Index

Epistemology 3Ethics 25Methods 82Qualitative 49Quantitative 18Sampling 47Truth 46

Epistemology

Knowing

  1. Epistemology, or the study of knowing (Steup, 2005), has been of philosophical interest…
  2. The history of Epistemology can broadly be summarized as a dialogue between two different…

Paradigms

  1. … learn by using these methods (Epistemology), and how this whole endeavor connects…

Ethics

Groundwork

  1. … issues in your work (such as the Ethics of what we do) so that you will help…

Ethics

  1. Three Approaches to Normative Ethics
  2. Virtue Ethics
  3. Ethics, or the study of rightness, goodness, and morality, exists to help us…
  4. … of deontological approaches to Ethics?
  5. Relativistic approaches to Ethics are common in popular culture today and are…
  6. … consequentialist approaches to Ethics?
  7. Virtue Ethics focuses on the development and expression of virtues themselves…
  8. … common approaches to normative Ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue…
  9. … many deontological approaches to Ethics are commonplace, there are several obvious…
  10. … difficulty with applying virtue Ethics to professional decision-making is that…
  11. … must also be willing to approach Ethics normatively to ensure that the morality…
  12. … statements are examples of virtue Ethics?
  13. … lay out normative approaches to Ethics and to introduce the problems of moral…
  14. … over 2,000 years ago, virtue Ethics remains popular and is heavily debated.…
  15. … to be the fundamental goal of Ethics, it is tempered with an understanding that…
  16. … parent employing consequentialist Ethics to teach a child about honesty might…
  17. From this brief introduction to Ethics, it is not surprising that there is so…
  18. Relativistic vs. Normative Ethics
  19. … adopted as an international code of Ethics governing research experiments. Some…
  20. … immoral. Yet, the entire purpose of Ethics is to inform people on how they should…
  21. Today, virtue Ethics is applied in a variety of professional practices where…
  22. … agency and intentionality in Ethics is even more difficult to understand with…
  23. … employs all three approaches to Ethics in a way that attempts to capitalize…

Paradigms

  1. … morality should guide those methods (Ethics), why our research and the questions…

Methods

Introduction

  1. … advanced education on research Methods.
  2. … quantitative, qualitative, and mixed Methods by Mertens (2020), along with others.…

Research

  1. … interest and to summarize research Methods and findings in ways that are readily…
  2. … meanings in mind (favoring certain Methods or focusing on particular problems;…

Knowing

  1. … and hypothesis testing are the Methods of choice among scientists, constituting…

Theories

  1. … before and using categories or Methods of analysis provided to it. Without a…
  2. Unlike non-scientific Methods of inquiry, Popper explained that scientific theories…
  3. … further, nitpicking the researchers' Methods and trying to find holes in their…

Ethics

  1. … would be "unprocurable by other Methods" and the "degree of risk to be taken…

Paradigms

  1. … that our beliefs, attitudes, and Methods for achieving these aims might be very…
  2. … deal only with surface-level Methods or methodologies, but will instead attempt…
  3. … (Figure 1), then the visible Methods we use (e.g., interviews, surveys, randomized…
  4. … includes both our surface-level Methods as well as the deeper, often hidden,…
  5. … together on improving standardized Methods if we have not agreed on what learning…
  6. … differences don't exist when Methods simply look similar.
  7. … researchers utilize statistical Methods to determine predictive or correlational…

Sampling

  1. … matter in determining sampling Methods. Some topics of study might be simpler…
  2. … will often rely upon sampling Methods that are fast and easy or that allow us…
  3. Of all the sampling Methods, convenience sampling tends to be the easiest to do,…

Qualitative Rigor

  1. … can question the researcher's Methods, emerging conclusions, and biases. A disinterested…
  2. … ends) and also that qualitative Methods are the right or best way of achieving…
  3. … aware of the limits of your own Methods and do not recognize the actual complexity…
  4. … the established reasoning and Methods proposed in the study. Such deviations…
  5. … literature), (b) using multiple Methods of data collection, and often (c) conducting…
  6. … researcher describes his or her Methods, decisions, reasons for doing the study,…
  7. … should explicitly state so in the Methods sections of their reports and only…
  8. … the expectation that a study's Methods align with its intended goals. Not all…
  9. … by which the logic, reasoning, Methods, and results are expected to be stable…

