CoverIntroductionAcknowledgements1. Groundwork1.1. Research1.2. Knowing1.3. Theories1.4. Ethics2. ProcessExperimentation2.1. Problems2.2. Questions2.3. Designs2.4. Permissions2.5. Management2. Paradigms2.1. Inferential Statistics2.2. Sampling2.3. Qualitative Rigor2.4. Design-Based Research2.5. Mixed Methods3.1. Positivism3.2. Interpretivism3.3. Critical Theory3.4. Feminism3.5. Postmodernism3.6. Pragmatism3.7. DesignSelf-Study1.5. History3. Learning Theories3.1. Behaviorism3.2. Cognitivism3.3. Constructivism3.4. Socioculturalism3.5. Connectivism4. Methodology4.1. Variables4.2. Quantitative Rigor4.4. Influence4.5. Instruments4.6. ProtocolsThreats5. Data Collection5.1. Interventions5.2. Experiments5.3. Surveys5.4. Naturalistic Observations5.5. Interviews5.6. Focus Groups5. Methods5.1. Descriptive Statistics6.2. Qualitative Coding6.3. Interpretation6.4. Significance6.5. Meaning6.6. Correlation6.7. Causation6.8. Software7. Reporting7.2. Transparency7.3. Tables7.4. Figures7.6. Other ScholarshipAppendix A. SupplementsFormulasGlossaryReferencesTopical IndexIndex of MethodsAppendix B. Example StudiesExample Study #1. Public comment sentiment on educational videosExample Study #2. Effects of open textbook adoption on teachers' open practicesAppendix D. Software ExamplesSEM in R (using Lavaan)Appendix C. Historical ReadingsManifesto of the Communist Party (1848)On the Origin of Species (1859)Science and the Savages (1905)Theories of Knowledge (1916)Theories of Morals (1916)

SEM in R (using Lavaan)

1. Load the Data

# 1.1. Load the data file as a table
t1 = read.table('C:\\Users\\janedoe\\Documents\\filename.dat', na.strings='.')

# 1.2. Assign headings to the tabular data using the c() function to combine string values into a vector
names(t1) = c("chapter_id", "book_id", "avg_rating", "word_count", "reading_level", "reading_difficulty", "reading_minutes", "reading_likelihood")

# 1.3. Review the headings and top 10 rows of the table to make sure that headings and data match
head(t1, 10)

2. Load Libraries

# 2.1. Load the lavaan library
library(lavaan)