuclear war during…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … Connections: Writing an Impeachment Press Release
  2. Press Release is an official statement provided to the media by an individual…
  3. … you will write an Impeachment Press Release for one of the Presidential Impeachments…
  4. … Affair and the issue of “imPressment” (taking individuals into military…
  5. … that any U.S. President has an imPressive collection of powers—both those…
  6. In politics, a Press release also serves as a way to promote one’s side of…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … for Contacting Congress to exPress your views on topics that matter to you.
  2. … were issued in 1847. The Pony ExPress started in 1860, lasting only 19 months…
  3. … Services Secretary downplays or supPresses information about a pandemic, lives…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … popular vote can accurately exPress the will of the people. Other commentators…
  2. … and current efforts of voter supPression can be found in Topic 4.5 in this…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … membership, any young people exPress disinterest and distrust toward political…
  2. … 20th century before the Great DePression and the subsquent expansion of the…
  3. … in 1966 and both sought to exPress the pride and power of Black people. Black…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … numbers dropped during the Great DePression and the U.S. sought to import laborers…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … by legal rules and political Pressures.

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … laws cannot be “arbitrary, opPressive and unreasonable” (Constitutional…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. Going against the immense Pressure of popular opinion, John Adams took a courageous…
  2. … the Bill of Rights further exPress the concept of limited government. Those…
  3. … rights to freedom of speech or exPression at the schoolhouse gate" declared…
  4. … procedures, disability rights, gender exPression, bathroom access, health,…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … election through systematic voter supPression or intimidation, such as buying…
  2. … exists (Voter Fraud?  Or Voter SupPression?).
  3. 2.UNCOVER: Voter SupPression and Barriers to Voting
  4. … Person, No Vote: How Voter SupPression is Destroying Our Democracy.
  5. … tests and modern-day voter supPression laws have impacted people’s voting…
  6. Voter supPression has been defined as "an effort or activity designed to prevent…
  7. For a 2018 example of voter supPression practices, read the following news story: After…

Election Information

  1. … depicting the Red Army killing an opPressive Polish eagleImage from Wikimedia…
  2. … presidential debate" by Associated Press | Public Domain
  3. … animals revolt against their opPressive owner, a farmer named Mr. Jones. Over…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … effective way for people to exPress their preferences for goods, services,…
  2. … for citizens interested in exPressing ideas and promoting change in our democratic…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … Blacks were Jim Crow laws, opPressive policies instituted by white southerners…
  2. Jefferson was exPressing what has become a long-standing American ideal that…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … gender identity and gender exPression in today's society.
  2. … protect and to violate would be opPression" (as quoted in Majority Rule and…
  3. … groups struggled to overcome opPression to gain the freedoms they need to be…
  4. … rule and minority rights been exPressed in United States history? The modules…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … Supreme Court allowed voter supPression laws in Arizona to stand, further narrowing…
  2. … occasions when undemocratic and opPressive policies fueled by political and…
  3. … actions that contradicted and supPressed American ideals. Our ENGAGE module…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … ENGAGE: How Can Books and Music ExPress Political Protests?
  2. … music has been at the center of exPressing protest and speaking to social unrest.…
  3. … group of people who seek to: 1) exPress their disapproval of current conditions,…
  4. … discover a wide range of music exPressing social themes on American Anthem,…
  5. … It is a means for people to exPress dissatisfaction with current situations…
  6. … rebel violently against British opPression, native Indians would expose the…
  7. … convention and encouraged open exPression of ideas and emotions. Yet rock 'n'…
  8. … can use books and music to exPress ideas for change.
  9. … serve as ways for people to exPress their ideas for change.
  10. … song Alright by Kendrick Lamar exPresses his protest against police violence…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … featured key historical figures, Pressing social issues, and the changing roles…
  2. … all of whom are under intense Pressure to raise money for their own reelection…
  3. … interest groups, also called "Pressure groups," are organizations formed to…
  4. … goals. Lobbying involves using Pressure, or other means, to convince policymakers…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … constitutional topic. An Associated Press/NORC Center for Public Affairs Research…
  2. … speech, religion, assembly, and the Press; four in ten (41 percent) say it…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … people achieved freedom from opPression and slavey - in this country and around…
  2. … not end the segregation and opPression of Black Americans; discriminations…
  3. … and other marginalized and opPressed groups in U.S. history and society?

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … Advancement Act, summarized here by a Press release from the office of Vermont…
  2. … on their sexual and gender exPression. Writing for the 6 to 3 majority, Justice…
  3. … whose gender identity or gender exPression is different from the sex they were…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. … opinion is a statement by a judge exPressing and explaining disagreement with…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … against discrimination and opPression against African Americans and other minorities…
  2. … rights to freedom of speech or exPression at the schoolhouse gate.” 
  3. … Ruling on Behalf of Student ExPression.
  4. … black armbands to school to exPress their opposition to the war.
  5. … whatever rules it chooses on exPressions of political protest? What is the…
  6. … devices. But, when students exPress vulgar or objectionable ideas off-campus…
  7. … cartoons, and liberty trees to exPress opposition to the British control over…
  8. … allowed to make statements during Press conferences, media appearances, and…
  9. … represented the location where all opPressed people meet. In addition, before…
  10. … freedom of speech, or of the Press; or the right of the people peaceably to…
  11. … freedoms of Religion, Assembly, Press, Petition, and Speech under the First…
  12. … shirts during warm-ups and exPressing their views on social media platforms.…
  13. … World by Dave Zirin (The New Press, 2021) which documents efforts by amateur…
  14. … regulated fully automatic weapons, supPressors, short-barreled rifles and shotguns,…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. … 2020, facing increasing public Pressure over its racially-themed mascot and…
  2. … develop workable solutions to Pressing problems.

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … situation. In this case, the exPressed powers of the federal government include…
  2. ExPress Your Ideas about the Minimum Wage

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … QUESTION: How are Individual Rights ExPressed in the Core Documents of American…
  2. … influenced and shaped by historical Pressures by the government, political…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … "blacklist" (Terminology, Power and OpPressive Language).
  2. … unusual punishment, freedom of the Press and right to petition" and stated…

Components of Local Government

  1. … community opportunities to exPress their views and influence public policy.…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … government rely on the people of the Press to report the news about what happens…
  2. Topic 7 explores the role of the Press in reporting the news in 21st century…
  3. Given these trends, there is a Pressing need for everyone to identify and rely…
  4. The Press includes organizations large and small—including the New York Times…
  5. The Press is a broad term, referring to the people (reporters, photographers,…
  6. … modules about the freedom of the Press and news/media literacy, consider the…
  7. This meaning of the word "Press" derives from Johann Gutenberg's history-altering…
  8. … authored a legal definition of the Press as "every sort of publication which…
  9. World Press Freedom Day has been celebrated around the world on May 3 every…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … Literacy Connections: Evaluating Press Freedom in the United States and the…
  2. … the History of Freedom of the Press in the United States?
  3. Standard 7.1: Freedom of the Press
  4. … INVESTIGATE: Notable Freedom of the Press Court Cases
  5. … Resources for Notable Freedom of the Press Court Cases
  6. … helping the U.S. improve its World Press Freedom Index ranking.
  7. … state of Illinois expanded the Press and speech rights of students with the…
  8. … was not a “forum for public exPression.” This ruling established that student…
  9. Landmark freedom of the Press court cases include:
  10. Censorship involves the “supPression of words, images or ideas” that are…
  11. … restrictions on the Freedom of the Press throughout United States history.…
  12. A free Press does not mean that everyone in the media reports the same events…
  13. … to explore how freedom of the Press can be threatened by political censorship…
  14. … governments seek to control the Press by dictating what can be told or shown…
  15. Freedom of the Press is set forth in the First Amendment to the United States…
  16. … leaked the information to the Press. The Nixon Administration sought to block…
  17. … skills to operate the printing Press. At trial, Zenger was found not guilty.…
  18. … freedom of speech, or of the Press; or the right of the people peaceably to…
  19. … counteract these efforts at supPression, every year the American Library Association…
  20. … the history of freedom of the Press, INVESTIGATE examined notable court cases…
  21. … protection of freedom of the Press, the Court said, “debate on public issues…
  22. Explain why freedom of the Press was included as a right in the First Amendment…
  23. Freedom of the Press is a bedrock principle of our democratic system of government.…
  24. … importance of the freedom of the Press in Article 16:  Massachusetts Declaration…
  25. … Near, published “The Saturday Press,” a controversial and prejudicial newspaper…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … Competing Information in a Free Press
  2. The History of the Black Press
  3. … Gutenberg's invention of the printing Press in the early 1600s. Go here for…
  4. … media changing the roles of the Press in our society?
  5. The Black Press has been, and still is, a central voice of Black experience.…
  6. FOCUS QUESTION: How Does a Free Press Provide Competing Information about Government…
  7. … milestones in the history of the Black Press:
  8. Standard 2 looks at how a free Press provides information about government and…
  9. Central to free Press is the role of investigative journalism that involves…
  10. … investigative journalism by the Press, notably reporters Bob Woodward and Carl…
  11. … about the history of the Black Press at African American Media Today: Building…
  12. … is one of the ways that a free Press provides truthful information to people.…
  13. … American life, including the Black Press, which in 2019, consisted of a collection…
  14. … Lepore (2019, p. 19) noted, “The Press was partisan, readers were voters…
  15. Give examples of how a free Press can provide competing information and views…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … Op-Ed Commentaries, Photographs, Press Conferences, and Sports Writing
  2. Press Conferences
  3. … role and importance of a free Press in a democratic society?
  4. … Revolution posted broadsides exPressing their opposition to British colonial…
  5. A Press conference is a meeting where news reporters get to ask public figures…
  6. … Lange documented the Great DePression; the site Trailblazers of Light tells…
  7. … Virginia for the Philadephia Press (Blackett, 1991). Morris had been a recruiter…
  8. … photographs, and participate in Press conferences.
  9. … only ones who participate in Press conferences. Public officials at every level…
  10. Franklin D. Roosevelt held the most Press conferences (881; twice a week during…
  11. … commentaries, news photographs, and Press conferences as formats where writers…
  12. … newspaper or media outlet to exPress the opinion of that organization about…
  13. … century, the so-called “penny Press,” editors and readers began demanding…
  14. The first Presidential Press conference was held by Woodrow Wilson in 1913.…
  15. … (Jill Jackson: Pioneering in the Press Box). Phyllis George, the 1971 Miss…
  16. … understand people and events. Press Conferences are opportunities for individuals…
  17. … experts, and ordinary citizens to exPress their views on issues of importance.…
  18. Whitewashing the Great DePression, The Atlantic (December 2020)
  19. … forums where writers may freely exPress their viewpoints and advocate for desired…
  20. … are visual images drawn to exPress opinions about people, events, and policies.…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … on it every day (YouTube for Press).

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … at about equal rates (American Press Institute’s Media Insight Project).
  2. … Hearst, American newspapers exPressed outrage about the tragedy, arousing public…
  3. … Don't--Understand about Each Other, American Press Institute, June 11, 2018).

