Index of Topics

Topic References
Behavior 24Caring 2Engagement 5Environment 84History 52Industrial 36Inspiration 4Knowing 44Language 33Love 8Management 6Mathematics 19Morality 4Motivation 4Nature 139Peace 4Physical 98Politics 11Psychology 15Reflection 22Science 85Social Science 3Sociology 1Theory 78Tradition 48

Behavior

Education as a Social Function

…with others is as much a social mode of Behavior as is the most overt cooperativ……lly produces in him a certain system of Behavior, a certain disposition of actio……in mental and emotional dispositions of Behavior. The distinction is not, howeve……the mental and emotional disposition of Behavior in individuals by engaging them…

Education as Direction

… into account the consequences of their Behavior upon himself, then there is a c……ferent means that the actual stimuli to Behavior are different. Conscious instru……f natural objects enter into associated Behavior. Only a small number of natural……divert him from his troublesome line of Behavior. His sensitiveness to approbati……ond to the disturbance as a meaning. My Behavior has a mental quality. When thin……harm by getting in the way. Compare the Behavior of a beginner in riding a bicyc……reproducing them in their own scheme of Behavior. According to our theory, what …

Experience and Thinking

…htful action are routine and capricious Behavior. The former accepts what has be…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…tions of endeavors. In other cases, the Behavior of surrounding things and perso……ned are not isolated qualities, but the Behavior which may be expected from a th…

Interest and Discipline

…and there is no intelligence in present Behavior. Let there be imaginative forec…

Labor and Leisure

…ity, even though the physical aspect of Behavior remain the same. In what is ter…

Philosophy of Education

…ich perceives and tests the meanings of Behavior. These conceptions are consiste…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

…cting it transferable to other modes of Behavior. According to the orthodox theo…

The Individual and the World

…t because these are the mental phase of Behavior, the needed play of individuali…

The Nature of Method

…ake the case of a physician. No mode of Behavior more imperiously demands knowle…

Theories of Knowledge

…indeed an unescapable factor in all our Behavior, but it is not experiment save …… insight, not debased by application in Behavior. Socially, the distinction corr…

Theories of Morals

…t physical one. There is one continuous Behavior, proceeding from a more uncerta…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…; of theoretical culture with practical Behavior having definite results; of mak…

Caring

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…duced in a vital way in connection with Caring for the growth of seeds. Instead …

The Nature of Subject Matter

…d can are allied words. Attention means Caring for a thing, in the sense of both…

Engagement

Educational Values

…ium of appreciation in every field. The Engagement of the imagination is the onl…

Interest and Discipline

…that mind and intelligent or purposeful Engagement in a course of action into wh…

The Nature of Method

…e his activities, and in the process of Engagement he learns: the same is true o……uce skill in action, independent of any Engagement of thought - exercises have n…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…, to say nothing of mechanical labor or Engagement in gainful pursuits.

Environment

Aims in Education

…nstruction. It must suggest the kind of Environment needed to liberate and to or…

Education as a Necessity of Life

…ife means continual readaptation of the Environment to the needs of living organ……e energy it expends in thus turning the Environment to account is more than comp…

Education as a Social Function

2. The Social Environment1. The Nature and Meaning of Environment4. The School as a Special Environment…h influence them; by creating a certain Environment in other words. Food, bits a……place, it is the business of the school Environment to eliminate, so far as poss…In brief, the Environment consists of those conditions that promote or hinder, s……s place through the intermediary of the Environment. The Environment consists of……hile this "unconscious influence of the Environment" is so subtle and pervasive …… prisoners in a jail, provide educative Environments for those who enter into th……are associated with others has a social Environment. What he does and what he ca……tion, is: By means of the action of the Environment in calling out certain respo……mething like a homogeneous and balanced Environment for the young. Only in this ……l the school is to provide a simplified Environment. It selects the features whi……d place, it is the office of the school Environment to balance the various eleme……xternal habit of action by changing the Environment to affect the stimuli to act…… the immature get is by controlling the Environment in which they act, and hence……iverse influences of the various social Environments into which he enters. One c…Our net result thus far is that social Environment forms the mental and emotiona……d necessary to provide a special social Environment which shall especially look …

Education as Conservative and Progressive

…e of heredity is opposed to that of the Environment, and the efficacy of the lat……radic, and unadapted to their immediate Environment. The other point is that it ……h occur as they are occupied with their Environment. The theory represents the S……m to a recapitulation of it. The social Environment of the young is constituted ……teraction of native activities with the Environment which progressively modifies……dens the meaning-horizon. And since the Environment changes and our way of actin…

Education as Direction

…o wresting a livelihood from a grudging Environment and securing a precarious pr……ater detail what is meant by the social Environment. We are given to separating ……y external direction is impossible. The Environment can at most only supply stim…1. The Environment as Directive…nditions effective in the out-of-school Environment, they necessarily substitute…… into practice requires that the school Environment be equipped with agencies fo……s the change he effects in the physical Environment which is a sign to us of how……have already seen, a specially selected Environment, the selection being made on…

Education as Growth

…of habits. Habits give control over the Environment, power to utilize it for hum……a resting on past achievements. Only an Environment which secures the full use o……y happened to be physically in a social Environment; as if social forces exclusi…… adult uses his powers to transform his Environment, thereby occasioning new sti…… an adjustment of an individual and his Environment. The definition expresses an…… never interested in changing the whole Environment; there is much that we take ……mmaturity, static adjustment to a fixed Environment, and rigidity of habit, are ……e possesses to coping with the physical Environment.…to ends. It is an active control of the Environment through control of the organ…

Experience and Thinking

…ersonal action with the energies of the Environment. It says, virtually, "things…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…hool. When one bears in mind the social Environment of the Greeks and the people……ative in activity is on the side of the Environment; the human being undergoes o……th the natural surroundings of the home Environment so as to give reality to ide…

Interest and Discipline

…ing with the needs and resources of the Environment. Our economic conditions sti…… only in connection with changes of the Environment. They are literally bound up……develop and train mind is to provide an Environment which induces such activity.…

Natural Development and Social Efficiency as Aims

…taneous development," but to provide an Environment which shall organize them.……sion is not to education apart from the Environment, but to provide an environme……; (c) their direct interaction with the Environment. This statement certainly co……e to it that the desirable ones have an Environment which keeps them active, and…

Philosophy of Education

… mind in an activity which controls the Environment. Thus we have completed the …

Physical and Social Studies

…g a better understanding of their daily Environment, it is certainly ill-advised…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…means of outlet from a narrow and crude Environment. Wherever such conditions ob……the business of the school to set up an Environment in which play and work shall……t social organization. Carried on in an Environment educationally controlled, th…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

…tinuous leading into the future. If the Environment, in school and out, supplies……spond in certain ways to changes in the Environment so as to bring about other c……ve is to withdraw all influences of the Environment lest they interfere with pro……ent organic tendencies with the present Environment, just as much as the notion …

Science in the Course of Study

…y bringing about certain changes in the Environment. But in its case, the qualit…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…ty of education by means of the natural Environment. And since the natural world……ging range of contact with the physical Environment. But the principle applies e…

The Nature of Method

…, psychology, and a knowledge of social Environment supplement the personal acqu……xperiences are promoted by providing an Environment which calls out directed occ…… make a division between a self and the Environment or world. This separation is……th what an individual does and what the Environment does. A piano player who had…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…terprise of education is to furnish the Environment which stimulates responses a…