Design-Based Research

  1. … drawing on a variety of research Methods that best fit the context. This flexibility…
  2. … believed that traditional research Methods failed to improve classroom practices,…
  3. … believed that traditional research Methods failed to improve classroom practices,…
  4. … 2004; Collins, 1990). Traditional Methods of research generate refined understandings…

Mixed Methods

  1. Guidelines for Good Mixed-Methods Research
  2. Common Mixed-Methods Designs
  3. 1. Align Methods and Research Questions
  4. … restrictive word limits, describing the Methods and results of three different…
  5. Explanatory mixed-Methods design is done when QUAN data is collected first and…
  6. … strength of doing both qual and quan Methods in the same study is that it allows…
  7. Triangulated mixed-Methods design, also known as convergent parallel design, is…
  8. Because mixed-Methods designs differ in temporal order (parallel vs. linear) and…
  9. Multiphase mixed-Methods design applies iteration to one or more of the aforementioned…
  10. Transformative mixed-Methods design builds upon one or more of the aforementioned…
  11. … there are ways of doing mixed Methods well and ways to do it poorly. There is…
  12. … two ways in which various mixed-Methods approaches may differ from one another:…
  13. Because qual and quan Methods are used to answer different research questions,…
  14. Iterative mixed-Methods designs are special cases of linear designs that simply…
  15. … rise to various paradigms and Methods that can be loosely organized under two…
  16. Linear mixed-Methods designs, on the other hand, involve sequential steps that…
  17. Mixed Methods Designs as Determined by Methodological Priority and Temporal Order
  18. … paradigms undergirding qual and quan Methods are so divergent, it is difficult…
  19. … aligns research questions with Methods, because if the Methods we are using cannot…
  20. Exploratory mixed-Methods design is done when QUAL data is collected first and…
  21. Mixed Methods refers to any research approach that utilizes both qual and quan…
  22. … addition to temporal order, mixed-Methods designs also vary in the relative importance…
  23. Though all mixed-Methods studies involve both qual and quan data, how and when…
  24. … trained in both qual and quan Methods, which means that when they engage in mixed…
  25. … in studies where QUAN and QUAL Methods are prioritized equally, researchers must…
  26. Embedded mixed-Methods design is done in any setting where one method is prioritized…
  27. … utilized and encouraged mixed Methods approaches as they can be useful for solving…
  28. Parallel mixed-Methods designs involve collecting and analyzing both qual and…
  29. … of numbers and call it mixed Methods. Similarly, we should not merely do quan…

Behaviorism

  1. … goal of behavioristic teaching Methods is to manipulate the environment of a…
  2. … nor controlled via scientific Methods and therefore should be ignored when analyzing…

Constructivism

  1. … world of education regarding Methods of implementation of constructivism. Constructionism,…
  2. … its environment and peers, the Methods of remembrance adapt. If the child is…

Socioculturalism

  1. … of practice and inquiry-based Methods, which enculturate learners into the community…
  2. … associated with instructional design Methods. These Methods traditionally rely…

Example Studies

  1. … spanning multiple paradigms, Methods, and research topics.

Public comment sentiment on educational videos

  1. Methods
  2. … civility more robust qualitative Methods are necessary in future research. Though…
  3. … quantitative, and qualitative Methods to answer the research questions. We describe…
  4. … of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (pp. 79–86).…
  5. … to this topic, we describe the Methods used, present our findings, and conclude…
  6. … different fields with varying Methods, all of these studies paint a dismal picture…
  7. This mixed Methods study primarily operated from a positivist paradigm and used…

Effects of open textbook adoption on teachers' open practices

  1. … supplements do not make this mixed Methods, because the quantitative data are…

Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848)

  1. … is rendered worthless by new Methods of production. Thus the proletariat is recruited…

Theories of Knowledge (1916)

  1. … weapons, etc., they use the same Methods to scare away the comet. To us, the…
  2. … stand as sponsors for educational Methods which an adequate conception of knowledge…
  3. … dialectic, and authoritative Methods of forming beliefs which have governed the…

Theories of Morals (1916)