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. FOCUS QUESTION: How Do Writers ExPress Opinions through Editorials, Editorial…
  2. … has been established that the DePression-era photographer Dorothea Lange staged…
  3. … manipulate digital content - facial exPressions, voice, lip movements - so…
  4. … Troops," citing that the views exPressed by the Senator put journalists, especially…
  5. … entertain, persuade, inform, and exPress fiction and nonfiction ideas creatively…
  6. … is based, people are free to exPress their views. At the same time, hateful…

Press conference

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … allowed to make statements during Press conferences, media appearances, and on digital…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. The first Presidential Press conference was held by Woodrow Wilson in 1913. Every President…
  2. … understand people and events. Press conferences are opportunities for individuals and…
  3. … Op-Ed Commentaries, Photographs, Press conferences, and Sports Writing
  4. Press conferences
  5. A Press conference is a meeting where news reporters get to ask public figures and political…
  6. … photographs, and participate in Press conferences.
  7. … only ones who participate in Press conferences. Public officials at every level of government…
  8. Franklin D. Roosevelt held the most Press conferences (881; twice a week during the New…
  9. … commentaries, news photographs, and Press conferences as formats where writers and artists…

Privacy

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … everyone's presumed right of Privacy (see Patient Right to Privacy Called into…
  2. … Private Life and the Right of Privacy

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … creating the right to sexual Privacy. Bingham also said that his text would also…
  2. … the ongoing issues of speech, Privacy, social media, dress codes, discipline…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. Media Literacy Connections: Your Privacy on Social Media
  2. A person's right to Privacy has become a contentious issue with regards to the…
  3. … activity, you will review the Privacy policies of various websites, apps, and…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … practices that emphasized profit over Privacy and truth. The report detailing…

Progressive

Introduction for Educators

  1. … Democratic Party and liberal/Progressive individuals and groups. This viewpoint stresses…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … rights as individual rights while Progressive and liberal groups and Democrats tend…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … between Democrats and Republicans, Progressives and conservatives, it is hard to…
  2. … election (upsetting liberal and Progressive groups), legalized same-sex marriage…
  3. Progressive groups have urged reforms in light of the Court's steady set of conservative…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … voters can choose between several Progressive or several business-friendly candidates…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. The Progressive, or Bull Moose Party, led by former President Theodore Roosevelt,…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … Supreme Court decision (from Progressive and liberal groups) to repealing the 16th…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … devoted her life to supporting Progressive causes, fighting for women’s rights,…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … background on taxes including Progressive and regressive taxation.

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. Progressive and Regressive Taxation
  2. … on whether to implement a more Progressive tax system, which relies on those who…
  3. … history of taxation, including Progressive and regressive taxation. ENGAGE asked…
  4. … discussions about taxes are the terms Progressive Taxes and Regressive Taxes. The…
  5. … tax system is regressive, not Progressive. Regressive taxes, such as sales taxes,…

Components of Local Government

  1. … 14, 2021). At the same time, Progressive groups are promoting their own candidates,…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … perspectives (Democrats, Republicans, Progressives, conservatives). The same event…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … Op-Ed commentaries to argue for Progressive social and political change. Fighting…

Propaganda

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … spreading disinformation and Propaganda to inflame people's attitudes toward outsiders…

Election Information

  1. 1939 Soviet Propaganda poster depicting the Red Army killing an oppressive Polish…
  2. Online Resources for Persuasion, Propaganda and Political Language
  3. Propaganda has a long negative history. Dictators and totalitarian regimes have used…
  4. Manufacturers and corporations also use Propaganda techniques to sell their products…
  5. 1. INVESTIGATE: Persuasion, Propaganda, and Political Language in Elections
  6. … for political persuasion and Propaganda. Looking at the first two years of the Trump…
  7. … Stalin) rules society through Propaganda, political language, telescreens,Thought…
  8. The goal of Propaganda is persuasion, and to fully understand the impacts of Propaganda
  9. … INVESTIGATE examined how persuasion, Propaganda, and political language can be used…
  10. There are different kinds of Propaganda, ranging from "selfish, deceitful, and subversive…
  11. … examining the impact of persuasion, Propaganda, and political language in political…
  12. Understanding how persuasion, Propaganda, and political language are used in elections…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … knowledge from rumor and truth from Propaganda and lies.

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … about the uses of persuasion, Propaganda, and language in political settings. 

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … including Benjamin Franklin’s Propaganda during the American Revolution, efforts…

Protest

Introduction for Educators

  1. … through ongoing struggles and Protests with the goal of realizing the dream of…

Table of Contents

  1. The Role of Political Protest

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. … political parties, Black Lives Matter Protests, an economic recession that may…

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … Freedom House report notes, citizen Protests against corruption and for environmental…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … through free speech, peaceful Protests, petitions for change, consumer boycotts…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … the Patricians. Despite their Protests, the Plebeians were granted limited rights.…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … There is more about dissent and Protest in Topic 4/The Role of Political Protest

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. A statement of principles and Protests, the Declaration did not have the force…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … debt and high taxes, decided to Protest the state government and local courts…
  2. … Armory. Shots were fired, four Protestors were killed and the rebellion was effectively…
  3. Shays’ Protestors are Repulsed from the Armory at Springfield, Massachusetts "Shay's…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … a belief in using nonviolent Protests and legal actions as the most effective…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … leaders, engaging in peaceful Protest, and affirming the fundamental principles…
  2. … voting, public service, political Protest, and membership in public and private…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … following 12 days of massive citizen Protests—the first time a governor had…
  2. … persons.” It has taken time, Protests, and the Civil War to expand the boundaries…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … engaged community members who Protest and lobby for change, and as candidates…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … fired their guns into a crowd of Protestors, killing 5 people in what has become…
  2. … Amendment Rights for Student Protestors). As a result, in many instances, students…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … pausing advertising on Facebook to Protest hate speech and misinformation on…
  2. … purchasing coffee from one store in Protest over that store’s actions or policies…
  3. … every day past crowds of White Protestors.
  4. … consumer campaigns and political Protests. For those involved, notes Brantley,…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … and educators mount sufficient Protests to prevent passage of similar laws in…
  2. … Johns led a student strike to Protest the substandard educational facilities…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … months before Rosa Parks’ famous Protest, a fifteen-year-old high school student…
  2. … cars, and buses as a form of Protest against discrimination. As the website Teaching…
  3. … involved on January 6: 1) those who Protested lawfully and without violence;…
  4. … with Black Lives Matter (BLM) Protestors during the summer of 2020. BLM Protestors…
  5. … happened: Was it a ramage, a riot, a Protest, an insurrection, a conspiracy,…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … Books and Music Express Political Protests?
  2. Standard 4.12: The Role of Political Protest
  3. … Different Ways That Political Protest Happens in a Democracy?
  4. … Literacy Connections: Music as Protest Art
  5. … Civil Disobedience and Nonviolent Protest
  6. Online Resources for Protest Through Books and Music
  7. … era to the Black Lives Matter Protests in the summer of 2020, music has been…
  8. … School during the Dakota Access Pipeline ProtestsCredit: Image from Becker1999 …
  9. … States emerged from American Protests against England’s colonial rule. Founded…
  10. Political Protest is an action or a series of actions by a group of people who…
  11. Anti-War Literature and Protest Music are ways for writers and musical artists…
  12. … page for Antiwar Literature and Protest Songs. The wiki also includes an historical…
  13. … States history have been political Protests:
  14. The right to Protest is essential in a democracy. It is a means for people to…
  15. … people had participated in the Protests, as shown on this interactive map of…
  16. The Protests delayed the pipeline project until the Trump Administration gave…
  17. … song Strange Fruit in 1939 to Protest violence and racism against African AmericansCredit: …
  18. … famous proponents of nonviolent Protest and resistance, what is widely known…
  19. … are two main forms of political Protest — nonviolent and violent. Nonviolent…
  20. … disobedience as a form of political Protest at the resourcesforhistoryteachers…
  21. Examine the role of political Protest in a democracy. (Massachusetts Curriculum…
  22. Protest music is widely associated with the decade of the 1960s. Young people…
  23. How has political Protest driven social and political change in U.S. history?…
  24. … will remix lyrics from famous Protest songs in U.S. history to create your own…
  25. … Baby became the most streamed Protest song following the death of George Floyd.
  26. Political Protests can be both peaceful and violent. INVESTIGATE examined the…
  27. … Floyd, the right to peaceful Protest, and the need for racial justice, including…
  28. Protest music conveys ideas and emotions in ways that change minds and provoke…
  29. We the Voters: Do Political Protests Make A Difference, a video from CBS News,…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … Harbor), this unit refused pay as a Protest against federal government policies…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. The Cherokee people Protested the policy, notably John Ross (Chief John Ross Protests…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … an Effective Form of Political Protest?
  2. Protests at the Tokyo Olympics
  3. … kneeling as a form of political Protest during the national anthem began August…
  4. … became a more prominent form of Protest following the January 6, 2021 Insurrection…
  5. … during a period of nationwide Protests against the American War in Vietnam, 13-year-old…
  6. … chooses on expressions of political Protest? What is the role of the media in…
  7. … learn more about the role of Protest in sports history at our Integration of…
  8. Recalling the history of Protest, the flag and the national anthem is important…
  9. Athletes and Protests
  10. … Committee issued a ban on political Protests at Olympic sites. While athletes…
  11. As Black Lives Matter Protests continued throughout the early summer, the National…
  12. … actions recall the famous political Protest during the 1968 Mexico City Olympics…
  13. … flag" (Pledge Law: Controlling Protest and Patriotism in Schools, Teaching Tolerance,…
  14. … who wish to engage in political Protest by kneeling during the national anthem…
  15. … defiance of Olympic rules about Protests on podiums. Saunders who is Black and…
  16. … black for the rest of the year in Protest, and took the school all the way to…
  17. … sports league have engaged in Protests including wearing politically-themed shirts…
  18. … 1.1: UNCOVER and about Political Protests in Topic 4.12.

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. The 2020 Black Lives Matter Protests that followed the killing of George Floyd…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … coverage of the 2016 Hong Kong Protests and then you will act as a reporter and…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … later after nights of rioting and Protests in cities around the country following…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … military troops to break up street Protests across the nation that followed the…

Public education

Public Service as a Career

  1. … UNCOVER: A Short History of American Public education
  2. … schoolteacher. However, the concept of Public education in Puritan New England did not…
  3. … is by the attention it pays to Public education" (2002, p. 23). It is through education…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … requisite in the American system of Public education is social equality. It must be open…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … to support transportation and Public education in the state.

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. … use tax monies, including how Public education is funded.
  2. … those funds are used to support Public education. UNCOVER reviewed the history of taxation,…

Components of Local Government

  1. … administering the state's system of Public education” (School Boards, para 6). School…

Puerto Rico

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. 3. ENGAGE: Should Puerto Rico or the District of Columbia become the 51st State?
  2. … experts agree that voters in both Puerto Rico and Washington, D.C. lean strongly…
  3. "Puerto Rico Commemorative Quarter Designs (2009)"Public Domain
  4. … Chisholm, and asking whether Puerto Rico or Washington, D.C. should become the 51st…
  5. Puerto Rico elects a non-voting representative in Congress; the District of Columbia…
  6. … adding a 51st state— either Puerto Rico, a territory of 3.4 million people, or…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … representing Washington D.C., Puerto Rico, and four U.S. territories. Each state…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. Puerto Rico currently faces enormous social and economic problems. The Census Bureau…
  2. … citizenship for the people of Puerto Rico. ENGAGE asked students to consider when…
  3. Puerto Rico's government functions much like other U.S. state governments. People…
  4. Puerto Rico became a United States territory after the Spanish-American War in 1898.…
  5. … original Tanio Indian name for Puerto Rico) was the first group of Hispanic segregated…
  6. … currently live on the island of Puerto Rico. Another 5.1 million Puerto Ricans reside…
  7. … information, view the video Why Puerto Rico is not a US State (Vox, January 25, 2018).…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … U.S. acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam in 1898 at the end of the Spanish-American…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … communities in California, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and American Samoa, and 55 countries…

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. … plus the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) operate lotteries.…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … acquiring the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico as territories and launching America…

Reconstruction

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … 1935 historical study, Black Reconstruction in America, placed “the struggles and…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … legislation. In fact, between Reconstruction and 1964, the only legislation stopped…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. 3.3. The Reconstruction Era
  2. … Gates Jr.'s book, Stony the Road: Reconstruction, White Supremacy, and the Rise of Jim…
  3. … Richardson, "we are reliving the Reconstruction years after the Civil War." Following…
  4. … White southerners responses to Reconstruction; the Indian Wars of the American West;…
  5. Reconstruction, what historian Eric Foner (2014) has called “America’s unfinished…
  6. But the Reconstruction Era also saw actions by White politicians and all White extra-legal…
  7. … Our ENGAGE module discusses the Reconstruction Era, the Indian Wars of the American…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. Reconstruction of Two Segregated Classrooms in 1953/Birmingham Civil Rights MuseumImage…
  2. … of federal efforts to maintain Reconstruction rights for Blacks. Reconstruction itself…

Regressive taxation

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … taxes including progressive and Regressive taxation.

