CoverObjectivesParagraphsShapeOrganizationParagraph TypesIntroduction to EssaysShapeOrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsExample EssayThe Writing ProcessPrewritingWritingRevisingNarrative EssaysExample Essay #1PrewritingWritingRevisingExample Essay #2Descriptive EssaysExample Essay #1PrewritingWritingRevisingExample Essay #2Classification EssaysExample Essay #1PrewritingWritingRevisingExample Essay #2Refining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesionNuts and BoltsAudienceWord FormsPunctuation & CapitalizationGrammarVocabularySummariesWriting for the TOEFLIntegrated Writing TaskIndependent Writing TaskGlossaryTeachers' GuideTeacher NotesActivity IdeasAnswer KeyParagraphs AKIntroduction to Essays AKThe Writing Process AKNarrative Essays AKDescriptive Essays AKClassification Essays AKRefining Writing AKSummaries AKWriting for the TOEFL AK


Brainstorm: making a list of all of your ideas about a topic and then finding patterns of organization and the ideas you want to develop

Concluding sentence: the final idea in a paragraph that effectively ends the discussion

Organization: focuses, limits, or controls the topic to make it more specific (ex. sandwiches > the best type of sandwich)

Drafted writing: the focus is on the process of writing, meaning that the writer will make many different versions of the writing in order to improve it

Organization: a group of paragraphs connected to the same topic and organized to present a big idea by presenting it in detail

Evaluate: to look at something and decide if it is good or if it needs to change

Feedback: ideas someone gives for how to improve your writing after they finish reading it

Formatting: how you organize the words on the page, there are specific rules for formatting an essay in English (indentations, 12 point font, 1 inch margins, etc)

Hook: the first sentence in an essay that is used to make the reader interested and continue to read

Outline: the basic organization of the main idea and most important details and where they will be in the essay, this helps you to keep control of your essay

Paragraph: a group of sentences that are all connected by one topic and organized clearly, typically includes a topic sentence, supporting sentence, and concluding sentence

Restate: to say the same idea in a different way

Supporting sentence: follow the topic sentence and give reasons, examples, and explanations that explain it in more detail

Timed writing: the focus is on the what a writer can create with a time limit and without access to additional help

Topic sentence: the main idea for a paragraph, often the first sentence