  1. … administration, curriculum, and Methods of instruction of the school is the extent…
  2. … organic connection between the Methods and materials of knowledge and moral growth,…

Qualitative

Introduction

  1. … and evaluating quantitative and Qualitative research by Creswell & Guetterman (2018)…

Research

  1. … and evaluating quantitative and Qualitative research (third edition). Upper Saddle…

Ethics

  1. … numbers of people benefitted or the Qualitative nature of the benefit (Driver, 2014).…

Paradigms

  1. In contrast, a Qualitative researcher might attempt to understand what minoritized…
  2. … both the quantitative and the Qualitative researcher are loosely working in the realm…
  3. … research. We will not treat "Qualitative" and "quantitative" as paradigms, because…
  4. … difference between "quantitative" and "Qualitative" education researchers cannot…
  5. … heard of the “quantitative vs. Qualitative” distinction in education research,…

Sampling

  1. … research question. A hallmark of Qualitative methodologies, purposeful sampling takes…

Qualitative Rigor

  1. … meaningful ends) and also that Qualitative methods are the right or best way of achieving…
  2. Because Qualitative studies are not designed to be generalizable like quantitative…
  3. Because Qualitative inquiry is messy, relies on relatively few participant accounts,…
  4. … true for all research, not just Qualitative inquiry. There should be a rationale…
  5. … specific criteria of quality. In Qualitative methodologies, this rigor typically…
  6. … desire most people have for truth. Qualitative researchers agree that most claims…
  7. … that researchers might approach Qualitative research with a means-oriented mindset,…
  8. Credibility is the standard by which a Qualitative study is expected to be believable…
  9. … simply the records kept of how a Qualitative study was conducted. The audit trail…
  10. … There is no set amount of time a Qualitative inquiry should last, but the proper…
  11. In other words, the Qualitative researcher should consider whether their findings,…
  12. … following are rigor requirements in Qualitative research?
  13. … should follow ethical guidelines, Qualitative research places an especially high…
  14. … critical characteristics of a Qualitative study: the type of understanding that can…
  15. … hypotheses are simply confirmed, then Qualitative inquiry probably is not the appropriate…
  16. Yet, given sufficient detail, Qualitative studies can provide insight into what is…
  17. Confirmability is the standard by which a Qualitative study is expected to be supported…
  18. … which might not, and the rigorous Qualitative researcher provides readers with sufficient…
  19. In all Qualitative research, the researcher is responsible for revealing their biases…
  20. … extensive process, the resulting Qualitative inquiry report is considered very credible.…
  21. This does not mean that Qualitative research results must always agree with all other…
  22. … and so forth. By doing this, Qualitative researchers can better establish the rigor…
  23. … will be more convinced that the Qualitative inquiry itself is credible.
  24. … all research is or should be Qualitative. If the needs call for it and the researcher…
  25. … check the dependability of a Qualitative study, one looks to see if the researcher…

Mixed Methods

  1. 2. Abide by Both Qualitative and Quantitative Standards of Rigor
  2. … and evaluating quantitative and Qualitative research (third edition). Upper Saddle…
  3. … attention to expectations of Qualitative rigor (e.g., negative case analysis). In…
  4. … under two broad categories of Qualitative (qual) and quantitative (quan) research.…
  5. … supportive role, standards of Qualitative rigor are emphasized as being of utmost…

Public comment sentiment on educational videos

  1. … note here that more in-depth Qualitative analysis of the results presented here may…
  2. … harassment, and civility more robust Qualitative methods are necessary in future…
  3. … data mining, quantitative, and Qualitative methods to answer the research questions.…
  4. … creators more than the masses. Like Qualitative researchers, content creators may…
  5. … sentiment. The study also lightly used Qualitative elements by relying upon human…

Effects of open textbook adoption on teachers' open practices

  1. … theory: A practical guide through Qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage…
  2. The purpose of this Qualitative study was to understand whether certain theoretical…
  3. Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (3rd…
  4. This Qualitative study is interpretivist in nature, because it relies upon the researchers'…
  5. The current "basic Qualitative study" was designed "to understand how people make…

Quantitative

Introduction

  1. … Planning, conducting, and evaluating Quantitative and qualitative research by Creswell…

Research

  1. … Planning, conducting, and evaluating Quantitative and qualitative research (third…