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. Progressive and Regressive taxation
  2. Lotteries are a form of Regressive taxation where lower-earning individuals spend a higher…
  3. … taxation, including progressive and Regressive taxation. ENGAGE asked whether lotteries are…

Republican party

Introduction for Educators

  1. … embrace of individualism by the Republican party and conservative media outlets like Fox…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … the power and influence of the Republican party (When Adding New States Helped the Republicans).…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … many, the filibuster allows the Republican party to block most of Democratic President…
  2. … control of the Senate by the Republican party.

Elections and Nominations

  1. … current political dominance of the Republican party:

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … and Paul Pierson (2020) see the Republican party as a mix of big-money corporate elites…
  2. … In the election of 1860, the Republican party candidate Abraham Lincoln who opposed expansion…
  3. … Since the 1980s, a wing of the Republican party has sought to return to the business-dominated…
  4. … candidates of the incumbent Democratic-Republican party over the Federalists in the 1812…
  5. … elections, the business wing of Republican party supported and enabled the Trump wing…

Election Information

  1. … century development. In 1948, Republican party presidential hopefuls Thomas Dewey and…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … individuals from the wing of the Republican party that opposes business regulation and…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … “Plumbers,” all with strong ties to the Republican party and committed to the re-election…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … were wholeheartedly adopted by Republican party candidates.
  2. … President Donald Trump and the Republican party have used the Big Lie that the 2020 Presidential…

resourcesforhistoryteachers

Introduction for Educators

  1. … topics feature links to pages in resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki, a free online multimedia/multicultural…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … Athenian democracy is available at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wikipage on the Government of Ancient…
  2. … physical activities. Explore a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page Women and Slaves in Ancient…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … was the first) (learn more from resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page Toussaint L'Ouverture and the…
  2. … and judicial branches (see the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page on The American Political System).

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. Explore our resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page to learn more about The Enlightenment, Principles…
  2. Explore our resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page to learn more about the Main Ideas of Enlightenment…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … these native settlements on the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page Cahokia and Etzanoa, Pre-Contact…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … information about this compromise at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page Constitutional Convention…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … background and information at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, The Clean Air Act.

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … about Shirley Chisholm from the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page: Shirley Chisholm, African…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … American Politics from the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki.
  2. … There is more information at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page for the 2000 Presidential Election.

The Role of Political Parties

  1. The resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, The Conservative Movement in American Politics, charts…
  2. … more the Black Panthers at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page about the Accomplishments of the…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … be accessed at the following resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki pages: 

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … of State), and by visiting the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page about Voting Rights in Early…

Election Information

  1. … the history of debates at the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page American Presidential Debates.

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … There is more information at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, Frances Perkins and the Social…
  2. … the 19th Century page on the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki.
  3. … There is more information at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, Margaret Sanger and Reproductive…
  4. … There is more information at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, Harvey Milk, Gay Civil Rights…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … key role in the annexation. A resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, Annexation of Hawaii provides…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. There is more information at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page for Sengbe Pieh (Joseph Cinque),…
  2. … McCarthy’s Senate committee. The resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki has primary sources and more…
  3. … the evolution controvesy at resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki pages for The Scopes Trial and the…
  4. … about another dramatic event at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page for The Navajo War and the…
  5. … Jim Crow Era wiki page on the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki which includes material on Juan Crow…
  6. … Chavez and the Grape Strike at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page for the Latino Civil Rights…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … about gay rights activism at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page on The Stonewall Uprising.
  2. There is more information at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page for Antiwar Literature and Protest…
  3. … There is more information at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page on the DAPL Standing Rock Sioux…
  4. … form of political protest at the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page for Imperialism in India and…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … these topics are online at the resourcesforhistoryteachers Events Leading to the Civil War wiki…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … more information, explore the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page Helen Keller, Author and Political…
  2. … her life and times, visit the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page, Babe Didrikson Zaharias, Woman…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. … history. Learn more from the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page: The Trail of Tears.

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … the Spanish-American War on the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page: America's Role in World Affairs.

Senate

Introduction for Educators

  1. … Sharon, Massachusetts and former Senate education staff member at the Edward…

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … and Rome. The United States "Senate" meets at the "Capitol." Our political parties…

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. In 1988, the United States Senate passed a resolution acknowledging the contributions…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … the national legislature with a Senate and a House of Representatives. UNCOVER…
  2. … was based on population and a Senate where each state had two voting members.…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. The two houses of Congress (Senate and House of Representatives) also have checks…
  2. … Trump was acquitted by the U.S. Senate on both impeachment articles. It was…
  3. … by Congress from United States Senate website.
  4. … hearing before a jury in the U.S. Senate (Gertner, 2020). The Senate conducts…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Virtually every member of the Senate and the House of Representatives is now…
  2. … "Republicans can win a majority of Senate seats while only representing a minority…
  3. … House of Representatives and the Senate
  4. … how the passing of bills by the Senate has declined in recent decades. In 1947,…
  5. … the widely held view that the Senate was designed to serve as a cautious, deliberate…
  6. … Committtees are formal House and Senate organizations that meet to hold hearings…
  7. With the modern-day Senate sharply divided between Democrats and Republicans,…
  8. … different. A tradition of the Senate, but not a constitutional requirement,…
  9. … has established control of the Senate by the Republican Party.
  10. The Senate is made up of 100 elected members, two from each state. Senators are…
  11. … (out of 100 members) in the U.S. Senate.
  12. … House of Representatives and the Senate which make up the United States Congress.…
  13. … President and confirmed by the Senate. Presently, there is one Chief Justice…
  14. … enduring images of the United States Senate. As portrayed by actor James Stewart…
  15. … bill from being voted on by the Senate. It now takes a supermajority vote of…
  16. … United States to campaign for Senate approval of the peace treaty and the League…
  17. Now, in the 21st century, the Senate “entrenches multiple types of inequality,”…
  18. The Senate
  19. … textbooks describe the design of the Senate as the result of a compromise at…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … Now Party candidate for U.S. Senate won 185,064 votes (5.77% of all votes cast)…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … political issues. In 2016, the Senate received more than 6.4 million letters.…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … to testify before McCarthy’s Senate committee. The resourcesforhistoryteachers…
  2. … Wray in testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee on March 2, 2021. Wray…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … the House of Representatives, Senate, and President, and in some state elections.

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … years, in both the House and the Senate, and was Secretary of State under President…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … that the Republican-controlled Senate has been unwilling to consider. The most…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … Representatives in 1979 and the Senate in 1986.

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. … branch is made up of the State Senate and House of Representatives: 
  2. … Elected to the Massachusetts Senate

Freedom of the Press

  1. … violent acts. Hearings by the U.S. Senate’s Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … 2020, the Republican-led U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence released…

Sequoyah

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … Then there was the 1905 case of Sequoyah, a proposed Native-American governed…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. Sequoyah, the Native American State That Almost Existed
  2. Sequoyah, the U.S. State That Almost Existed is a fascinating hidden history/untold…
  3. The Sequoyah Convention drafted a Constitution with a Bill of Rights and proposed…

Shirley Chisholm

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. 2.UNCOVER: Shirley Chisholm, African American Politician and Presidential Candidate
  2. Shirley Chisholm was an African American educator, politician, and author who in 1968 at…
  3. Learn more about Shirley Chisholm from the resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki page: Shirley…
  4. Shirley Chisholm began her career as a teacher and daycare center director before winning…
  5. … pioneering African American politician Shirley Chisholm, and asking whether Puerto Rico…
  6. Shirley Chisholm, Congresswoman from New York (1965) "Shirley Chisholm NYWTS" by Roger…
  7. … Constitution. UNCOVER told the story of Shirley Chisholm, an African American politician…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Margaret Chase Smith (1964), Shirley Chisholm, Pat Schroeder (1988) and Hillary Clinton…
  2. … in 1965. She was followed by Shirley Chisholm in 1968. Carol Moseley Braun became the…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … Tubman, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Shirley Chisholm; women activists Alice Paul and Helen Keller;…

Social Media

Table of Contents

  1. Digital News and Social Media

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. Popular press coverage on Social Media & fighting fake news:

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … Literacy Connections: Democracy in Social Media Policies and Community Standards
  2. … standards, rules, and policies on Social Media platforms: 
  3. … level are using mobile apps and Social Media platforms to communicate information…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … Declarations of Independence on Social Media
  2. … these groups had access to modern Social Media platforms. How would they have utilized…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … systems of mass communication - no Social Media, no television, no streaming services.…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … legislative processes; and using Social Media to build support for their policies…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Connections: Members of Congress Use Social Media
  2. Congress Soars to New Heights on Social Media declared the Pew Research Center in…
  3. … of how members of congress use Social Media:

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … political party needs to utilize Social Media to communicate with voters. A party…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. Does the increasing use of Social Media blur the line between people's private life…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … classmates on their outside-of-school Social Media accounts (National Education Association,…
  2. … legal rights involving speech and Social Media, including the landmark 2021 Mahanoy…
  3. … campaigns. They make extensive use of Social Media
  4. … justice advocacy organizations use Social Media and online messaging to promote equality…
  5. … ongoing issues of speech, privacy, Social Media, dress codes, discipline procedures,…

Election Information

  1. Media Literacy Connections: Social Media and Elections
  2. … recently, highly anticipated Social Media events. Millions of people watch them live.…
  3. … activities you will evaluate Social Media campaigns for an upcoming election at the…
  4. … 72% of U.S. voters actively use Social Media (Social Media Could Determine the Outcome…
  5. … caddie from 1990 and White House Social Media director, is the author of much of the…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … political views or endorsements on Social Media? Who are these celebrities? In what…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … Connections: Political Activism Through Social Media
  2. … activity, you will explore how to use Social Media to advocate for an issue of personal…
  3. Social Media is an important tool for activism, advocacy, and change.
  4. … magazine. In today’s world of Social Media and mass communication, people not only…
  5. … and ongoing racist postings on Social Media by white supremacist groups, Civil rights…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … job recruitment commercial and Social Media post to influence others to pursue careers…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … news networks and streamed on Social Media. Rioters carried Confederate and Trump…
  2. … coordinating in real time on Social Media during the assault. While many rioters took…
  3. … militia groups who are using Social Media platforms to spread hate, promote the superiority…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … and explore how it is used in Social Media today.

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … advertising landscape by using Social Media posts and online ads to reach voters.…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … Amendment on Twitter and other Social Media
  2. … the ERA is being discussed on Social Media and then you will design a Social Media
  3. … use of the media, particularly Social Media, to build support for their side of the…
  4. … they had access to modern-day Social Media?

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. Student Speech and Social Media
  2. … had not been shared widely on Social Media, would they have been suspended?
  3. … speech in school in an era of Social Media. Courts have established that schools in…
  4. … though her comments were made on Social Media and off the school's campus.
  5. … and expressing their views on Social Media platforms. The Players Coalition, founded…
  6. … can easily access the post on Social Media.

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. Design a Social Media Campaign for the Protection of Child Farmworkers

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … Connections: Your Privacy on Social Media
  2. … is collected by technologies, Social Media platforms, and digital tools and apps.…
  3. … of various websites, apps, and Social Media platforms and then, based on what you…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. Twitter is one Social Media platform that has actively begun changing terms to be more…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … Environmental Campaigns Using Social Media
  2. … YouTube, Instagram and many other Social Media platforms to communicate their ideas…
  3. … government's use of multimedia and Social Media for environmental policies. 
  4. … funding into media production and Social Media initiatives to create change and spread…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. Social Media has become a powerful tool for candidates running for political offices.…

Components of Local Government

  1. … Connections: Local Governments, Social Media and Digital Democracy
  2. … how your local government uses Social Media and how might it use it more effectively…
  3. Social Media has been hailed as a way to promote what has been called digital democracy (or…

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … researchers are now referring to Social Media as the Fifth Estate (Educators Meet…
  2. … podcasts, infographics), and Social Media (e.g., posts and tweets). 

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … its investigative report on the Social Media company's exploitative business practices…
  2. … shows, online news sites, and Social Media platforms do not all present the news in…
  3. … happening in the world. It was the Social Media of the time. In 1900, more than 20,000…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … policies. Broadsides were the Social Media and Op-Ed commentaries of the time. 