The Significance of Geography and History

…exploration. The variety of peoples and Environments, their contrast with famili…… in purely literary history the natural Environment is but stage scenery.…… the business of educators to supply an Environment so that this reaching out of…

Theories of Knowledge

…n activity which purposely modifies the Environment. It holds that knowledge in …… other of the stimuli received from the Environment and responses directed upon ……f working connection with the immediate Environment. Such knowing is depreciated……with structures where the adjustment of Environment and organism is obvious, and…

Theories of Morals

…pirations can be used to reorganize the Environment. Under such conditions, men ……ing forth of overt energy to modify the Environment.… But as a rule, the absence of a social Environment in connection with which lea…

Thinking in Education

…makes more precise our contact with the Environment. Activity, even self-activit…

History

Education as Conservative and Progressive

… wisdom to utilize the products of past History so far as they are of help for t……al function. A biologist has said: "The History of development in different anim……cially the literary products - of man's History. Isolated from their connection ……past evolution of animal life and human History. The former recapitulation occur…

Educational Values

…most studies, but best by languages and History; taste is trained by the more ad……of study must then have some civics and History politically and patriotically vi……ks was a Bible, a textbook of morals, a History, and a national inspiration. In …

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…er and more spiritual worth, has a long History. The History so far as conscious……ned one thing, he knows others - as the History of Athens showed that the common…

Interest and Discipline

… of arrangement complete within itself. History is one such group of facts; alge…

Labor and Leisure

…s which has shown itself in educational History is that between education in pre……of training in science, literature, and History, we fail to prepare the minds of…

Natural Development and Social Efficiency as Aims

In conclusion, we note that the early History of the idea of following nature co…

Philosophy of Education

…sics, chemistry, biology, anthropology, History, etc. that we must go, not to ph……A social group with a fairly continuous History will respond mentally to a crisi……e of educational questions. The earlier History of philosophy, developed by the …

Physical and Social Studies

…e in a similar untrammeled fashion. The History of science in the sixteenth cent……r advanced. The same is largely true of History. Moreover, the methods used for ……he passage quoted, takes a good deal of History for granted in saying that we ha……he social sciences - the studies termed History, economics, politics, sociology ……d the various human disciplines such as History, literature, economics, and poli…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…st. It is pertinent to note that in the History of the race the sciences grew gr……tions (which could be duplicated in the History of any science) are not argument……arming and horticulture have had in the History of the race and which they occup…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

…ly imposed a scheme of dictation as the History of instruction has ever seen.……nurtured in fraud. In his philosophy of History and society culminated the effor…

Science in the Course of Study

…which opposes science to literature and History in the curriculum. The quarrel b……ff? The outcome is written large in the History of education. Pupils begin their…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…ich man becomes man. Mankind begins its History submerged in nature - not as Man……al contacts. Every expansive era in the History of mankind has coincided with th…

The Individual and the World

…s absolute. Nature is incarnate reason. History is reason in its progressive unf……ure of accomplished fact. Although past History has demonstrated that the possib……et up in distinction from tradition and History and all concrete subject matter.…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…ation to reading, writing, mathematics, History, nature study, drawing, singing,……rts of the heavens and bygone events of History; the cheapening of devices, like…

The Significance of Geography and History

2. The Complementary Nature of History and Geography3. History and Present Social Life…e a response, we do not have a study of History, for we have no study of social …Geography and History are the two great school resources for bringing about the …Perhaps the most neglected branch of History in general education is intellectua…Economic History is more human, more democratic, and hence more liberalizing tha…Industrial History also offers a more direct avenue of approach to the realizati……slated, it signifies that geography and History supply subject matter which give……graphy emphasizes the physical side and History the social, these are only empha……nnections of an ordinary act; to "learn History" is essentially to gain in power……segregation which kills the vitality of History is divorce from present modes an…History and geography - including in the latter, for reasons about to be mention…Pursued in this fashion, History would most naturally become of ethical value in…

Theories of Morals

…er world. Such periods have recurred in History. In the early centuries of the C……ement of meaning found in geography and History, and then to scientifically orga…

Thinking in Education

…g, reciting); acquiring information (in History and geography), and training of …… are not found in the arithmetic or the History or geography itself, but in skil…

Industrial

Education as a Necessity of Life

… of the institution. Even today, in our Industrial life, apart from certain valu…

Educational Values

…e is no sharp demarcation of useful, or Industrial, arts and fine arts. The acti…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

Meantime, the advance of psychology, of Industrial methods, and of the experimen…

Interest and Discipline

…Many of our existing social activities, Industrial and political, fall in these …

Labor and Leisure

…liberal education from professional and Industrial education goes back to the ti……hing in common, directly at least, with Industrial affairs, and that the educati…

Natural Development and Social Efficiency as Aims

… efficiency indicates the importance of Industrial competency. Persons cannot li……It is, of course, arbitrary to separate Industrial competency from capacity in g……fit individuals in advance for definite Industrial callings, selected not on the…

Philosophy of Education

…ccompanying the advance of science, the Industrial revolution, and the developme…… of seriousness. A community devoted to Industrial pursuits, active in business …

Physical and Social Studies

…nt at the expense of another class. The Industrial revolution followed, as he fo……the older humanism omitted economic and Industrial conditions from its purview. ……ider educational outlook would conceive Industrial activities as agencies for ma…… development of science has produced an Industrial revolution which has brought ……es to-day is intimately associated with Industrial processes and results. These …

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…supplies an opportunity for reproducing Industrial situations of mature life und……ass of mankind has usually found in its Industrial occupations nothing but evils…… work shares in the defects of existing Industrial society - defects next to fat……onsideration of the place and office of Industrial occupations in social life. E…

Science in the Course of Study

…roduction and distribution known as the Industrial revolution is the fruit of ex……nd to the movements of a democratic and Industrial society, they have no difficu…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…s: not only political subdivisions, but Industrial, scientific, religious, assoc……r and furnished the means for military, Industrial, and political defense and ex…

The Significance of Geography and History

…of savagery. Primitive history suggests Industrial history. For one of the chief……ble to others. One of the advantages of Industrial history as a history of man's…Industrial history also offers a more direct avenue of approach to the realizati……opical regions, the special inventions, Industrial and political, of peoples in …

Vocational Aspects of Education

…and exhortation, apart from a change in Industrial and political conditions. Suc……ols. As a result, the subject matter of Industrial occupation presents not only ……th compound interest. As a consequence, Industrial occupations have infinitely g……uch less by merely reproducing existing Industrial conditions in the school. The……eas into a form adapted to the existing Industrial regime. This movement would c……h takes its point of departure from the Industrial regime that now exists, is li…It would give those who engage in Industrial callings desire and ability to shar…… those vocations which are specifically Industrial have gained tremendously in i…

Inspiration

Education as Conservative and Progressive

…, instead of being a compound of casual Inspiration and subservience to traditio…

Educational Values

…ok of morals, a history, and a national Inspiration. In any case, it may be said…

Physical and Social Studies

…on nature and society, for material and Inspiration. We cannot do better than qu…

The Nature of Method

…far from being a matter of extemporized Inspirations. Study of the operations an…

Knowing

Education as Conservative and Progressive

… obviously the central thing, but since Knowing consists in the way in which thi…

Education as Direction

…are, since they were formed without our Knowing what we were about. Consequently…