Paradigms

  1. An example of this might be a Quantitative researcher attempting to construct a hierarchical…
  2. In this case, both the Quantitative and the qualitative researcher are loosely working…
  3. … not treat "qualitative" and "Quantitative" as paradigms, because these terms deal…
  4. Thus, the difference between "Quantitative" and "qualitative" education researchers…
  5. … you may have heard of the “Quantitative vs. qualitative” distinction in education…

Inferential Statistics

  1. … under the terms numerical or Quantitative data. Interval data are like temperature…

Qualitative Rigor

  1. … designed to be generalizable like Quantitative studies, their results should never…

Mixed Methods

  1. … Abide by Both Qualitative and Quantitative Standards of Rigor
  2. … supportive role, standards of Quantitative rigor are emphasized as being of utmost…
  3. … Planning, conducting, and evaluating Quantitative and qualitative research (third…
  4. … are meeting the expectations of Quantitative rigor necessary for generalizability,…
  5. … (e.g., testing an intervention Quantitatively) as each step informs the next.
  6. … categories of qualitative (qual) and Quantitative (quan) research. Qualitative generally…

Public comment sentiment on educational videos

  1. … web extraction, data mining, Quantitative, and qualitative methods to answer the research…
  2. … positivist paradigm and used Quantitative analysis via structural equation modeling…

Effects of open textbook adoption on teachers' open practices

  1. … this mixed methods, because the Quantitative data are only provided descriptively…

Sampling

Inferential Statistics

  1. Sampling
  2. … sample is called simple random Sampling (SRS). Simple random Sampling means that…

Sampling

  1. Random Sampling
  2. Purposeful Sampling
  3. Convenience Sampling
  4. … treated as subjects. It is not a Sampling strategy per se but is rather any study…
  5. The major benefit of cluster Sampling is feasibility because it allows researchers…
  6. How we go about Sampling is very important and will be dependent upon a variety…
  7. … education require some form of Sampling. Because you can't always study everyone…
  8. … to be valid. This would mean Sampling from all three types of schools until you…
  9. Snowball Sampling selects a small number of initial subjects and then gradually…
  10. … moderate approach, intensity Sampling also tries to account for a diversity of…
  11. Before choosing a Sampling method, you should consider at least two aspects of…
  12. … ignored altogether because the Sampling procedure did not take into account the…
  13. Stratified Sampling selects subjects from different groups, levels, or strata in…
  14. … another set of lesson plans, Sampling a large enough number to generalize to the…
  15. Convenience Sampling consists of studying those who are close to us or who are…
  16. PPS Sampling is superior to simple random Sampling when key a priori strata are…
  17. … if convenience or purposeful Sampling is utilized in a study, then generalization…
  18. Quota Sampling selects fixed or equivalent numbers of subjects from predetermined…
  19. Simple random Sampling selects subjects from the target population without consideration…
  20. … results derived from convenience Sampling will typically not meet rigor expectations…
  21. Most applications of cluster Sampling are geographic in nature when researchers…
  22. Four Common Non-Random-Sampling Strategies with Examples
  23. Cluster Sampling selects subjects from organic groups or clusters of the population…
  24. Four Common Random-Sampling Strategies with Examples
  25. The strength of informant Sampling is that it allows us to develop a deep understanding…
  26. … knowledge and social networks as Sampling tools and is very useful for gaining…
  27. Stratified Sampling is preferable to simple random Sampling when you want to be…
  28. … questions matter in determining Sampling methods. Some topics of study might be…
  29. Extreme case Sampling selects subjects from opposite ends or contradictory sides…
  30. … employ at least four common random-Sampling strategies for doing this well. These…
  31. … then we will often rely upon Sampling methods that are fast and easy or that allow…
  32. Quota Sampling is useful if researchers have a priori categories of analysis that…
  33. Informant Sampling selects subjects based upon their expertise or ability to provide…
  34. … provides clear benefits to other Sampling procedures, because you can avoid Sampling
  35. Purposeful Sampling consists of selecting subjects specifically out of a population…
  36. … I'll explain four basic types of Sampling — convenience, purposeful, random,…
  37. … research is different, and our Sampling method should reflect this intended goal.
  38. Random Sampling consists of selecting a sufficient number of subjects at random…
  39. Of all the Sampling methods, convenience Sampling tends to be the easiest to do,…
  40. … research questions, then quota Sampling is less useful. In the example of racially…
  41. Like stratified Sampling, probability-proportional-to-size (or PPS) Sampling (also…
  42. … and observing, then we can use Sampling approaches that take a broader view, such…

Qualitative Rigor

  1. … how to proceed with the study, Sampling decisions, ethical concerns, and so on.