Digital News and Social Media

  1. Standard 7.4 Digital News and Social Media
  2. … the Roles of Digital News and Social Media in a Democratic Society?
  3. 1. INVESTIGATE: Social Media, Digital News, and the Spread of Misinformation
  4. … Recommendation Algorithms on Social Media Platforms
  5. Online Resources for Social Media and News Diets
  6. Impacts of Social Media Platform Algorithms
  7. Social Media has become a fundamental part of U.S. politics. Politicians, political…
  8. … 2019, para. 2). For example, Social Media platforms use recommendation algorithms to…
  9. The presence of Social Media in the lives of young people is enormous.  The research organization…
  10. … that were, in the words of one Social Media review firm, "noteworthy for its hostile…
  11. … both benefits and challenges to Social Media and digital news. INVESTIGATE had students…
  12. Social Media is now the most common source of news for young people ages 13–18 (Robb,…
  13. … found that recommendations from Social Media platform algorithms tend to push selections…
  14. … dimensions of digital news and Social Media.
  15. Algorithms, as integral features of Social Media, Internet search tools, e-commerce…
  16. … Twitter, Facebook, and other Social Media platforms. Correcting misinformation with…
  17. … complexity of information sharing on Social Media is how easily students can be fooled…
  18. Mass media and Social Media are central to the lives of most people in the United States,…
  19. … get their news primarily from Social Media tend to be less engaged civically and less…
  20. … computers, websites, video games, Social Media sites, apps, streaming services, and…
  21. … accessed through websites, apps, and Social Media. Even television viewing is being…
  22. … today from sources ranging from Social Media (e.g., Twitter, TikTok) to legacy news…
  23. … How Misinformation Spreads on Social Media—And What To Do About It (Brookings,…
  24. … challenges of digital news and Social Media to a democratic society. (Massachusetts…
  25. … news is being delivered to them. Social Media platforms, like YouTube, employ algorithms…
  26. … Russian disinformation, spread on Social Media, appears to have contributed to Trump's…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … today’s world of hyper-charged Social Media and television programming.
  2. For Social Media platforms, fake news is good business. Attracted by the controversies…
  3. … statements are proven wrong. News and Social Media organizations now devote extensive…
  4. … raises the question of whether Social Media companies should engage in fact-checking…
  5. … anti-vaccine misinformation on Social Media came from just 12 people (the so-called…
  6. … from its platform. Other major Social Media sites also took steps to ban or restrict…
  7. … considerably more fake news on Social Media than members of younger age groups (Guess,…
  8. Fake news distributed on Social Media feeds conspiracy theories while promoting the…
  9. … the debates about the role of Social Media companies in dealing with misinformation…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … Regulate Political Content on Their Social Media Platforms?
  2. … Resources for Political Content on Social Media Sites
  3. … decide whether Facebook and other Social Media companies are organizations like the…
  4. … misinformation and outright lies on Social Media by political leaders and unscrupulous…
  5. Social Media platforms had already begun removing or labeling tweets by the President…
  6. The extensive reach of Social Media raises the question of just how much influence…
  7. … issue—many of which are published on Social Media platforms. UNCOVER explored the…
  8. … dimension of political messaging on Social Media. In December 2019, Facebook announced…
  9. … enormous problem for today's Social Media companies. On the one hand, they are committed…
  10. Social Media and technology companies generate huge amounts of revenue from advertisements…
  11. … larger problem of fake news on Social Media platforms like Facebook. Researchers found…

Special interest groups

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … by Advocacy Organizations and Special interest groups
  2. … organizations (also known as Special interest groups) are groups that support a political issue…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: Special interest groups, Political Action Committees (PACs and SuperPACs), and…
  2. Special interest groups
  3. Special interest groups and Political Action Committees engage in policy lobbying while supporting…
  4. Special interest groups, Political Action Committees (PACs), and Labor Unions are constantly engaging…
  5. This standard looks at the ways Special interest groups, Political Action Committees, and Labor…
  6. Special interest groups, also called "pressure groups," are organizations formed to influence…
  7. Special interest groups regularly seek financial contributions from their members and use those…

Components of Local Government

  1. … well as politically motivated Special interest groups are paying attention to local school board…

Sportswriter

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … the War of 1812. Today, as one Sportswriter put it: "Only 8 million people lived in…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. The history of women Sportswriters is a striking example of how the inequalities of…

Strike

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … Administration’s use of a missile Strike to kill an Iranian general in Iraq…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … conditions for workers through Strikes and political action (Labor Unions and…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … by starting a series of school Strikes called Fridays for Future to raise awareness…
  2. … the Mill Children, the Newsboys Strike, the Little Rock Nine, the Birmingham…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … Barbara Rose Johns led a student Strike to protest the substandard educational…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … Resources for the Delano Grape Strike and the United Farm Workers Union
  2. … Itliong, and the Delano Grape Strike and Boycott
  3. … Dolores Huerta.org) joined the Strike. They organized Filipino and Mexican-American…
  4. … Scopes Trial, and Delano Grape Strike and Boycott.
  5. The five-year-long Delano Grape Strike and Boycott (1965-1970) was a transformative…
  6. When the Strike ended in 1970, farm workers everywhere were able to receive higher…
  7. … Itliong and the Delano Grape Strike. UNCOVER reviewed the history of Claudette…
  8. One outgrowth of the Strike is a movement to create a Cesar Chavez National Holiday.…
  9. … the Cesar Chavez and the Grape Strike at a resourcesforhistoryteachers wiki…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … political change such as petitions, Strikes, boycotts, rallies, and marches. Violent…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. 2. UNCOVER: The Pullman Strike of 1894 and the History of Labor Day
  2. Online Resources for the Pullman Strike
  3. The Pullman Strike was a labor action and boycott that caused a nationwide railroad…
  4. … cars. 125,000 workers went on Strike, shutting down many of the nation’s rail…
  5. … riding in them. At the time of the Strike, Pullman had made an enormous fortune.
  6. … case of unions, direct action Strikes. UNCOVER reviewed the Pullman Strike of…
  7. … causes and consequences of labor Strikes. A Labor Unions and Radical Political…
  8. The Strike began as a walkout by workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company in…
  9. … in direct action for change or Strikes. A Strike is an “organized stoppage…
  10. … results, unions may restore to a Strike. A Strike is a labor action where workers…
  11. … its connections to the Pullman Strike of 1894 from Samuel Gompers’ 1910 article…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … prominence following the Women's Strike for Equality led by Betty Friedan (Zimmer,…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … Graphic History of The Newsboys Strike of 1899

Supreme Court

Table of Contents

  1. Significant Supreme Court Decisions
  2. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court [Standards 8.T5.1-6]

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

Learning Pathway: Critical Media Literacy

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … "Republicans" or "Democrats." The Supreme Court's architexture recalls a Roman temple.…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … argued a case before the Vermont Supreme Court. She died in 1821 at age 97.

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … case and first African American Supreme Court Justice gave what has become known as…

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … climate change case where the Supreme Court ruled that a state government had the authority…

Institutions of United States Government

  1. … executive (President), and judiciary (Supreme Court). States also have three branches…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … Vance and Trump v. Mazars, the Supreme Court rejected the claim that the President…
  2. … over by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. A super majority (67 out of 100 members)…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … Congress (legislative), and the Supreme Court (judicial). UNCOVER explored the history…
  2. … up of federal courts and the Supreme Court.  
  3. … re Gault is one of a number of Supreme Court cases that directly impacted the lives…
  4. … as the "nine old men" of the Supreme Court, asked Congress to appoint six new justices…
  5. … more information, link to Do Supreme Court Dissents Make a Difference to the Law?
  6. … older and the average age of the Supreme Court justices is 67-years-old.
  7. … Federal Judicial Branch, the Supreme Court, and State Courts
  8. … the front of the United States Supreme Court"EqualJusticeUnderLaw" by UpstateNYer is…
  9. … conservative viewpoints prevailing ("The Supreme Court's Enigmatic 'Shadow Docket'…
  10. … judicial branch (that includes the Supreme Court) and state courts. The Federal Judiciary…
  11. 3.1 ENGAGE:  What Supreme Court Cases Should All Teenagers Know?
  12. … received national publicity when the Supreme Court issued an unsigned, single paragraph…
  13. … administered by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. With Joe Biden's Inauguration…
  14. The Supreme Court has not always had 9 justices. Originally there were 6, a Chief Justice…
  15. … the first woman to serve on the Supreme Court, appointed by President Ronald Reagan…
  16. In addition to the Supreme Court, there are 94 federal district courts and 13 courts…
  17. … system of American Government, the Supreme Court has achieved a position of judicial…
  18. … across federal courts below the Supreme Court, researchers found that "female judges…
  19. … Once a decision is made by the Supreme Court, lower courts must apply that decision.
  20. The Supreme Court has both original jurisdiction (in cases involving conflicts between…
  21. The nine Justices of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President and confirmed…
  22. Reforming or Restructuring the Supreme Court
  23. … by James Earle Fraser on the Supreme Court Building's main steps"Contemplation Of Justice"…
  24. … also go to our wiki page:  The Supreme Court and Other Courts in American Government.
  25. … justices voted one way or the other (Supreme Court "Shadow Docket" Under Review by…
  26. … many proposals for reforming the Supreme Court: 1) increasing the number of justices;…
  27. … reforming and/or restructuring the Supreme Court to the center of American politics.…
  28. … c) the Judicial Branch and key Supreme Court decisions should every teenager know.
  29. The Supreme Court

Elections and Nominations

  1. … ruling in 2020 by the state's Supreme Court, Maine will become the first-ever state…
  2. … FairVote, July 6, 2020). In 2020, the Supreme Court unanimously upheld state laws that…
  3. … also included the Bush v. Gore Supreme Court case in which the Court stopped a recount…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. In the video below, Supreme Court Justices Sonia Sotomayor and Neil Gorsuch discuss…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … Amendment in 1868. It took a Supreme Court decision, United States v. Wong Kim Ark…
  2. … are Puerto Rican, is a current Supreme Court Justice. Deborah Aguiar-Velez is the…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … of Rights Established by the Supreme CourtImage from Office of the U.S. Attorney, District…
  2. … resistors, he appealed his case to the Supreme Court which upheld his conviction. That…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … mentioned in the Constitution, the Supreme Court has interpreted several of the amendments…
  2. … ruling precedent, set by the Supreme Court in Gibbons v. Odgen (1824) is that the…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … Center has overviews of more Supreme Court cases involving the 14th Amendment.
  2. … marriage were among the landmark Supreme Court decisions based on the 14th Amendment.
  3. … Area School District vs. B.L. Supreme Court decision (the so-called school cheerleader…
  4. … would be the legal basis for the Supreme Court’s subsequent decisions desegregating…
  5. … schoolhouse gate" declared the Supreme Court in the 1969 Tinker v. Des Moines case…
  6. … it took till the 1963 landmark Supreme Court case Gideon v. Wainwright to ensure that…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … (1875) eventually went to the Supreme Court that ruled the Constitution did not grant…
  2. Minor v. Happersett (1875) Supreme Court Case

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. … Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), the Supreme Court affirmed women’s constitutional…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … Garcetti v. Ceballos (2006), the Supreme Court ruled that public employees generally…
  2. … institutions of power and control. The Supreme Court’s 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … Brown voters. In June 2021, the Supreme Court allowed voter suppression laws in Arizona…
  2. … December 17, 1956, the United States Supreme Court affirmed the district court’s…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. Citizens United Supreme Court Decision
  2. … v. Federal Election Commission Supreme Court decision changed the rules about how candidates…

The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions
  2. … through amendments, landmark Supreme Court decisions, social and political movements,…

The Necessary and Proper Clause

  1. … v. United States (1997), the Supreme Court ruled that requiring states to follow federal…
  2. … Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court said Congress could not use the…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … overturning the Citizens United Supreme Court decision (from progressive and liberal…
  2. … The issue is likely to go the Supreme Court for resolution.