Experience and Thinking

…nels of activity, breaks forth, without Knowing why or how, into meaningless boi…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…; it was never self-sufficing. Rational Knowing on the other hand, was complete ……the traditional separation of doing and Knowing and at the traditional prestige …… relationship and alleged separation of Knowing and doing.…e has been looked upon just as a way of Knowing. The only question was how good ……y thus attach themselves to doing while Knowing is as permanent as its object. T……at the modern notion of it as a mode of Knowing by means of sensations. The negl…

Labor and Leisure

…lf-sufficing life of leisure devoted to Knowing for its own sake, and a useful, ……s accidental, rather than intrinsic. In Knowing, in the life of theory, reason f…

Philosophy of Education

…virtue clearly dwelt in action. Was not Knowing, the activity of reason, the nob…… individual and the social; theory - or Knowing, and practice - or doing. The ph…

Physical and Social Studies

…uman but divine - participation in pure Knowing which constitutes the divine lif…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…turies and became the authorized way of Knowing when men's interests were center……ound that the primary subject matter of Knowing is that contained in learning ho……with the traits of the initial stage of Knowing, which consists, as we saw in th…

Science in the Course of Study

…ationally, science is the perfecting of Knowing, its last stage.…y intelligence. Science, or the highest Knowing, was then identified with pure t……tility in dealing with these problems. "Knowing" the definitions, rules, formula…

The Individual and the World

…ed a division between work and leisure, Knowing and doing, man and nature. These……icient, created such a gulf between the Knowing mind and the world that it becam……on of inductive experimental methods of Knowing for deductive. In some sense, me…

The Nature of Method

…subject matter. That is, we assume that Knowing, feeling, willing, etc., are thi……o make clear what is involved in really Knowing and believing a thing. Intellect…… most general features of the method of Knowing have been given in our chapter o…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…others, but for him it is a stimulus to Knowing. His acquisition of knowledge de……curriculum, corresponding as they do to Knowing how to go about the accomplishme……duct of the enterprise of discovery, to Knowing as a specialized undertaking. Re……ct that science marks the perfecting of Knowing in highly specialized conditions…

Theories of Knowledge

…plan for. The effect upon the theory of Knowing is to displace the notion that i……l conceptions involved in the theory of Knowing. In the first place, there is th…… different conceptions of the method of Knowing. Some of them are named scholast…A number of theories of Knowing have been criticized in the previous pages. In s……thod, for most persons, means a form of Knowing which has no especial connection……se separations culminate in one between Knowing and doing, theory and practice, …… sense organs, there is no material for Knowing and no intellectual growth. With……eing isolated from them, as an organ of Knowing from organs of motor response, i…… things in space. In time the theory of Knowing must be derived from the practic……on with the immediate environment. Such Knowing is depreciated, if not despised,……, as it is often called, objective, and Knowing as something purely internal, su……urse react to make the intelligence and Knowing of members of the separated clas…

Theories of Morals

…tue—which holds that no man does evil Knowingly but only because of ignorance …

Thinking in Education

… a learner, and the learner is, without Knowing it, a teacher - and upon the who…

Language

Aims in Education

… childhood. So if it were not for adult Language, we should not be able to see t…

Education as a Necessity of Life

…be, is born immature, helpless, without Language, beliefs, ideas, or social stan…

Education as a Social Function

…ct is most marked. First, the habits of Language. Fundamental modes of speech, t…… conclude, accordingly, that the use of Language to convey and acquire ideas is …The importance of Language in gaining knowledge is doubtless the chief cause of …Since Language tends to become the chief instrument of learning about many thing…

Education as Conservative and Progressive

…onment is well expressed in the case of Language. If a being had no vocal organs…

Education as Direction

…ations with things. Not that the use of Language as an educational resource shou…… growth in the desired direction. Since Language represents the physical conditi…Language is, as we have already seen (ante, p. 15) a case of this joint referenc…

Education as Growth

… his use of tobacco, liquor, or profane Language as typical of the meaning of ha…

Educational Values

…is trained by most studies, but best by Languages and history; taste is trained ……her thing to hear or read about it. All Language, all symbols, are implements of…

Natural Development and Social Efficiency as Aims

… illustration, the process of acquiring Language is a practically perfect model ……s as complete living, better methods of Language study, substitution of things f…

Philosophy of Education

…pecialized class which uses a technical Language, unlike the vocabulary in which…

Physical and Social Studies

…aking, saving, and expending money; and Languages and literature put in their cl……sy. Thus the educational descent of the Languages as they are found in education……rated and a sharp division made between Language and literature and the physical……ith linguistic training and to make the Language of the learned a literary langu…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

… is the training secured. In equivalent Language, less intellectual or educative……foldedness is, in technical philosophic Language, transcendental. That is, it is…… the significance of "objective mind" - Language, government, art, religion - in…

Science in the Course of Study

…cation cannot be understood. He talks a Language which no one else knows. While ……explicable historically. Literature and Language and a literary philosophy were ……ement applies, of course, to all use of Language. But in the vernacular, the min…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…at diversity of populations, of varying Languages, religions, moral codes, and t…

The Nature of Subject Matter

… physics, chemistry, modern and foreign Languages, and so on? Let us recur to tw…

The Significance of Geography and History

…truggles, triumphs, and defeats in such Language, pictorial, plastic, or written…

Theories of Morals

…ulfilling of a function—or, in homely Language—doing one's job. And the man ……intercourse with others to have learned Language. But realization of the meaning…

Thinking in Education

…raphy, or learning physics or a foreign Language, will reveal that they depend f…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…djustment. And while ordinary usages of Language may not justify terming a flexi…

Love

Education as Growth

…agerly varying action of childhood, the Love of new stimuli and new developments……ings - to our clothing, our shoes, and gLoves; to the atmosphere as long as it i…

Labor and Leisure

…s. In themselves greedy, insubordinate, Lovers of excess, aiming only at their o…

Philosophy of Education

…is expressed in the word 'philosophy' - Love of wisdom. Whenever philosophy has …

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

…echnique. The result was that Froebel's Love of abstract symbolism often got the…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…d a way out. A few men, philosophers or Lovers of wisdom - or truth - may by stu…

The Nature of Method

… terms. There is the thing seen, heard, Loved, hated, imagined, and there is the…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…ignorance is the beginning of effective Love of wisdom, and a Descartes to say t…

Management

Educational Values

…e marked by executive competency in the Management of resources and obstacles en…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…rials. So far as ability of control, of Management, was concerned, it amounted t…

Labor and Leisure

…c life of his community, sharing in the Management of its affairs and winning pe…

Philosophy of Education

… in virtue, the political arts, and the Management of city and household, philos…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…es into play, going to school is a joy, Management is less of a burden, and lear…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…erest in. Much is said about scientific Management of work. It is a narrow view …

Mathematics

Educational Values

…mposition next; for abstract reasoning, Mathematics stands almost alone; for con……fficient reason for their being taught. Mathematics is said to have, for example……ashioned curriculum of the classics and Mathematics in higher education.…

Experience and Thinking

…rom recognition of meaning - is set up. Mathematics, even in its higher branches…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…e fundamental conceptions of morals and Mathematics. (See ante, p. 61.) But some…… even more general ideas (like those of Mathematics) than were at the command of…

Interest and Discipline

…onstituting a branch of learning called Mathematics, but because they represent …

