A logical inference of a conclusion (or special case of inductive reasoning) that likely follows (but doesn't necessarily follow) from the provided premises and provides a reasonable explanation of the mechanism by which the conclusion follows.
A research methodology that seeks transformative change by iteratively acting toward change and doing research on the effectiveness of methods within authentic, situated contexts.
Adopting or encouraging a particular stance, solution, or policy.
A proposed explanation of phenomena that deviates from received wisdom or current belief.
An expectation that research methods should align with the problems being solved or the questions being asked.
A technique for ensuring rigor in which the researcher collects field notes or records of what is done, seen, heard, thought, etc. throughout the course of a study.
The branch of knowledge that deals with value, mattering, and importance.
A psychological phenomenon wherein a person may believe that generic statements that are universally accurate are true of them in a personal manner, often used by charlatans to convince victims that they have supernatural powers.
An expectation that results should be supported by participants, other researchers, and existing literature.
A tendency to interpret new evidences as supporting or confirming existing theories and paradigms (often ignoring contradictory evidence or negative cases).
Conflict of Interest
A threat to validity in which the biases or goals of a researcher, or potential benefits to them personally (especially in the case of monetary gain), may jeopardize the legitimacy or perceived legitimacy of their work.
A logical fallacy in which it is assumed that something is true because a majority of people believe it.
A research paradigm that deconstructs power structures that have historically been used to oppress, marginalize, or disenfranchise people according to various factors (e.g., race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender).
Thoughtful analysis that emphasizes dispassionate, unbiased objectivity.
An expectation that the researcher is thoughtful and methodical, following key standards and norms that are generally accepted by other researchers who use similar methodologies.
Also known as a false dichotomy, a logical fallacy in which only two possible solutions are provided (when there might actually be many more possibilities), intending to lead the audience to choose the more reasonable of the two.
An outsider approach to research, or research from an observer point of view.
The stance that moral behavior consists of doing that which will lead to the happiness or well-being of the individual.
A true statement about a finite, specific, and observable thing.
The ability to take the results of a study focusing on a sample of a population and to apply them to the overall population.
Typically treated as a threat to validity, a situation arising in which a researcher might allow their findings or attitudes in one area (e.g., "Julie is good at math") to influence their findings in another area (e.g., "Julie is probably good at science").
Typically treated as a threat to validity, a situation arising in observational research in which the subject being observed changes their behavior because they know they are being observed.
A proposed statement that is not known to be true or false but that can be tested for falsity.
The assumption that differing paradigms or worldviews are not readily compatible with or reducible to one another.
A technique for ensuring credibility wherein the researcher provides data records, interpretations, and results to the participants being studied to allow for alignment between the researcher's and the participant's understandings.
A belief that society enables people to achieve in life according to their merit (e.g., hard work, grit, determination), often formulated to suggest that success is due to merit and that lack of success is due to lack of merit.
A technique for ensuring credibility wherein the researcher intentionally seeks for cases that contradict their hypotheses and initial conclusions, thereby ensuring that exceptions are accounted for in final conclusions.
The actual group being studied, represented by the lowercase "n" variable.
A threat to validity in which the people or data actually being studied (i.e., the sample) do not accurately represent those to whom results are being applied (i.e., the population), such as if a study included only participants representing one socioeconomic, racial, ethnic, age, ability, or cultural group and applied results to others.
The point in qualitative research wherein no additional categories are being developed or no novel findings are arising, suggesting that the researcher can reasonably stop sampling new participants.
A mental organizing structure that people use to construct meaning and to make sense of information.
The belief that applying the scientific method has historically yielded positive, fairly-consistent improvement in human understanding and knowledge.
Unity of feeling or attitude expressed by an outsider toward members of an oppressed group intended to support their self-liberation.
An assumption that people can only understand the world as a mediated process of knowing that is directed by the biases, attitudes, expectations, and experiences of the subject or observer.
An approach to education that strips away aspects of minoritized students' cultures and identities rather than building upon them (such as the devaluing of indigenous perspectives or the unlearning of home languages).
An explanation of the 'how' or 'why' of particular phenomena, typically referencing existing facts and laws.
A process by which sensitive, private, or complex information is made nonsensitive, de-identified, or manageable through the use of tokens as identifiers (e.g., pseudonyms, numbers).
An unsuccessful approach to diversity and inclusivity that essentializes a person's identity and expects them to serve as a spokesperson for a larger group (e.g., asking a woman to serve on a board of directors only because she is a woman and expecting her to represent all women).
The ability of a reader to apply or transfer the results of a study to their own situation or context.