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. Dred Scott v Sanford Supreme Court Case
  2. … slave state. The case went to the Supreme Court where in 1857 Chief Justice Roger B.…
  3. Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Robbins Curtis who began his law career in Northfield,…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … Shelby County v. Holder, the Supreme Court rejected the VRA's "coverage formula" (Section…
  2. … Clayton County, Georgia case, the Supreme Court held that the Title VII of the 1964…
  3. … In Bostock v. Clayton County, the Supreme Court ruled that an employer cannot fire…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. 3. ENGAGE: Do Supreme Court Dissents Make a Difference to the Law? 
  2. … of Tears, Chief John Ross, and Supreme Court Cases Involving Native Americans
  3. … Literacy Connections: Reading Supreme Court Dissents Aloud
  4. … explain how cases come before the Supreme Court, how cases are argued, and how the…
  5. … co-workers. In a 5 to 4 vote, the Supreme Court overturned the lower court decision…
  6. "The Constitution means what the Supreme Court says it means," said Professor Eric J.…
  7. … Act of 2009 that reversed the Supreme Court’s decision. Ginsburg's dissent is credited…
  8. … Indian Removal Act went to the Supreme Court led by John Marshall. In a famous case,…
  9. Cases before the United States Supreme Court are decided by a majority vote of the justices…
  10. FOCUS QUESTION: How Does the Supreme Court Use the Power of Judicial Review to Interpret…
  11. … are many historic dissents in Supreme Court history: Benjamin Robbins Curtis in the…
  12. … in federal court. However, the Supreme Court (by a 5 to 4 vote) reversed that decision,…
  13. … June/early July), the United States Supreme Court decides between 70 and 80 cases and…
  14. … dissent spoken directly by a Supreme Court justice might influence people's thinking.
  15. … years as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; Andrew Jackson, the 7th President and…
  16. … the fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was born in Fauquier, Virginia in 1755.…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. FOCUS QUESTION: How Do Landmark Supreme Court Cases Impact Our Lives?
  2. Standard 5.6c: Supreme Court Decisions: Rights in Conflict
  3. Standard 5.6a: Supreme Court Decisions: First Amendment Rights
  4. Standard 5.6b: Supreme Court Decisions: Due Process and Equal Protection
  5. Standard 5.6: Significant Supreme Court Decisions
  6. How has the Supreme Court interpreted the rights of individuals in key areas of people's…
  7. … the first time in history, the Supreme Court announced it would make publicly available…
  8. … decision by eight years. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall represented…
  9. In 1969, by a 7 to 2 vote, the Supreme Court agreed with the students, declaring in…
  10. … Des Moines (1969) - Landmark Supreme Court Ruling on Behalf of Student Expression.
  11. … 5.6b, or 5.6c below] in which Supreme Court Decisions have made significant changes…
  12. Learn more about signficiant Supreme Court decisions at the First Amendment Encyclopedia…
  13. … television should be allowed in the Supreme Court and other courtrooms, while other…
  14. … judicial courtrooms, and if so, how Supreme Court proceedings should be televised or…
  15. … American politics. Although the Supreme Court established in West Virginia State Board…
  16. In 2008, the Supreme Court's decision in District of Columbia v. Heller expanded individuals'…
  17. … the school all the way to the Supreme Court.
  18. … coverage of all open sessions of the Supreme Court, unless a mjaority of the Justices…
  19. … That viewpoint won a significant Supreme Court victory in Printz v. United States (1997)…
  20. … L, a case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in June 2018, centers on a high school…
  21. … of a landmark decision by the Supreme Court. In just the past 70 years:
  22. … case, Engel v. Vitale (1962), the Supreme Court ruled that requiring prayer in public…
  23. Significant Supreme Court decisions known as landmark cases make huge changes in people's…
  24. … interpretations of the First Amendment, the Supreme Court has produced far-reaching…
  25. The Supreme Court, by an 8 to 1 majority, agreed that the student cannot be disciplined…

Functions of State and National Government

  1. The Supreme Court reaffirmed that principle in its decision in Worcester v. Georgia…
  2. … nation. In 2020, the United States Supreme Court declared that much of eastern Oklahoma…

United States and Massachusetts Constitutions

  1. … chief justice of the state’s Supreme Court declared slavery was unconstitutional…

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … by Oregon in 1914. But a 1923 Supreme Court decision struck down the District of Columbia’s…

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … marriage, following the state’s Supreme Court decision, Goodridge v. Massachusetts…
  2. … state. DOMA was overturned by the Supreme Court in U.S. v Windsor (2013) which held…
  3. … landmark Obergefell v. Hodges Supreme Court decision, means that same-sex couples can…
  4. … later overturned by the Hawaii Supreme Court, but a legal foundation for the freedom…

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. In 2018, however, the Supreme Court declared the PASPA unconstitutional under the 10th…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … landmark cases, the United States Supreme Court has expanded LGBTQIA rights:

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … students are based on a 1922 Supreme Court ruling in the case Zucht v. King. Religious…
  2. … 1905 Jacobson v. Massachusetts Supreme Court decision discussed in the UNCOVER section…
  3. … v. Massachusetts (1905), the Supreme Court upheld the authority of states to enforce…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. … states, people can also elect State Supreme Court Justices.

Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy

  1. … case Lovell v. City of Griffin, Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes authored…

Freedom of the Press

  1. … District v. Kuhlmeier (1988), the Supreme Court disagreed with the students, ruling…
  2. … security. By a 6 to 3 decision, the Supreme Court ruled against the Nixon Administration…
  3. The Supreme Court overturned Near's conviction, thereby establishing "a constitutional…
  4. The Supreme Court declared that the First Amendment protects the publication of statements…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. … Justice of the United States Supreme Court, is reported to have said that he always…

Tax

Introduction for Educators

  1. … Individualism favors cutting Taxes, dismantling government regulations, opposing…

Table of Contents

  1. Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

British Influences on American Government

  1. … property worth 50 pounds or were Taxpayers.
  2. … members met annually to vote on Taxation and set local laws. You can learn…

The Articles of Confederation

  1. … It did not have the power to Tax, but it could raise money from the states…
  2. … followers, facing heavy debt and high Taxes, decided to protest the state…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … Congressional representation and Taxes. While some delegates favored abolition…

Examine the Relationship of the Three Branches

  1. … Trump refused to release his Tax records to Congressional committees or federal…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … held together by a commitment to Tax reduction, corporate power, anti-abortion,…
  2. … populism" including corporate Tax cuts and government deregulation along…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … expected to perform) such as paying Taxes, serving on a jury when called,…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. … American Rescue Plan is the Child Tax Credit (CTC) that provides direct payments…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. Poll Taxes
  2. … expanded the right to vote, Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, and more recently,…
  3. … guilty to multiple counts of Tax evasion and campaign finance violations…
  4. A Poll Tax is a fee charged to anyone seeking to vote in an election. Poll…
  5. The Poll Tax in the United States, 1868-1966Posted on Wikimedia Commons by…
  6. … closely at how secret ballots, poll Taxes, literacy tests, and current day…
  7. … not. UNCOVER examined how poll Taxes, literacy tests, and more recently,…
  8. … get married, drive, pay income Tax, get a passport, leave school, work full…
  9. Online Resources for Voting, Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, and Voter Restriction…
  10. … reviews how secret ballots, poll Taxes, literacy tests and modern-day voter…
  11. Learn more about poll Taxes in United States history:

Public Service as a Career

  1. … These schools would be funded by Taxes and special fees paid by parents and…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … imposd what amounted to a poll Tax (a practice outlawed by the Constitution's…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … Amendment’s federal income Tax (from conservative groups).
  2. … claiming the amendment would lead to Tax dollars being spent on abortion,…

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … the power to levy and collect Taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce, coin…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … Change that Allows 'Millionaire's Tax' on Income Over $1 Million (WBUR, June…
  2. … can learn more about people's Taxes and how they are spent in Topic 6.9 of…
  3. … to Topic 6.9 for background on Taxes including progressive and regressive…
  4. … 4 cent per dollar increase in Tax on income over a million dollars, hence…

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: People’s Taxes and How They Are Spent
  2. Standard 6.9: Tax-Supported Facilities and Services
  3. … UNCOVER:  A Brief History of Taxation in the U.S.
  4. Types of Taxes
  5. Progressive and Regressive Taxation
  6. Racial and Gender Bias in the Tax System
  7. Online Resources for Taxes and History of Taxation
  8. Tax-Supported Culture for Kids on an App
  9. Explore How Are My State Taxes Spent? to see how much money is typically spent…
  10. local property Taxes
  11. … state and local governments use Taxes to provide services and facilities…
  12. Give examples of Tax-supported facilities and services provided by the Massachusetts…
  13. Lotteries are a form of regressive Taxation where lower-earning individuals…
  14. … pay seven different types of Taxes (Hess, 2014):
  15. … proposed an “Ultra-Millionaire Tax” that would place additional Taxes…
  16. property Taxes
  17. marijuna sales Taxes* 
  18. corporate Taxes
  19. But, there are more Taxes than federal Taxes. Using figures from the Bureau…
  20. … Service (IRS) is the nation’s Tax collection agency. Following the passage…
  21. People filling out Tax forms in Internal Revenue office, 1920(Credit: Library…
  22. business license Taxes
  23. … how the Wealthiest Avoid Income Taxes from ProPublicia (June 8, 2021).
  24. … money themselves through local Taxes. As a result, wealthier communities,…
  25. … Constitution gives Congress the power to Tax and spend, otherwise known as…
  26. sales Taxes
  27. … feature violence. The cost in Taxpayer-provided money is estimated to be…
  28. … establishing more fair and equitable Tax policies by increasing Taxes on…
  29. … the article, "The History of Taxes in the U.S.," Fontinelle (2019) noted…
  30. motor vehicle license Taxes
  31. Debates over Tax policy tend to focus on whether to implement a more progressive…
  32. Taxes and how state and local governments spend them were the focus of this…
  33. While everyone pays Taxes, the richest Americans pay the least, concluded…
  34. individual income Taxes
  35. Poster Declaring Women Who Pay Taxes Want Votes Too (1913)Image on Wikimedia…
  36. Once Tax money is collected, the Federal Government engages in two types of…
  37. … loopholes and deductions in the Tax laws. Donald Trump famously paid only…
  38. *Massachusetts gained a new source of Tax revenue when the first legal recreational…
  39. The Massachusetts income Tax is somewhat less regressive in nature. Since…
  40. To explore marijuana Taxation, read What is Massachusetts Planning To Do with…
  41. … reduction in amount of income to be Taxed) and exclusions (income that is…
  42. … collected $3,863 trillion in Taxes (U.S. Government Tax Revenue). A trillion…
  43. How much money do people pay in Taxes every year? Looking at the 153 million…
  44. … the center of discussions about Taxes are the terms Progressive Taxes and…
  45. Massachusetts collected $27.8 billion in Taxes in 2018. A billion is a thousand…
  46. … nothing is certain except death and Taxes" (Benjamin Franklin's Last Great…
  47. individual income Taxes
  48. Much of the Massachusetts Tax system is regressive, not progressive. Regressive…
  49. … a public policy perspective, Taxes involve two key political questions: 1)…
  50. … governments in Massachusetts get Tax revenue from multiple sources as shown…
  51. corporate income Taxes
  52. hotel Taxes
  53. … Black Americans "are paying more Taxes than white Americans because our Tax
  54. … gender bias is built into the U.S. Tax system, notes reporter Clark Merrefield…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … in offshore accounts to avoid Taxes, investigators, and accountability. Offshore…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … ties to Russia or his personal Tax returns. Nor did the Special Counsel subpoena…

Tinker v. Des Moines

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … the Supreme Court in the 1969 Tinker v. Des Moines case (the details of the case are in…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. 1.1. UNCOVER: Tinker v. Des Moines and the Boundaries of Student Speech in Schools
  2. Explore Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) - Landmark Supreme Court Ruling on Behalf of Student Expression.
  3. … video Constitution Hall Pass: Tinker v. Des Moines from the National Constitution Center.
  4. … UNCOVER reviewed the impact of the Tinker v. Des Moines decision in light of the larger topic…

Town meeting

British Influences on American Government

  1. … practiced government through Town meetings. Unlike in Virginia where people elected…

The Structure of Massachusetts State and Local Government

  1. … select boards, city councils and Town meetings.