Labor and Leisure

…today represent and depend upon applied Mathematics, physics, and chemistry. The…

Philosophy of Education

…n to philosophy. For obviously it is to Mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology…

Physical and Social Studies

…ry studies (under the name of music) to Mathematics and to physics as well as to…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

Mathematics is now a highly abstract science; geometry, however, means literally…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

… technical philosophy, or philology, or Mathematics or engineering or financieri……distinctions, for which, Locke thought, Mathematics affords unrivaled opportunit…

Science in the Course of Study

…mal; so from the form of a statement in Mathematics or physics the specialist in…

The Individual and the World

…in technical regions - in subjects like Mathematics and physics and astronomy, a…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…ion in application to reading, writing, Mathematics, history, nature study, draw…

Theories of Knowledge

…s often taught, illustrates the former; Mathematics, beyond the rudiments of fig…

Thinking in Education

… sharp distinction is made between pure Mathematics as a peculiarly fit subject …

Vocational Aspects of Education

…machinery resulting from discoveries in Mathematics, physics, chemistry, bacteri…

Morality

The Significance of Geography and History

…life is necessary for a character whose Morality is more than colorless innocenc…

Theories of Morals

Since Morality is concerned with conduct, any dualisms which are set up between …… as self-sufficient—as the essence of Morality. The external world in which ac…The purely internal Morality of "meaning well," of having a good disposition reg…

Motivation

Interest and Discipline

… words as interest, affection, concern, Motivation, emphasize the bearing of wha…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…and engage in their work because of the Motivation furnished by such perceptions…

The Nature of Method

…l coercive pressure, has this tendency. Motivation through rewards extraneous to…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…his concern. He unconsciously, from the Motivation of his occupation, reaches ou…

Nature

Aims in Education

1. The Nature of an AimOur first question is to define the Nature of an aim so far as it falls within a……areful and extensive observation of the Nature and performances of the things he…

Education as a Necessity of Life

It is the very Nature of life to strive to continue in being. Since this continu…

Education as a Social Function

1. The Nature and Meaning of Environment…concern our own social affairs, but the Nature of the interaction cannot be unde…

Education as Conservative and Progressive

…ation from without, whether by physical Nature or by the cultural products of th……the proper material in order to fix the Nature of the original reactions, and, s…

Education as Direction

…lts that square with the other facts of Nature. Thus these appliances of art sup……ion. Consequently, we shall discuss the Nature and role of imitation in the form……ethod. The basic control resides in the Nature of the situations in which the yo……fact means to distort and pervert human Nature. To take into account the contrib……s of human art and the raw materials of Nature constitute by all odds the deepes……mon ends. Since, by conception, his own Nature is quite alien to this process an…

Education as Growth

…he society of that period, the latter's Nature will largely turn upon the direct……is due to an original plasticity of our Natures: to our ability to vary response…… this anarchy a respect for the child's Nature? I answer, - Respect the child, r……riticized, namely, the merely privative Nature of immaturity, static adjustment ……o walk is to have certain properties of Nature at our disposal - and so with all…

Educational Values

1. The Nature of Realization or Appreciation…has been treated in our analysis of the Nature of interest, and there is no diff……ssion that they accept this view of the Nature of adult life, and set for themse…1. The Nature of standards of valuation. Every adult has acquired, in the course……ues involves not only an account of the Nature of appreciation as fixing the mea……nging out three further principles: the Nature of effective or real (as distinct…

Experience and Thinking

1. The Nature of ExperienceThe Nature of experience can be understood only by noting that it includes an ac…… But the flagrant partisanship of human Nature is evidence of the intensity of t……. The invasion of the unknown is of the Nature of an adventure; we cannot be sur…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…e and external sort and even servile in Nature, one is not surprised that educat…… had brought into ken many new facts of Nature and had stimulated curiosity and ……eans of basing truth upon objects, upon Nature, led to looking at the mind as pu……ns which, as Bacon put it, "anticipated Nature" and imposed merely human opinion…… the inherently unstable and inadequate Nature of experience. The statement of P……elief can issue, because it is the very Nature of experience to instigate all ki…… the ways in which fruitful ideas about Nature are obtained and tested. In other…

Interest and Discipline

…he realm of rational discussion. By its Nature, the allegation could not be chec…

Labor and Leisure

…taking almost all the time and not of a Nature to engage or reward intelligence.……men were regarded as unfree by the very Nature of their bodies and minds, there ……of the tasks committed to them. Thus by Nature, and not merely by social convent…… control of the lower elements of human Nature - the appetites and the active, m…

Natural Development and Social Efficiency as Aims

Lastly, the aim of following Nature means to note the origin, the waxing, and wa…… find about them are prone to resort to Nature as a standard. Nature is supposed……ocess of development in accordance with Nature, taking Rousseau's statement, whi…1. Nature as Supplying the Aim… general aims: Development according to Nature, social efficiency, and culture o…… of the total depravity of innate human Nature, and has had a powerful influence…… early history of the idea of following Nature combined two factors which had no……to the fact that he identified God with Nature; to him the original powers are w……es as these are worse than the state of Nature.A conception which made Nature supply the end of a true education and society th…… life is injurious." When he says that "Nature's intention is to strengthen the …… says, "we receive from three sources - Nature, men, and things. The spontaneous……ize many of our educational practices. "Nature" is indeed a vague and metaphoric…

Philosophy of Education

2. The Nature of Philosophy…of experience, which aims to locate the Nature of the perplexity and to frame hy…… to some group; the relation of man and Nature, of tradition and reflection, of …… and body, theory and practice, man and Nature, the individual and social, etc. ……e been an explicit consideration of the Nature of a philosophy of education. Thi……ality are out of the question. The very Nature of experience as an ongoing, chan……ons, intellectual and emotional, toward Nature and fellow men, philosophy may ev……ical and intellectual activity, man and Nature, individuality and association, c……r reorganizing of experience, of such a Nature as to increase its recognized mea……philosophy so much as they are to human Nature, and even to the world in which h……r; body and soul; humanity and physical Nature; the individual and the social; t…… that word is understood to-day. It had Nature for its subject, and speculated a…

Physical and Social Studies

The philosophic dualism between man and Nature is reflected in the division of s……science was increasing man's power over Nature, enabling him to place his cheris……es anew the question of how it was that Nature and man were later separated and …… we have studied literature rather than Nature because the Greeks, and the Roman…2. The Modern Scientific Interest in Nature…field is divided between studies having Nature and studies having man as their t……echanical physical world. Man's home is Nature; his purposes and aims are depend……fore, a more adequate subject matter in Nature at its best than in the transient……ere literature rather than contemporary Nature and society furnishes material of……im not at keeping science as a study of Nature apart from literature as a record……directed to the conquest and control of Nature but to the conquest and control o……cterizing man) and matter, constituting Nature; or else it was openly mechanical……aily experiences, or with miscellaneous Nature study, where material is presente……n its qualitative variety, and regarded Nature's processes as having ends, or in……w, instead of looking out directly upon Nature and society, for material and ins……appears to have thought that science of Nature was not attainable and not very i……storation of the intimate connection of Nature and humanity, for it viewed knowl……rest was used as a basis of interest in Nature, and a knowledge of Nature used t…… new interest in his relationships with Nature. It was naturalistic, in the sens……ich sharpened the opposition of man and Nature. Francis Bacon presents an almost…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

