• Foundations of Learning and Instructional Design Technology
  • I. Definitions and History
  • II. Learning and Instruction
  • III. Design
  • IV. Educational Technology
  • The Future of the Field is Not Design
  • Final Reading Assignment
  • Index of Topics
  • Call for Chapters
  • Prototype: Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism
  • Gossary References [DO NOT PUBLISH]
  • Translations
  • Gossary References [DO NOT PUBLISH]

    The following definitions were obtained from Openstax

    Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). How memory functions. In Psychology 2e. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-QfmN

    Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). What are intelligence and creativity? In Psychology 2e. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-QfmN


    acoustic encoding: input of sounds, words, and music

    automatic processing: encoding of informational details like time, space, and meaning of words

    effortful processing: encoding of information that takes effort and attention

    encoding: input of information into the memory system

    episodic memory: type of declarative memory that contains information about events we have personally experienced, also known as autobiographical memory

    explicit memory: memories we consciously try to remember and recall

    implicit memory: memories that are not part of our consciousness

    long-term memory (LTM): continuous storage of information

    procedural memory: type of long-term memory for making skilled actions, such as how to brush your teeth, how to drive a car, and how to swim

    recall: accessing information without cues

    recognition: identifying previously learned information after encountering it again, usually in response to a cue

    rehearsal: repetition of information to be remembered

    relearning: learning information that was previously learned

    retrieval: act of getting information out of long-term memory storage and back into conscious awareness

    self-reference effect: tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance

    semantic encoding: input of words and their meaning

    semantic memory: type of declarative memory about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts

    sensory memory: storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes

    short-term memory (STM): holds about seven bits of information before it is forgotten or stored, as well as information that has been retrieved and is being used

    storage: creation of a permanent record of information

    visual encoding: input of images

    analytical intelligence: aligned with academic problem solving and computations

    convergent thinking: providing correct or established answers to problems

    creative intelligence: ability to produce new products, ideas, or inventing a new, novel solution to a problem

    creativity: ability to generate, create, or discover new ideas, solutions, and possibilities

    crystallized intelligence: characterized by acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it

    cultural intelligence: ability to which people can understand and relate to those in another culture

    divergent thinking: ability to think “outside the box” to arrive at novel solutions to a problem

    emotional intelligence: ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others

    fluid intelligence: ability to see complex relationships and solve problems

    Multiple Intelligences Theory: Gardner’s theory that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence

    practical intelligence: aka “street smarts”

    triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternberg’s theory of intelligence; three facets of intelligence; practical, creative, and analytical

    This content is provided to you freely by EdTech Books.

    Access it online or download it at https://edtechbooks.org/foundations_of_learn/gossary_referencesk.