Components of Local Government

  1. 1. INVESTIGATE: Town meetings, Open Meeting Laws, and Local School Board Elections
  2. Online Resources for Town meetings
  3. Town meetings
  4. There are two types of Town meetings in the United States: Open and Representative.
  5. A Town meeting is a form of direct democracy in which people from the town, rather…
  6. … other country in the world with Town meetings. Every Swiss community, from alpine…
  7. … part of the United States hold Town meetings where everyone can attend and speak,…
  8. *Note: The term "Town meeting" is also used in modern political campaigns where candidates…
  9. … government, INVESTIGATE examined Town meetings as a form of direct democracy used…
  10. … already-present complexities of Town meetings in today's society where not every community…
  11. … Mayor) and legislative branch (a Town meeting or town/city council), depending on…
  12. … traditions of New England-style Town meetings were upended by the COVID-19 pandemic.…
  13. The Town meeting is one of our most enduring political legacies from colonial America.…
  14. The earliest recorded Town meeting was in Dorchester, Massachusetts, October 8, 1633.…

Transgender

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … attitudes toward gay, lesbian, and Transgender people. What events and personalities…
  2. … bringing gender equality and Transgender rights to the forefront of people’s attention…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … North Carolina law dictating that Transgender people must use a particular bathroom.

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. 3. ENGAGE: What are Transgender Students' Rights at School?
  2. Court cases involving Transgender student rights at school center around three main…
  3. The rights of Transgender and gender non-conforming people is a complex and contested…
  4. Transgender refers to "people whose gender identity differs from the sex they were…
  5. … activities, you will analyze Transgender representation in television and movies…
  6. … high school students identify as Transgender. These studies also found that Transgender
  7. … students in the U.S. identify as Transgender, and more than one-third of them attempt…
  8. … asked what are the rights of Transgender students in K-12 schools.
  9. … sought to curtail rights for Transgender Americans.
  10. … policy and current struggles of Transgender students rights in schools.
  11. … media play in influencing how Transgender students are treated by others? 
  12. Transgender is a term for individuals whose “gender identity differs from the sex…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … confrontations between gay, lesbian, and Transgender individuals and police officers.…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. Transgender Protections
  2. … of Connecticut policy allowing Transgender students to compete on female track teams…
  3. Sports participation for Transgender youth has become one of the most polarizing Title…
  4. … involved two gay men and one Transgender woman who were fired by their employers…
  5. … current debates over the rights of Transgender individuals, including students in…
  6. … explicitly include lesbian, gay, and Transgender Americans. The Act was one of the…
  7. Gender Identity and Transgender Athletes

Core Documents: The Protection of Individual Rights

  1. … attitudes toward gay, lesbian, and Transgender people.

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer History. Newsela, a web resource…

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. 2.UNCOVER: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  2. … the United Nations in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights consists of 30 articles listing the basic…
  3. … Roosevelt and the writing of Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ENGAGE asked who wrote other declarations…
  4. … of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  5. … inspiring the writing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … other status. As set forth in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)—the foundation for international…

Vaccination

Introduction for Educators

  1. … individualism is seen in opposition to Vaccinations, mask mandates, online schooling,…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. 2. UNCOVER: COVID-19, Vaccinations, Face Masks, and Jacobson v. Massachusetts (1905)
  2. History of Vaccinations
  3. … government efforts to mandate Vaccinations. ENGAGE asked students to consider the…
  4. … government have mandated COVID Vaccinations for all citizens, although some private…
  5. … information about the virus and Vaccinations whose advice most people will follow.
  6. … Varicella vaccines. Mandatory Vaccinations for public school students are based on…
  7. … community to offer free smallpox Vaccinations. The town of Milton’s action was…
  8. Vaccinations as a public health policy are not new historically. During the Revolutionary…
  9. … states to enforce compulsory Vaccination laws, confirming the "state's duty to guard…
  10. … federal government cannot mandate Vaccinations, but state governments have the authority…
  11. … national governments can mandate Vaccinations as well as require face masks and/or…
  12. … power of governments to compel Vaccination is limited, public health officials, including…
  13. All states require Vaccinations for for school attendance for diseases such as flu,…
  14. … offer prizes and even entry into Vaccination lotteries to people who voluntarily…

Components of Local Government

  1. … and disputes about masks and Vaccinations as well as threats to teacher safety and…

Vaccine

10th Amendment to the Constitution

  1. … for out of state travelers; and Vaccine distribution priorties and procedures.…

Responsibilities of Federal, State and Local Government

  1. … the History of Pandemics and Vaccines
  2. Vaccine Mandates for Children
  3. … (Key Questions about COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates, KFF, April 2021).
  4. Vaccines are "injections" (shots), liquids, pills, or nasal sprays you take to…
  5. … MMR, Hepatitis B, and Varicella Vaccines. Mandatory vaccinations for public school…
  6. … Measles (1963), and Mumps (1967) (Vaccine History: Developments by Year, Children's…
  7. … groups, every state mandates other Vaccines for children and adults (The New…
  8. … workplace," a provision that supports Vaccine mandates.
  9. … Republican-led states stood against Vaccine mandates. Texas Governor Greg Abbott…
  10. … requiring children to have a COVID-19 Vaccine to attend school.
  11. … on both sides of the required Vaccine or no required Vaccine issue. Some states…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … found that 65% of shares of anti-Vaccine misinformation on social media came…

Voter fraud

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. In legal terms, Voter fraud is defined as votes cast illegally by an individual such…
  2. … these laws are needed to prevent Voter fraud, although virtually no evidence of such…
  3. … Donald Trump and his supporters, Voter fraud is "exceedingly rare" in United States…
  4. … Vote-By-Mail Work and Does It Increase Voter fraud? Brookings, June 22, 2020). There…
  5. The Myth of Voter fraud

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … election was "strong evidence" of Voter fraud. The video, which was shot in Russia,…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … videos of Joe Biden "admitting to Voter fraud" had been viewed 17 million times before…

Voter suppression

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. VOTING RIGHTS AND Voter suppression

Elections and Nominations

  1. … history and current efforts of Voter suppression can be found in Topic 4.5 in this book.

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … fair election through systematic Voter suppression or intimidation, such as buying votes,…
  2. … fraud exists (Voter Fraud?  Or Voter suppression?).
  3. 2.UNCOVER: Voter suppression and Barriers to Voting
  4. … book, One Person, No Vote: How Voter suppression is Destroying Our Democracy.
  5. … literacy tests and modern-day Voter suppression laws have impacted people’s voting behaviors…
  6. Voter suppression has been defined as "an effort or activity designed to prevent people…
  7. For a 2018 example of Voter suppression practices, read the following news story: After…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … 2021, the Supreme Court allowed Voter suppression laws in Arizona to stand, further narrowing…

Voting

Table of Contents

  1. Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. Voting RIGHTS AND VOTER SUPPRESSION

Teacher-Designed Learning Plans

  1. Voting from Ancient Athens to Modern America
  2. State Voting Patterns: Using History to Predict the Future

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … liberties, economic justice, Voting access, and overcoming the historical legacies…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … there was civic participation, Voting rights, and legislative bodies (the Assembly…
  2. Many consider Voting for President every four years as their primary democratic…
  3. … committees, but actual student Voting power is fairly rare. In Maryland, however,…
  4. … state; b) civic participation and Voting rights, c) legislative bodies, d) constitution…
  5. … Representatives voted to allow remote Voting and virtual hearings, ending a…
  6. … parents claimed student member Voting rights violated the Maryland state Constitution…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … Roman male citizens had some Voting power. Finally, there was the belief in…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … Resources for Government and Voting in Colonial America
  2. … first constitution in 1776 gave Voting rights to “all inhabitants of this…
  3. … chapter explore democracy and Voting in colonial America, the impact of Anne…
  4. Voting, though not uniform in every colony, was done by about 10% of the population.…
  5. … people now support lowering the Voting age to 16 or 17 for state and local elections…
  6. A lower Voting age is seen as a way to encourage greater participation by young…

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … Senate where each state had two Voting members. There is more information about…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … health care, shopping and buying, Voting and more:

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. Puerto Rico elects a non-Voting representative in Congress; the District of Columbia…

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. … averted only when one Justice began Voting to uphold New Deal legislation and…
  2. … dramatic increases in mail-in Voting resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. 
  3. … American politics (Democrats have Voting majorities in big, largely urban states;…
  4. … House of Representatives has 435 Voting members, each of whom is elected every…
  5. … of color does not include non-Voting delegates from U.S. territories and the…

Elections and Nominations

  1. … Instant Runoff/Ranked Choice Voting?
  2. … Instant Runoff/Ranked Choice Voting
  3. Teacher-Designed Learning Plan: State Voting Patterns: Using History to Predict…
  4. … specific state-approved early Voting procedures. Toobin notes that there are…
  5. … early and in-person election day Voting. Primary elections have also been delayed…
  6. Maine adopted Rank Choice Voting for primary and federal elections in 2018. After…
  7. Instant Runoff Voting (IRV)—also called rank-choice Voting (RCV)—is a widely…
  8. … constitutional authority to postpone Voting or the meeting of the electoral…
  9. … elections, becoming the largest Voting population in the country to do so.
  10. … learn more about ranked-choice Voting and other election reform proposals in…
  11. … Explanation of Instant Runoff Voting from the Minnesota House of Representatives…
  12. … Maine Committee for Ranked Choice Voting (2016):
  13. … Preferential Ballot for Ranked Choice Voting "Preferential ballot eo" by Rspeer…
  14. … elections, citizens determine, by Voting, who will represent them in the federal,…
  15. … overwhelmingly supported Gore. Voting machines in a district heavily populated…
  16. … instant runoff/ranked choice Voting.
  17. State Voting Patterns: Using History to Predict the Future is a learning activity…
  18. … business-friendly candidates (Ranked-Choice Voting is Already Changing Politics…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … must divide their state into Voting districts every ten years, following the…
  2. … the state legislature create Voting districts to favor the candidates of the…
  3. … Politicians can readjust the size of Voting districts, often along racial and…
  4. … size of a region), each state Voting district is supposed to have an equal share…

The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens

  1. … importance of citizenship and Voting (Note: The YouTube version of the video…
  2. … perform including obeying laws, Voting in elections, working with elected leaders,…
  3. … political and civic life through Voting, public service, political protest,…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … previous position of servitude. Voting rights for women, however, were not guaranteed.