… centered in the question of control of Nature for human uses. The active occupa……uperation of energy. No demand of human Nature is more urgent or less to be esca…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

…hings as they are united and divided in Nature itself. But the important thing f…

Science in the Course of Study

…the statement of subject matter is of a Nature to exhibit to one who understands…… intellectual command of the secrets of Nature. The wonderful transformation of ……th increased culture and new mastery of Nature, new desires, demands for new qua……life does not occur in a vacuum, nor is Nature a mere stage setting for the enac……nce is thus to change men's idea of the Nature and inherent possibilities of exp……ficient extent to give some idea of the Nature of this responsibility and the wa…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…ary to come to closer quarters with the Nature of present social life.…Mankind begins its history submerged in Nature - not as Man who is a creature of……any conventional status, but by his own Nature as discovered in the process of e…Education in accord with Nature was thought to be the first step in insuring thi…… was evidenced in its falling back upon Nature. The institutional idealistic phi……Society is conceived as one by its very Nature. The qualities which accompany th…… obvious. Merely to leave everything to Nature was, after all, but to negate the……s in a very different circle of ideas. "Nature" still means something antithetic……, is the gradual approximation of human Nature to its end possible. Rulers are s……ntellectual formulation in a worship of Nature. To give "Nature" full swing was ……doing that for which he has aptitude by Nature in such a way as to be useful to …

The Individual and the World

…ity of the individual with the world of Nature and fellow men. They regarded the……ses, independent of any relationship to Nature and society, an inner world more ……triving to be free from connection with Nature and one another. They were strivi……and leisure, knowing and doing, man and Nature. These influences have resulted i……nthesis of the two. Reason is absolute. Nature is incarnate reason. History is r……ples as are embodied in the sciences of Nature and man. But it is not unreasonab……thods into ascertaining the facts about Nature. An interest in discovery took th……in our intercourse with one another and Nature is what, at the given time, is ca……iations among men. Its formal and empty Nature, due to conceiving reason as some…

The Nature of Method

…on than the capacities of average human Nature permit, the difficulty is that we……ferred to, and discuss explicitly their Nature. We shall begin with the topic of…… but the production of automatic skill. Nature abhors a mental vacuum. What do t…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…nd functions, in the concrete, of human Nature is great just because the teacher……place and use in inquiry. It states the Nature of water in a way which connects ……ciously influenced men's notions of the Nature of knowledge itself. The statemen…So far as the Nature of subject matter in principle is concerned, there is nothi…

The Significance of Geography and History

2. The Complementary Nature of History and Geography… obstacle to gaining insight into their Nature. Recourse to the primitive may fu…… in space and time with respect to both Nature and man. Unless they are taught f…To include Nature study within geography doubtless seems forced; verbally, it is…It is the Nature of an experience to have implications which go far beyond what ……effective liberties, through command of Nature, of the common man for whom power……struggles, successes, and failures with Nature than does political history - to ……hich activities become charged, concern Nature and man. This is an obvious truis……kes place on the earth. This setting of Nature does not bear to social activitie……ter, for reasons about to be mentioned, Nature study - are the information studi…

Theories of Knowledge

…ne - that is out of the question by the Nature of the case; it means applicabili…

Theories of Morals

…view as a cynical depreciation of human Nature leads to the view that men who ac…… "principle" with "interest." It is the Nature of a habit to involve ease in the…

Thinking in Education

That the situation should be of such a Nature as to arouse thinking means of cou……e experience a personal thing of such a Nature as inherently to stimulate and di……ng to learn; and the doing is of such a Nature as to demand thinking, or the int…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…part from or within activity which puts Nature to human use, and whether individ…

Peace

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…n the various handicrafts - the arts of Peace and war. The cobbler, the flute pl…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…nders in war; its internal guardians in Peace. But their limit is fixed by their…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…ions of eating, hunting, making war and Peace, constructing rugs, pottery, and b…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…ally or economically, whether in war or Peace, is as much a calling as anything …

Physical

Aims in Education

…r which has impressions made upon it by Physical things; it is a name for the pu…

Education as a Necessity of Life

…at these immature members be not merely Physically preserved in adequate numbers……gh renewal applies. With the renewal of Physical existence goes, in the case of ……king of life in its lowest terms—as a Physical thing. But we use the word "Lif……ns do not become a society by living in Physical proximity, any more than a man ……living alone (alone mentally as well as Physically) would have little or no occa……onsent of those used. Such uses express Physical superiority, or superiority of ……gists say. Such things cannot be passed Physically from one to another, like bri……eives little attention as compared with Physical output.…the rudimentary abilities necessary for Physical existence. The young of human b…

Education as a Social Function

… knowledge gets assimilated to a purely Physical process. But learning from lang……d child not only go out with each other Physically, but both are concerned in th……he problem is evidently not one of mere Physical forming. Things can be Physical… or imaginatively, they operate as pure Physical stimuli, not as having a meanin……part played in our activities by remote Physical energies, and by invisible stru…

Education as Conservative and Progressive

… the formation from without, whether by Physical nature or by the cultural produ…

Education as Direction

…others, we need to discriminate between Physical results and moral results. A pe……with agencies for doing, with tools and Physical materials, to an extent rarely ……e without point or meaning. It might be Physically controlled, but it would not ……m has now been dealt with: namely, that Physical things do not influence mind (o……irection. Since language represents the Physical conditions that have been subje……hich is guaranteed by the fact that the Physical equipment in which it is incarn……mind naked, as it were, in contact with Physical objects, and which believes tha……. This control is not the same thing as Physical compulsion; it consists in cent……given to separating from each other the Physical and social environments in whic……e difference between an adjustment to a Physical stimulus and a mental act is th……und of coarser and more tangible use of Physical means to accomplish results. A …

Education as Growth

…mals to adapt themselves fairly well to Physical conditions from an early period……around impotence. With reference to the Physical world, the child is helpless. H…

Educational Values

…g which lies beyond the scope of direct Physical response is the sole way of esc…

Experience and Thinking

…me means a burn. Being burned is a mere Physical change, like the burning of a s…… from its material. A premium is put on Physical quietude; on silence, on rigid ……ps are taken which actually change some Physical conditions. And apart from such……nd or consciousness is severed from the Physical organs of activity. The former ……erent from the normal play of children. Physically active children become restle……these connections are not those of mere Physical juxtaposition; they involve con…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…nded to reduce instruction to a kind of Physical gymnastic of the sense-organs (……y material character; it has to do with Physical things in relation to the body.……ideas about education. The contempt for Physical as compared with mathematical a……s (ante, p. 29), not response to direct Physical stimuli. And meaning exists onl……h on a low plane, the plane of specific Physical symbols. Just as the race devel…

Interest and Discipline

…rt, your formed habits take care of the Physical movements and leave your though…… measured by whether it supplies a mere Physical excitation to act in the way de……se where mind is not concerned with the Physical manipulation of the instruments……rely external; merely mental nor merely Physical. Like every mode of action, it …

Labor and Leisure

…echanical tools involved in turning out Physical commodities and rendering perso……ossible only in the degree in which the Physical necessities are had without eff……s a final end. Like plants, animals and Physical tools, they are means, applianc……ed and servile quality, even though the Physical aspect of behavior remain the s…

Natural Development and Social Efficiency as Aims

… translates into the aim of respect for Physical mobility. In Rousseau's words: ……he sense of normal is confused with the Physical. The constructive use of intell…