Threats

  1. Sampling bias

Public comment sentiment on educational videos

  1. … randomization, representative Sampling, and significance testing.

Truth

Knowing

  1. Scientific Terms for Truth-Seeking
  2. … carries with it a connotation of Truth but represents a trickier case than…
  3. Half of a Truth is often a great lie. (Benjamin Franklin)
  4. … of the following terms imply Truth (i.e., if a purported ______ is proven wrong,…
  5. … the difficulty of ascertaining Truth, and others have intentionally used the…
  6. … more complicated relationship to Truth than laws or facts might. Because of…
  7. … with knowing, knowledge, and Truth-seeking, it is not surprising that we all…
  8. … these problems of knowing and Truth are of paramount importance when moving…
  9. … believe to be true or even what Truth is, there seem to be some commonalities…
  10. … predictions are not accurate, then the Truth of the law is called into question.…
  11. … prevent us from arriving at the Truth, and different strategies are used to…
  12. … paradigm approaches knowledge, Truth, errors, and Truth-seeking differently.…
  13. … used in the realms of knowing, Truth-seeking, and science so that we can have…
  14. … observe the world, or facts or Truths in it, and have an accurate knowledge…
  15. … carries with it a connotation of Truth. Thus, a statement like "it was 103…
  16. … this regard, scientists approach Truth by focusing on errors and error likelihood,…
  17. … fact in isolation relates to Truths that are more universal or that actually…
  18. … of making claims on absolute Truth or the world as it objectively exists, but…
  19. … expect to have some level of Truth to them or that we hope will help us to…
  20. … and contextual relationship to Truth but that theories also have a larger scope…
  21. … unreasonable mechanisms for determining Truth, essentially disbelieving everything…
  22. … hypothesis testing can only yield Truth claims that are tentative (e.g., “we…
  23. … so we rely upon mechanisms of Truth-seeking and a variety of notions related…
  24. … have to be able to evaluate the Truth or falsity of purported facts and laws,…
  25. Truth and Error

Theories

  1. … ostensibly until they encompass all Truth.
  2. … on to question the potential Truth-value of theories altogether, making irrationality…
  3. … consensus fallacy is obvious: the Truth of any claim has nothing to do with…

Ethics

  1. … will still generally tell the Truth but will do so with consideration for complexities…
  2. … the child learning to tell the Truth, might there be situations when telling…
  3. … 2019). To connect back to the Truth-telling example above, a parent employing…
  4. … acting. The child telling the Truth might not know the effect it will have…
  5. … is always better to tell the Truth." By teaching this to a child, it is anticipated…

Paradigms

  1. … different wrappers on the same box of Truth. Paradigms do not need to work…

Qualitative Rigor

  1. … never be framed as universal Truths or as conclusions that are true in all…
  2. … the desire most people have for Truth. Qualitative researchers agree that most…

On the Origin of Species (1859)

  1. Although I am fully convinced of the Truth of the views given in this volume…
  2. … of structure or instinct. The Truth of these propositions cannot, I think,…

Science and the Savages (1905)

  1. The obvious Truth is that the moment any matter has passed through the human…
  2. … greater than they know. For in Truth these men do something far more god-like…
  3. … popular, because it tells the Truth about people. If the ruin of Samson by…

Theories of Knowledge (1916)

  1. … material commodities in a warehouse. Truth exists ready-made somewhere. Study…
  2. … intelligence in apprehending facts and Truths, - except perhaps the single…
  3. … change and conserve received Truth emphasize the universal and the fixed -…

Theories of Morals (1916)

  1. … "moral" in an emphatic sense—Truthfulness, honesty, chastity, amiability,…
  2. … only in its own narrow line. In Truth, the problem of moral education in the…