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. Teacher-Designed Learning Plan: Voting From Ancient Athens to Modern America
  2. Standard 4.5: Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process
  3. Expanded Early Voting 
  4. … illegally by an individual such as Voting twice, impersonating another voter,…
  5. Some observers believe that Voting should be made compulsory in the United States…
  6. … behind a screen or curtain at a Voting booth (like the one pictured below) to…
  7. … promote civic participation and Voting among its students? Students were encouraged…
  8. … new holiday is then added and Voting is further highlighted as everyone's civic…
  9. … 2015, less than 39% of the Swiss Voting-age population cast ballots for the…
  10. See also, Voting Rights: A Short History from the Carnegie Corporation of New…
  11. … at Home) and Universal Mail-In Voting
  12. … Amendment, women were already Voting in 15 states (Centuries of Citizenship:…
  13. … expand their participation in Voting. In every presidential election before…
  14. … the political process through Voting? The INVESTIGATE module for this standard…
  15. … Voter Suppression and Barriers to Voting
  16. … voted. The numbers of people Voting have been declining ever since.
  17. … proposals include no-excuse absentee Voting and extending all-mail elections…
  18. Voting from Ancient Athens to Modern America is a learning unit developed by…
  19. … Interactive Guide to Alternative Voting Systems.
  20. Voting Booths for an American ElectionPublic Domain Image from the George W.…
  21. … also found other reasons for not Voting besides disinterest or alienation. Many…
  22. … more? Check out KQED Learn's "Is Voting Too Hard in the U.S.?" video (below)…
  23. … penalties (22 Countries Where Voting is Compulsory).
  24. Mail-in Voting (then called absentee Voting) first began during the Civil War…
  25. … to keep Irish immigrants from Voting. In the American South, literacy tests…
  26. … visual timeline of the History of Voting in America from the Office of the Secretary…
  27. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 ended the use of literacy tests (Literacy Tests…
  28. … youth-related events, and extending Voting rights for ex-prisoners.
  29. … (ID) laws were used to limit Voting by African Americans and other people of…
  30. Ranked Choice Voting or Instant Runoff Voting (IRV)
  31. … the major reasons given for not Voting were missing the registration deadline,…
  32. Lower the Voting Age to 16 or 17
  33. Women Voters and the Voting Gender Gap
  34. … set forth in the Constitution, Voting is the most commonly recognized form of…
  35. Voting rights for African American males were established by the 15th Amendment…
  36. … civic participation, including Voting, by students. Democracy Prep serves students…
  37. … vote was New Mexico in 1962 (Voting Rights for Native Americans, Library of…
  38. … and local officials to provide Voting booths where individuals could vote in…
  39. … parties began proposing state-level Voting reform legislation, filling hundreds…
  40. Compulsory Voting and Universal Civic Duty Voting
  41. … section provides an overview of Voting reform proposals. What changes are you…
  42. 3. ENGAGE: Voting by Mail and How Would You Get More People, Especially Young…
  43. … that instilling a ethos that Voting is a civic duty is the way to promote greater…
  44. Early Voting means that people can vote on specified days and times before an…
  45. This Voting timeline sets the stage for two major major Voting rights bills that…
  46. Voting Rights for Women were established by the ratification of the 19th Amendment…
  47. … there was "no evidence that any Voting system deleted or lost votes, changed…
  48. Although restrictions on Voting by race or gender is no longer allowed by law,…
  49. … then design your own game about Voting and politics.
  50. Voting offers citizens the opportunity to participate directly in democratic…
  51. … struggles to expand access to Voting, a surprisingly low percentage of people…
  52. … Resources for Women's Suffrage, Voting, and Not Voting
  53. … vote than men, part of a marked Voting gender gap. The 1980 Presidential election…
  54. … legislatureshad passed a wave of Voting laws, puting in place the following…
  55. Lowering the Voting age follows from the fact that in most states, 16 year-olds…
  56. … election day or any day that early Voting is offered to vote in general, primary,…
  57. Online Resources for Voting, Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, and Voter Restriction…
  58. … Association, challenged in court Voting restrictions against women.  
  59. … historian Jill Lepore (2008, 2018), Voting was done in public, sometimes by…
  60. Voting and the 2016 and 2020 Presidential Elections
  61. Learn more at a U.S. Voting Rights Timeline (Northern California Citizenship…
  62. Ranked Choice or Instant Runoff Voting is being adopted by communities around…
  63. … reasons might people have for not Voting
  64. … (ID) Laws, cutbacks in early Voting times and days, and reduced opportunities…
  65. New Hampshire Voting Place Sign, 2013Posted on Wikimedia Commons by Mark Buckawicki…
  66. … helping to limit Black men from Voting.
  67. Ranked choice Voting gives you the power to rank candidates from your favorite…
  68. Voting by mail does not give an advantage to either major political party nor…
  69. … laws have impacted people’s Voting behaviors and Voting rights. An ENGAGE…
  70. … designed to prevent people from Voting by making Voting impossible, dangerous…
  71. Read Voting by Mail? an excerpt from the book Democracy in America? What Has…

Election Information

  1. … declared that “the right of Voting for representatives is the primary right…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … narrowing the impact of the 1965 Voting Rights Act to prevent discriminatory…

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … and more male than the overall Voting population. The result is that "when the…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. … was arrested for the crime of Voting while female. In 1920, that "crime" became…
  2. … most amendments have dealt with Voting procedures, elections, and government…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … the political participation and Voting of people of color. In 1968, the Kerner…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … The 1964 Civil Rights Law and Voting Rights Act of 1965
  2. Online Resources for the Voting Rights Act
  3. The Voting Rights Act of 1965
  4. … Dakota were in violation of the Voting Rights Act (Why Is Section 4 of the Voting
  5. The result is that the Voting Rights Act remains substantially weakened till…
  6. … created to enforce protect Black Voting rights from intimidation and violence…
  7. … Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act; Title IX of the Education Amendments…
  8. The 1965 Voting Rights Act (VRA) was designed to “ensure state and local governments…
  9. … read an longer overview of the Voting Rights Act from the Brennan Center for…
  10. … in the areas of civil rights, Voting rights, gender rights, and disability rights.
  11. … 1964 Civil Rights Law and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 are two of the most…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … intended ot promote and protect Voting rights in the United States. Finishing…

Components of Local Government

  1. … 10% of eligible voters actually Voting.

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … its advocacy for civil rights, Voting rights, school desegregation, and equal…

Digital News and Social Media

  1. … and infected the computers at a Voting technology company” (quoted in Election…

Evaluating Print and Online Media

  1. … fact-checked tweets about mail-in Voting made by President Donald Trump (MIT…

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … President's posts about mail-in Voting.

Voting rights

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. Voting rights AND VOTER SUPPRESSION

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … there was civic participation, Voting rights, and legislative bodies (the Assembly…
  2. … state; b) civic participation and Voting rights, c) legislative bodies, d) constitution…
  3. … parents claimed student member Voting rights violated the Maryland state Constitution…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … first constitution in 1776 gave Voting rights to “all inhabitants of this colony,…
  2. … current debates over extending Voting rights to 16 and 17-year-olds.

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … previous position of servitude. Voting rights for women, however, were not guaranteed.

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. See also, Voting rights: A Short History from the Carnegie Corporation of New York (2019).
  2. The Voting rights Act of 1965 ended the use of literacy tests (Literacy Tests and the…
  3. … youth-related events, and extending Voting rights for ex-prisoners.
  4. Voting rights for African American males were established by the 15th Amendment in 1870…
  5. … vote was New Mexico in 1962 (Voting rights for Native Americans, Library of Congress).…
  6. … the stage for two major major Voting rights bills that have been introduced in Congress…
  7. Voting rights for Women were established by the ratification of the 19th Amendment in…
  8. Learn more at a U.S. Voting rights Timeline (Northern California Citizenship Project,…
  9. … people’s voting behaviors and Voting rights. An ENGAGE module asks how the United…
  10. … (quoted in The True History of Voting rights, Teaching Tolerance). Voter suppression…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. … narrowing the impact of the 1965 Voting rights Act to prevent discriminatory voting…

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … The 1964 Civil Rights Law and Voting rights Act of 1965
  2. Online Resources for the Voting rights Act
  3. The Voting rights Act of 1965
  4. … Dakota were in violation of the Voting rights Act (Why Is Section 4 of the Voting rights
  5. The result is that the Voting rights Act remains substantially weakened till Congress…
  6. … created to enforce protect Black Voting rights from intimidation and violence by southern…
  7. … Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting rights Act; Title IX of the Education Amendments…
  8. The 1965 Voting rights Act (VRA) was designed to “ensure state and local governments…
  9. … read an longer overview of the Voting rights Act from the Brennan Center for Justice.
  10. … in the areas of civil rights, Voting rights, gender rights, and disability rights.
  11. … 1964 Civil Rights Law and the Voting rights Act of 1965 are two of the most important…

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … intended ot promote and protect Voting rights in the United States. Finishing the 2019-2020…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … its advocacy for civil rights, Voting rights, school desegregation, and equal justice,…

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 ended the use of literacy tests (Literacy Tests and the Right to Vote).

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … The 1964 Civil Rights Law and Voting Rights Act of 1965
  2. The Voting Rights Act of 1965
  3. … 1964 Civil Rights Law and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 are two of the most important pieces of…

W.E.B. DuBois

The Constitutional Convention

  1. … written more than 125 years ago, W.E.B. DuBois (1896) framed the contradiction thusly:…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. Online Resources for W.E.B. DuBois and the NAACP
  2. … Great Barrington, Massachusetts, W.E.B. DuBois was an immensely influential African…
  3. W.E.B. DuBois’ life and writings, said Henry Louis Gates (2019), “often set the…
  4. W.E.B. DuBois is in the second row at this Niagara movement meeting in Fort Erie, Canada,…

Women

Introduction for Educators

  1. … cases, LGBTQ history resources, Women’s history materials, and other online…
  2. … Matter, Student Rights, Influential Women, Election 2020, Media Literacy,…
  3. … been denied Black Americans, Women, Native Americans, Latinx Americans, and…

Learning Pathway: Black Lives Matter

  1. … include: Student Rights, Influential Women, Election 2020, Media Literacy,…

Learning Pathway: Influential Women

  1. Influential Women in U.S. History Choice Board (Interactive Slides)
  2. Women's History Month Choice Board
  3. Bonus Resource: Women and the American Story from the New York Historical Society…

Learning Pathway: Student Rights

  1. … Black Lives Matter, Influential Women, Election 2020, Media Literacy, and Current…

Learning Pathway: Election 2020

  1. … Student Rights, Influential Women, Black Lives Matter, Media Literacy, and…

Learning Pathway: Current Events

  1. … Student Rights, Influential Women, Black Lives Matter, Media Literacy, and…

The Philosophical Foundations of the United States Political System

  1. … economic democracy and issues around Women's rights, civil liberties, economic…

The Government of Ancient Athens

  1. … democracy, particularly in terms of Women’s roles, before considering how…
  2. Women were excluded from Olympic events with men. Unmarried girls were allowed…
  3. … every Olympics since then - a Women’s marathon was added in 1984.
  4. … for ten years without appeal. Women had “virtually no political rights of…
  5. … in Athens' limited democracy. Women, children, slaves, and foreigners were…
  6. … were significant differences in Women’s roles in Athens and Sparta. Athenian…
  7. "Hydria illustrating three Women (ca. 430 BCE.)" by Dorieo is licensed under…

The Government of the Roman Republic

  1. … everyday violence. Additionally, Women could not attend or vote in political…

Enlightenment Thinkers and Democratic Government

  1. … Literacy Connections: 21st Century Women STEM Innovators
  2. … Olympe De Gouges and Rights of Women
  3. Online Resources for Women Trailblazers
  4. … de Gouges, and the Rights of Women
  5. Sisters in Innovation: 20 Women Inventors You Should Know from The Mighty Girl…
  6. … the traditional gender roles Women were expected to play in European society.…
  7. … was one of the African American Women whose math and science work were essential…
  8. … schools; such education would give Women the right to earn their own living…
  9. … is historical background for Women in math and science at the wiki page Women
  10. "How many Women thus waste life away the prey of discontent, who might have…
  11. … Wollstonecraft believed that Women should have the same rights as men (including…
  12. … Revolution and Main Ideas of Men and Women Enlightenment Thinkers.
  13. … was a writer and advocate for Women’s rights. She believed that Women should…
  14. … Who Were History’s Important Women Change-Makers in Math, Science, and Politics?
  15. … of Democratic Government and Women's Political Empowerment.
  16. Twitter banner created for #wikiWomeninred and the Womeninred project by Victuallers"May7…
  17. … accomplishments of 21st century Women innovators in the media and think about…
  18. … writings and actions of men and Women philosophers, scientists, and change-makers.
  19. … mathematics and coding in a time when Women were not taught math. She became…
  20. … all men—literally men and not Women—had the political rights to life, liberty,…
  21. … Declaration of the Rights of Women and Female Citizen, a stirring call for…
  22. … Newton and Thomas Jefferson. Women too, though often downplayed or ignored…
  23. … French writer and activist for Women’s rights during the French Revolution.…
  24. Women, whose work in philosophy, science, and politics is often neglected or…

British Influences on American Government

  1. … Anne Hutchinson and Mary Dyer: Women's Roles in Colonial America
  2. … Resources for Anne Hutchinson and Women's Roles in Colonial America
  3. … about the roles and struggles of Women in early American society. Although…
  4. … especially when the dissenters were Women. But the examples of the Women's…
  5. … religious dissenter and advocate for Women in challenging male authority. Through…
  6. … XIV, Peter the Great and many Women rulers including Hatshepsut, Nefertiti,…
  7. Women lived in a patriarchal society. They had no rights, they could not vote,…
  8. In some places, Women who owned property, free Black people, and Native Americans…
  9. Women had central roles in every aspect of colonial life outside the home as…
  10. … certain amount of money. Slaves, Women, Jews, Catholics and men too poor to…
  11. The Women's Museum of California has short summaries of several notable Women
  12. … Learn more from the National Women's History Museum's Biography of Anne Hutchinson.