Philosophy of Education

…olation of mind from activity involving Physical conditions, bodily organs, mate……and matter; body and soul; humanity and Physical nature; the individual and the …

Physical and Social Studies

…nterest. Naturally, this application of Physical science (which was the most con…… human concerns and a purely mechanical Physical world. Man's home is nature; hi……s of information and technical forms of Physical manipulation, on one side; and ……cal a possession as the accumulation of Physical details. Men may keep busy in a……w doubt and suspicion upon the value of Physical science, giving occasion for tr……t or law in its human as well as in its Physical and technical context is to enl…… of technical information regarding the Physical world, and to reserve the older……es of a knowledge of nature were purely Physical and secular; they connected wit……tury shows that the dawning sciences of Physical nature largely borrowed their p…… and mind, and thereby to establish the Physical and the humanistic studies as t……between language and literature and the Physical sciences. Four reasons may be s…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…ent is complete in itself, it is purely Physical; it has no meaning (See p. 77).……purposes of education are not, however, Physical affairs. Intellectually the exi……ing should come from action on and with Physical things, like dropping acid on a……play are not just doing something (pure Physical movement); they are trying to d……own that when children have a chance at Physical activities which bring their na……es, since intellect finds its profit in Physical things from matters of size, fo…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

… talk about training a power, mental or Physical, in general, apart from the sub…

Science in the Course of Study

…itation. Names give abstract meanings a Physical locus and body. Formulation is ……, not leave it just an extension of our Physical arms and legs.… in quality, and that science is purely Physical in import, is a false notion wh……of course constitute scientific method. Physical materials may be manipulated wi……ffect in human activity has broken down Physical barriers which formerly separat…

The Democratic Conception in Education

… an enlarging range of contact with the Physical environment. But the principle …

The Individual and the World

…nd, theoretical knowledge and practice, Physical mechanism and ideal purpose. Up……l direction, or, sometimes, with merely Physical unconstraint of movement. But t……ected, the scope of more or less random Physical experimentation is reduced. Act……ransgress these boundaries. Between the Physical and the moral sciences, lie int……rated from opportunity for free play of Physical movements. Enforced Physical qu…

The Nature of Method

… of thoroughness which is almost purely Physical: the kind that signifies mechan…

The Significance of Geography and History

…l organization on one side, and reflect Physical conditions on the other. The sp……outlook. While geography emphasizes the Physical side and history the social, th……ifference between an activity as merely Physical and the wealth of meanings whic……mering, and walking in the literal - or Physical - sense. But nevertheless the c…

Theories of Knowledge

…rience. The view of thought as a purely Physical activity having its own forms, ……longing to certain technical and merely Physical matters. It will doubtless take…… activity has actually produced certain Physical changes in things, which agree ……sivity in knowing. Purely empirical and Physical things are often supposed to be……ng a meaning instead of merely reacting Physically.

Theories of Morals

…lowed abruptly by a radically different Physical one. There is one continuous be……ner and outer, or the spiritual and the Physical. This division is a culmination……s personal factor—and deeds as purely Physical and outer; and which set action…

Thinking in Education

…manual and constructive activities in a Physical way, as means of getting just b……apted to develop reflective habits. The Physical equipment and arrangements of t……hought (since it has nothing to do with Physical existences) and applied mathema…

Politics

Education as a Social Function

… trees because of the forest. Business, Politics, art, science, religion, would …

Educational Values

…side and limit one another. Students of Politics are familiar with a check and b……siness, science is science, art is art, Politics is Politics, social intercourse…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…anage household affairs, education, and Politics, because they had learned to do…

Interest and Discipline

…t. Thus we say that a man's interest is Politics, or journalism, or philanthropy…

Labor and Leisure

…vior remain the same. In what is termed Politics, democratic social organization…

Physical and Social Studies

… the studies termed history, economics, Politics, sociology - shows that social …… as history, literature, economics, and Politics. Pedagogically, the problem is …… was firmly entrenched in institutions. Politics, law, and diplomacy remained of…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…eignty has never been as accentuated in Politics as it is at the present time. E…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…on; and study of economics, civics, and Politics, to bring the future worker int…

Psychology

Education as Direction

3. Imitation and Social Psychology…ng has been unduly dominated by a false Psychology. It is frequently stated that…We have already noted the defects of a Psychology of learning which places the i……er hand for an exaggeration, in current Psychology and philosophy, of the intell…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

Meantime, the advance of Psychology, of industrial methods, and of the experimen…… idea of experience justified by modern Psychology nor the idea of knowledge sug……ers this growth. (c) A thoroughly false Psychology of mental development underla…

Labor and Leisure

…e situation as an affair of theoretical Psychology and as most adequately stated…

Natural Development and Social Efficiency as Aims

…ment of modern biology, physiology, and Psychology. It means, in effect, that gr…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…, partly of increased interest in child-Psychology, and partly of the direct exp…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

…mmon-place of educational theory and of Psychology. Practically, it seemed to pr……completely - in idea, not in fact - the Psychology that regarded "mind" as a rea…

The Nature of Method

…ses to greater efficiency. Child-study, Psychology, and a knowledge of social en…

Theories of Knowledge

(i) The advance of physiology and the Psychology associated with it have shown t…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…he advances which have been made in the Psychology of learning in general and of…

Reflection

Education as a Social Function

… we take for granted without inquiry or Reflection are just the things which det…

Education as Growth

…s. Modes of thought, of observation and Reflection, enter as forms of skill and …

Experience and Thinking

…eted, is wholly assured. Where there is Reflection there is suspense. The object……existence is to take it unreflectively. Reflection also implies concern with the……n that test and reveal the worth of his Reflections. What he already knows funct……quences which flow from present action. Reflection is the acceptance of such res…2. Reflection in ExperienceThought or Reflection, as we have already seen virtually if not explicitly, is t…

Interest and Discipline

…which cannot be carried through without Reflection and use of judgment to select……ject of study - that is, of inquiry and Reflection - when it figures as a factor…

Philosophy of Education

…ion of man and nature, of tradition and Reflection, of knowledge and action. Can…

Physical and Social Studies

…d that the educational division finds a Reflection in the dualistic philosophies…

Science in the Course of Study

… the outcome of methods of observation, Reflection, and testing which are delibe…

The Individual and the World

…ng. Only by a pupil's own observations, Reflections, framing and testing of sugg…

The Nature of Method

…sm in appropriating and digesting. Such Reflection upon experience gives rise to…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…s slowly worked out in order to conduct Reflection under conditions whereby its …

Theories of Morals

… to throw the class given to articulate Reflection back into their own thoughts ……engage their interest and require their Reflection. For only in such cases is it…

Thinking in Education

…refore identical with the essentials of Reflection. They are first that the pupi……t the subject matter of school lessons. Reflection on this striking contrast wil……chological means the subject matter for Reflection is provided. Memory, observat…… the type of the situation which causes Reflection out of school in ordinary lif…

Science

Education as a Social Function

…of the forest. Business, politics, art, Science, religion, would make all at onc…

Educational Values

…oses and methods. Business is business, Science is Science, art is art, politics……me recently devoted to the undertaking. Science for example may have any kind of…… Greek and Latin poetry; observation by Science work in the laboratory, though s……s. Politics, business, recreation, art, Science, the learned professions, polite…

Experience and Thinking

…nction between knowledge and ignorance, Science made only slow and accidental ad……t is most important for the practice of Science that men in many cases can calcu…… upon the technique of calculation, and Science, when laboratory exercises are g…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…hods, and of the experimental method in Science makes another conception of expe……on to the body. In contrast, reason, or Science, lays hold of the immaterial, th…… compared with mathematical and logical Science, for the senses and sense observ……d intercourse are instinct with applied Science, the case stands otherwise. It i…… constitutes experience. The methods of Science by which the revolution in our k……t practice. Just because of the lack of Science or reason in "experience" it is …

Interest and Discipline

…an inner landscape. Even the pursuit of Science may become an asylum of refuge f…

Labor and Leisure

…y symbols at the expense of training in Science, literature, and history, we fai……between the two opposed ideals. Natural Science is recommended on the ground of ……ead of democracy, with the extension of Science and of general education (in boo…

Philosophy of Education

…social life accompanying the advance of Science, the industrial revolution, and ……edge. Knowledge, grounded knowledge, is Science; it represents objects which hav……s. In a less rigid sense, they apply to Science rather than to philosophy. For o……ness of philosophy to provide. Positive Science always implies practically the e……bviously differentiates philosophy from Science. Particular facts and laws of sc……al context, including the growth of the Sciences.…, is mainly a chapter in the history of Science rather than of philosophy as tha…

Physical and Social Studies

At the outset, the rise of modern Science prophesied a restoration of the intima……lar untrammeled fashion. The history of Science in the sixteenth century shows t…(c) The natural Sciences were themselves conceived in a way which sharpened the ……es not represent the genuine purport of Science. It takes the technique for the ……anguage and literature and the physical Sciences. Four reasons may be suggested.……dy been made to the conflict of natural Science with literary studies for a plac……he advance. He did not see that the new Science was for a long time to be worked……einforced by the experimental method of Science which shows that knowledge accru……e consider the close connection between Science and industrial development on th……ependence. It should aim not at keeping Science as a study of nature apart from ……genuine parts of it. The development of Science has produced an industrial revol……lts. These in turn are so many cases of Science in action. The stationary and tr……sophy which professed itself based upon Science, which gave itself out as the ac……on to advance to specialized ability in Science, and thus devote themselves to i……it is a derogation from the "purity" of Science to study it in its active incarn……n technical phrase as teleological. New Science was expounded so as to deny the ……tes indeed appears to have thought that Science of nature was not attainable and…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…ction of occupations with the method of Science is at least as close as with its……same word, techne, was used for art and Science. Plato gave his account of knowl……ote that in the history of the race the Sciences grew gradually out from useful …Mathematics is now a highly abstract Science; geometry, however, means literally…

Science in the Course of Study

The advance of Science has already modified men's thoughts of the purposes and g……rt in instruction with the rudiments of Science somewhat simplified. The necessa…2. Science and Social ProgressBy Science is meant, as already stated, that knowledge which is the outcome of m…Science, in short, signifies a realization of the logical implications of any kn…That Science is the chief means of perfecting control of means of action is witn……, those who do become successful men of Science are those who by their own power…… the remoteness, the "abstractness," of Science, it also accounts for its wide a……ainst great odds, to secure a place for Science in education, and the result gen……perience. In general, the reply is that Science marks the emancipation of mind f…To sum up: Science represents the office of intelligence, in projection and cont……equal of Greek culture in all respects. Science is still too recent to have been…… an educational tradition which opposes Science to literature and history in the…The problem of an educational use of Science is then to create an intelligence p……lems dealt with may be only problems of Science: problems, that is, which would …Science represents the fruition of the cognitive factors in experience. Instead …Science carries on this working over of prior subject matter on a large scale. I…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…cation which flowed from the command of Science over natural energy. But after g…… of human intercourse. On the one hand, Science, commerce, and art transcend nat……It is a narrow view which restricts the Science which secures efficiency of oper……strengthened by the advances of natural Science. Inquiry freed from prejudice an…

The Individual and the World

…s and principles as are embodied in the Sciences of nature and man. But it is no……n their own resources. The reformers of Science like Galileo, Descartes, and the……ies. Between the physical and the moral Sciences, lie intermediate Sciences of l…

The Nature of Method

… false. The fact that the material of a Science is organized is evidence that it……eory, at least, one might deduce from a Science of the mind as something existin…

The Nature of Subject Matter

3. Science or Rationalized KnowledgeScience is a name for knowledge in its most characteristic form. It represents i…Science has been defined in terms of method of inquiry and testing. At first sig…Science represents the safeguard of the race against these natural propensities …

The Significance of Geography and History

…cessive inventions by which theoretical Science has been applied to the control ……The utmost that the most learned men of Science know in physics, chemistry, phys…

Theories of Knowledge

…logy, and the logic of the experimental Sciences supply the specific intellectua…

Theories of Morals

… is thought to be a thing apart, and conScience is thought of as something radic……lling it an intuition or an ideal of conScience. Results, conduct, are what coun…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…the pursuit of knowledge has become, in Science, more experimental, less depende…… The economic revolution has stimulated Science by setting problems for solution……ndustrial life is now so dependent upon Science and so intimately affects all fo……ound of present conditions; training in Science to give intelligence and initiat…

Social Science

Physical and Social Studies

… social uses. Every step forward in the Social Sciences - the studies termed his……es of authoritative literature, for the Social Sciences did not develop until th…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…cial life. Even for older students, the Social Sciences would be less abstract a…

Sociology

Physical and Social Studies

…es termed history, economics, politics, Sociology - shows that social questions …

Theory

Education as Conservative and Progressive

We now come to a type of Theory which denies the existence of faculties and emph…… this detailed and consistent form, the Theory, outside of a small school in Ger……re occupied with their environment. The Theory represents the Schoolmaster come …(2) The Theory that the proper subject matter of instruction is found in the cul……vironment. The defect of the Herbartian Theory of formation through presentation……ut has given rise to the recapitulation Theory of education, biological and cult…

Education as Direction

…lly violated in practice as conceded in Theory. Is not this deplorable situation……em by placing them in contrast with the Theory which uses a psychology of suppos…According to this Theory, social control of individuals rests upon the instincti…

Educational Values

In the outline given of the Theory of educative subject matter, the demand for t……s are familiar with a check and balance Theory of the powers of government. Ther……n of interests. The point at issue in a Theory of educational value is then the …… and amassing of a load of information. Theory, and - to some extent - practice,…The Theory of educational values involves not only an account of the nature of a…

Experience and Thinking

…e is no difference of opinion as to the Theory of the matter. All authorities ag……en the suggested solution - the idea or Theory - has to be tested by acting upon…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

2. The Modern Theory of Experience and Knowledge…explicitly desirable and possible. This Theory reinstates the idea of the ancien……was not dependent upon the truth of the Theory. Introduced into the schools they……elihood and leisure are opposed, so are Theory and practice, intelligence and ex……he education reform effected by the new Theory was confined mainly to doing away……ore coming to that, we have to note the Theory of experience and knowledge devel……wledge. (a) the historical value of the Theory was critical; it was a dissolvent…

Interest and Discipline

…t of the "practical" man and the man of Theory or culture, the divorce of fine a……e significance of this doctrine for the Theory of education is twofold. On the o……as "soft" pedagogy; as a "soup-kitchen" Theory of education.… that, in contrast with the traditional Theory, anything which intelligence stud…