Native American Influences on U.S. Government

  1. … people were involved and that many Women and children were killed in the raid…
  2. … impacted the thinking of early Women suffragists including Lucy Stone, Lucretia…

The Development of the United States Government

  1. … struggles of people of color, Women, and LGBTQIA individuals for equal rights…

The Revolutionary Era and the Declaration of Independence

  1. … INVESTIGATE discussed efforts by Women to assert their rights and freedoms…
  2. … list of demands for equality for Women in the home, at work, and in education,…
  3. … Eleanor Roosevelt worked for Women’s rights and the end of discrimination…
  4. … the events and issues that led Women to declare their rights as equal members…
  5. … influential first ladies and Women leaders in United States history.  
  6. … an emphasis on the rights of Women, African Americans, workers, and people…
  7. … oppressed and disenfranchised groups (Women, African Americans, farmers, workers,…
  8. … Declaration of Sentiments and Women’s Rights in Early America

Debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  1. … Warren, and the Political Roles of Women
  2. … Resources for the Political Roles of Women in the Early United States
  3. … examined the political roles of Women through the actions of Abigail Adams…
  4. … outline the two sides, the role of Women in the debates, and how those disagreements…
  5. … a dramatic departure from how Women were supposed to behave at the time.
  6. … the Constitution, the voices of Women were heard in the debates over ratification…
  7. Abigail Adams was an advocate for Women’s rights, supporter of education for…
  8. … (Michals, 2015, para. 1; National Women's History Museum). Warren was both…

Articles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights

  1. … Americans, Native Americans, Women, Latinos, LBGTQ individuals, and other ostracized…
  2. … indigenous tribes as well as Women (Lepore, 2021). Indeed, the struggle to…

Branches of the Government and the Separation of Powers

  1. … I am not the candidate of the Women's movement of this country, although I…
  2. Learn more at History of Women of Color in U.S. Politics.

The Roles of the Congress, the President, and the Courts

  1. Women of Color in Congress
  2. It is true that number of Women being elected to government offices at the national,…
  3. … about 36% of sitting judges are Women, maintaining what the American Constitution…
  4. … the term given to the lack of Women judges at different levels of the American…
  5. … on races still being decided) Women in the House of Representatives, besting…
  6. … will have the highest number of Women of color, including Black, Asian and…
  7. … Clinton (2008 & 2016) were all Women who unsuccessfully ran for President.…
  8. Online Resources for Women Running for President and Other Political Offices
  9. … has been a long time coming for Women of color. Patsy Mink was the first woman…
  10. Women—who currently outnumber men in the U.S. population—hold less than…
  11. Why do you think Women of color have lagged so far behind White Women in being…
  12. … state level, approximately 2,118 Women served in the 50 state legislatures…
  13. Women who actively campaigned for President in 2020 included Senators Kamala…
  14. … has proposed having the most Women ever serve in his Cabinet, including the…

The Role of Political Parties

  1. … net programs directed toward Women and people of color. Ironically, in the…
  2. … Party). Political activism by Women was also an important party of the Black…
  3. … what it should do” (League of Women Voters California Education Fund, 2013,…

Becoming a Citizen

  1. … effectively prevented all Chinese Women from immigrating to the U.S.) and the…

Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens and Non-Citizens

  1. … given to Fred Korematsu or other Women and men who fought to establish and…

Civic, Political, and Private Life

  1. Media Literacy Connections: Women Political Leaders in the Media
  2. Impacts of Women's Political Leadership
  3. 2. UNCOVER: Women's Political Participation Around the World
  4. … places, quotas reserve seats for Women in national legislatures. In other places,…
  5. … was the first country to grant Women the right to vote in 1893. Today, Vatican…
  6. … Sirleaf (Liberia) were among the Women leading countries in 2019 (Female Heads…
  7. Media coverage of Women in political roles can vary greatly. Some Women are…
  8. Online Resources on Women's Political Participation Around the World
  9. … political life, UNCOVER examined Women's political participation around the…
  10. In 2016 in Iceland, Women held 30 of 63 seats in Parliament making it the most…
  11. Even with the right to vote, Women’s entry into positions of political leadership…
  12. … examples where quotas have expanded Women's political participation. India…
  13. … international tensions. Exploring why Women-led nations did better addressing…
  14. … activities, you will examine how Women political leaders are represented in…
  15. "Do Women leaders perform differently than men in similar positions?"
  16. Consult Women's Power Index, an interactive map from the Council on Foreign…
  17. … video of interest, check out Women Leaders of the Yukon First Nations (TEDWomen,…
  18. … information, go to ENGAGE: Can a Women Be Elected President or Vice-President…
  19. … the world that have quotas for Women's electoral participation in government…
  20. … pandemic. Other modules examine Women's political participation (political…
  21. Empowering Women Poster from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific…
  22. … country-by-country breakdown of Women's participation in electoral politics…

Fundamental Principles and Values of American Political and Civic Life

  1. … servitude. Voting rights for Women, however, were not guaranteed.
  2. … inequalities in the status of Women contradicted the idea of equal rights.
  3. … schools, securing equality for Women, and creating the right to sexual privacy.…

Voting and Citizen Participation in the Political Process

  1. … and New Jersey allowed some Women to vote until 1807.
  2. … the Constitution did not grant Women the right to vote (Virginia Minor and…
  3. Since 1980, Women have continued to expand their participation in voting. In…
  4. Women Voters and the Voting Gender Gap
  5. … colonists arrived in North America, Women, people of color, and even groups…
  6. Voting Rights for Women were established by the ratification of the 19th Amendment…
  7. Online Resources for Women's Suffrage, Voting, and Not Voting
  8. Today, Women are more likely to vote than men, part of a marked voting gender…
  9. … Minor, an officer in the National Women’s Suffrage Association, challenged…
  10. … 2016 presidential elections, Women outvoted men by 10 million ballots, a number…

Election Information

  1. … cities and small towns - although Women were not allowed to debate (Lepore,…

Leadership and the Qualities of Political Leaders

  1. Margaret Sanger was a Women's reproductive rights and birth control advocate,…
  2. … names of the five most famous Women in American history. They could not list…
  3. … (1965), the Supreme Court affirmed Women’s constitutional right to use contraceptives.…
  4. … this topic explore five more Women and men, straight and gay, Black and White,…

Cooperation Between Individuals and Elected Leaders

  1. … union organizers, gay men and Women, student activists, and environmentalists.…

Public Service as a Career

  1. … careers in law or the church. Women ran "Dame Schools" in their homes for young…
  2. … teachers, and to meet this demand, Women were hired, although paid one-third…

Liberty in Conflict with Equality or Authority

  1. … social, and economic realities for Women, people of color, LGBTQIA individuals,…
  2. … by African Americans, Latinos, Women, workers, and LGBTQ people. UNCOVER examined…
  3. … movements of African Americans, Women, LGBTQIA individuals, and workers as…
  4. … Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, Women, workers, disabled individuals, and…

Political Courage and Those Who Affirmed or Denied Democratic Ideals

  1. Women and men who demonstrate political courage are essential to a democracy,…
  2. … filled with examples of courageous Women and men who, facing discrimination,…
  3. … Boycott (Browder v. Gayle The Women Before Rosa Parks).
  4. … the little-known roles of two Women reporters who documented the events.
  5. … subsequently joined three other Women—Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, and…

The Role of Political Protest

  1. … entire genre of anti-war novels by Women writers (see 50 Novels By Women Writers…
  2. … elimination of night work by Women and children.

Public and Private Interest Groups, PACs, and Labor Unions

  1. … founded the Ladies' Auxiliary (Women's Economic Councils) also in 1925.
  2. … 1791. The first union of working Women was the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association,…

The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … issues around the struggles of Women, people of color, and individuals with…

Amendments to the Constitution

  1. Suffragist, feminist, and Women’s rights activist, Alice Paul wrote the Equal…
  2. … rights for same sex couples, Women being drafted into the military, and unisex…
  3. … rights for African Americans and Women, and Prohibition and its repeal. However,…

Constitutional Issues Related to the Civil War, Federal Power, and Individual Civil Rights

  1. … Mint will implement the American Women Quarters Program honoring the accomplishments…
  2. … activities, you will analyze how Women and people of color have been displayed…
  3. … men, conveying a message that Women and people of color are less deserving…
  4. … images for the $10 focused on Women’s suffrage advocates Lucretia Mott, Sojourner…
  5. … historical figures involved in Women’s suffrage and movement for civil rights.…
  6. The history of Women and people of color on currency are largely untold stories.…
  7. … Americans, Latinx Americans, Women, and other marginalized and oppressed groups…
  8. … resourcesforhistory teachers wiki page Women of the Abolitionist Movement.

Civil Rights and Equal Protection for Race, Gender, and Disability

  1. … same athletic activities? Adult Women and men compete against one another in…
  2. … transgender girls from participating in Women's sports. Idaho also legalized…
  3. … U.S. Soccer, and the National Women's Hockey League) have allowed transgender…
  4. … civil rights for people of color, Women, and individuals with disabilities.…
  5. Throughout United States history, Women, people of color, and individuals with…
  6. … medical degrees were earned by Women. Currently Women earn 47% of law degrees…
  7. Helen Keller advocated for Women’s suffrage, birth control, and pacifism.…
  8. … participation and competition for Women did not begin until the 1880s with…
  9. … athletics and sports for girls and Women. Before Title IX, only one in 27 girls…
  10. … qualified for all five individual Women's track and field events in the 1932…
  11. The Women's Sports Foundation (2019) contends that co-educational mixed gender…
  12. You can follow the latest in Women's sports from the On Her Turf blog from NBC…
  13. … progressive causes, fighting for Women’s rights, and opposing discrimination…

Marbury v. Madison and the Principle of Judicial Review

  1. … to the insidious way in which Women can be victims of pay discrimination.”
  2. … the quest for equal rights for Women.

Significant Supreme Court Decisions

  1. … basketball shoes. 2020 U.S. Open Women's tennis champion Naomi Osaka wore seven…
  2. … one of the starters on the U.S. Women's soccer team knelt before the kickoff…

Enumerated and Implied Powers

  1. … around the world? Is excluding Women from the draft unconstitutional? Should…

Additional Provisions of the Massachusetts Constitution

  1. … Language in Media Coverage of Women in Politics
  2. … Congress" or if they describe Women and men in politics differently?
  3. … language in media coverage of Women in politics while envisioning how people's…
  4. … langauge combats negative stereotypes toward Women while promoting broader…
  5. … gained prominence following the Women's Strike for Equality led by Betty Friedan…

Leadership Structure of the Massachusetts Government

  1. … firsts and key achievements for Women and people of color (see Table 6.8 below).
  2. … equity in jobs and careers for Women and men - is at the center of how democracy…
  3. … Day is the day in a year that Women must work until they earn what men earned…
  4. … Equal Pay Law mandating that Women be paid the same as men when doing the same…
  5. … industries in this country.  Women make less money than men, often much less—on…

Tax-Supported Facilities and Services

  1. Poster Declaring Women Who Pay Taxes Want Votes Too (1913)Image on Wikimedia…

Competing Information in a Free Press

  1. … widespread sexual misconduct toward Women by prominent men in business, the…

Writing the News: Different Formats and Their Functions

  1. 2. UNCOVER: Pioneering Women Cartoonists: Jackie Ormes and Dale Messick
  2. The histories of Women writing about sports revealed the tensions of sexism…
  3. … at age 97. A whole series of Women (including birth-control pioneer Margaret…
  4. … View: Why is it difficult for Women to enter and succeed in professions where…
  5. … achieved enormous circulations. Women became leaders in the photojournalist…
  6. … comic strips drawn by pioneering Women cartoonists, Jackie Ormes (writing 1930…
  7. Women correspondents have played essential roles in documenting the events of…
  8. Women today continue to face widespread gender discrimination in what is still…
  9. … Lady Reporter’: Introducing Women Baseball Writers, 1900-30). New Orleans-based…
  10. … for the comic strip were all Women, including the writers and artists who continued…
  11. Women also contributed immensely to cartoon animation and the development of…
  12. … media, but the experiences for Women and men journalists are dramatically different.
  13. … Ormes, Dale Messick and Other Women Cartoonists and Animators
  14. The history of Women sportswriters is a striking example of how the inequalities…
  15. … created memorable independent Women characters, including Torchy Brown and…
  16. … overlooked and largely unknown Women cartoonists from the mid-20th century.

Analyzing Editorials, Editorial Cartoons, or Op-Ed Commentaries

  1. … the genre to build support for Women's suffrage (The New York Times, August…
  2. … Americans, Native Americans, and Women could not. Nast constructs a powerful…