Labor and Leisure

…he relation of intelligence and desire, Theory and practice. It was embodied in ……n intrinsic. In knowing, in the life of Theory, reason finds its own full manife…

Philosophy of Education

…ilosophy was defined as the generalized Theory of education. Philosophy was stat……ropean philosophical thought arose as a Theory of educational procedure remains ……of the relation of reason to action, of Theory to practice, since virtue clearly……fect the relationship of mind and body, Theory and practice, man and nature, the……mulate can never be far from view. If a Theory makes no difference in educationa…… nature; the individual and the social; Theory - or knowing, and practice - or d…

Physical and Social Studies

…encroach upon the domain of spirit. Any Theory of education which contemplates a……dicate the consequences for educational Theory and practice. "Greece on one hand…

Play and Work in the Curriculum

… general, ready-made faculties of older Theory a complex group of instinctive an…

Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline

… of behavior. According to the orthodox Theory of formal discipline, a pupil in …A Theory which has had great vogue and which came into existence before the noti……lusive end of development, the Hegelian Theory swallowed up concrete individuali……tive single force in modern educational Theory in effecting widespread acknowled……ne is only a variant of the preparation Theory. Practically the two differ in th……to Locke, a common-place of educational Theory and of psychology. Practically, i……al presented. In its classic form, this Theory was expressed by Locke. On the on……ning. Another influential but defective Theory is that which conceives that mind…… matter, the fundamental fallacy of the Theory is its dualism; that is to say, i…

Science in the Course of Study

…oncrete action. There is a kind of idle Theory which is antithetical to practice……and after the rise of democracy. Taking Theory just as Theory, however, that whi…

The Democratic Conception in Education

…left. Even the extreme sensationalistic Theory of knowledge which was current de……of others. Yet the society in which the Theory was propounded was so undemocrati…… for freedom waned, the weakness of the Theory upon the constructive side became……its and purposes, exacts of educational Theory a clearer conception of the meani……e necessarily brought about a change in Theory. The individualistic Theory reced…

The Individual and the World

…ns. Accordingly the consequences of the Theory were only such as were consequent…… philosophy known as epistemology - the Theory of knowledge. The identification …… consequently isolated individuals - in Theory - from one another. It would have……world. This is the problem to which the Theory of isolated and independent consc……ery process of inquiry, the "authority" Theory sets apart a sacred domain of tru…

The Nature of Method

…onform. Nothing has brought pedagogical Theory into greater disrepute than the b……ess attention to one implication of our Theory; the connection of subject matter…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…l practice as it is to lay them down in Theory. The extension in modern times of…

Theories of Knowledge

…mental respect which contrasts with the Theory which has been positively advance……inate in one between knowing and doing, Theory and practice, between mind as the…… continuity or consistency of life. The Theory of the method of knowing which is……r range of things in space. In time the Theory of knowing must be derived from t…… bringing about a transformation in the Theory of knowledge. The experimental me……or social continuity, it must develop a Theory of knowledge which sees in knowle……ecast and plan for. The effect upon the Theory of knowing is to displace the not……ntithetical conceptions involved in the Theory of knowing. In the first place, t…

Theories of Morals

…tions, and sometimes, as in the Kantian Theory, it is said to supply the only pr……activity must reflect themselves in the Theory of morals. Since the formulations…

Thinking in Education

…gment is not so great in practice as in Theory, there is not adequate theoretica……g is often regarded both in philosophic Theory and in educational practice as so……h it is put. When Newton thought of his Theory of gravitation, the creative aspe…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…ing of tangible services to society. In Theory, men and women are now expected t……tional education will be interpreted in Theory and practice as trade education: ……ions in education of labor and leisure, Theory and practice, body and mind, ment…

Tradition

Education as a Social Function

…tion of different groups with different Traditional customs. It is this situatio……re communities, more differing customs, Traditions, aspirations, and forms of go……g, they come into existence when social Traditions are so complex that a conside…

Education as Conservative and Progressive

… casual inspiration and subservience to Tradition. Moreover, everything in teach…

Educational Values

…ology betrays the particular provincial Tradition within which the author is wri……tting loaded down with purely inherited Traditional matter and with subjects whi…

Intellectual and Practical Studies

…trines and opinions resting wholly upon Tradition and authority. With respect to……philosophy continued and reinforced the Tradition. To know reality meant to be i……ndly. (iii) The most direct blow at the Traditional separation of doing and know……hize by the increasing failure of their Traditional customs and beliefs to regul……ophy began as a criticism of custom and Tradition as standards of knowledge and …… of experience is a fatal defect of the Traditional empirical philosophy. Nothin…

Interest and Discipline

…one hand, it has screened and protected Traditional studies and methods of teach……many things in our historic educational Traditions. It throws light upon the cla……he subject matter to be learned. In the Traditional schemes of education, subjec…… only to say that, in contrast with the Traditional theory, anything which intel…

Labor and Leisure

… and outer physical action of which the Traditional distinction between the libe…

Philosophy of Education

…oup; the relation of man and nature, of Tradition and reflection, of knowledge a……a reconsideration of the basic ideas of Traditional philosophic systems, it is b…

Physical and Social Studies

…ch was in direct social control. Such a Tradition as to culture is, as we have s……use of this procedure lies in following Tradition, rather than in conscious adhe……f as education. Our own comes by direct Tradition from it. It set a fashion whic…As a consequence, the Greek Tradition was lost in which a humanistic interest wa……r reasons may be suggested. (a) The old Tradition was firmly entrenched in insti…… alien peoples. And its dependence upon Tradition was increased by the dominant …

Play and Work in the Curriculum

…bsolutely fallacious, and the Puritanic Tradition which disallows the need has e……raining specifically so called but many Traditional kindergarten exercises have …

Science in the Course of Study

…power manage to avoid the pitfalls of a Traditional scholastic introduction into…There exists an educational Tradition which opposes science to literature and hi…

The Democratic Conception in Education

… languages, religions, moral codes, and Traditions. From this standpoint, many a…… of them, but also such modification of Traditional ideals of culture, Tradition

The Individual and the World

…the grip of the authority of custom and Traditions as standards of belief. Aside……ut it at first hand, instead of through Tradition. They wanted closer union with……l faculty is set up in distinction from Tradition and history and all concrete s…

The Nature of Method

…cceeded is essential. There is always a Tradition, or schools of art, definite e…

The Nature of Subject Matter

…onnecting link is found in the stories, Traditions, songs, and liturgies which a……inion, guesswork, speculation, and mere Tradition. In knowledge, things are asce……of learned men who preserve the classic Traditions of the past. They forget that…

The Significance of Geography and History

…uggest simply the matter which has been Traditionally sanctioned in the schools.…

Theories of Morals

…er side, overemphasizing convention and Tradition so as to limit morals to a lis…

Thinking in Education

…are given to attacking the passivity of Traditional education. They have opposed…

Vocational Aspects of Education

…f these distinctions is undoubtedly the Tradition which recognizes as employment……erimental, less dependent upon literary Tradition, and less associated with dial……hat education will perpetuate the older Traditions for a select few, and effect ……egime. This movement would continue the Traditional liberal or cultural educatio…… not been completely under the thumb of Tradition, higher schools in the past ha……ith the inertia of existing educational Traditions, but also with the opposition……s of vocational and cultural education. Traditionally, liberal culture has been …