Gossary References [DO NOT PUBLISH]

The following definitions were obtained from Openstax

Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). How memory functions. In Psychology 2e. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-QfmN

Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). What are intelligence and creativity? In Psychology 2e. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-QfmN


acoustic encoding: input of sounds, words, and music

automatic processing: encoding of informational details like time, space, and meaning of words

effortful processing: encoding of information that takes effort and attention

encoding: input of information into the memory system

episodic memory: type of declarative memory that contains information about events we have personally experienced, also known as autobiographical memory

explicit memory: memories we consciously try to remember and recall

implicit memory: memories that are not part of our consciousness

long-term memory (LTM): continuous storage of information

procedural memory: type of long-term memory for making skilled actions, such as how to brush your teeth, how to drive a car, and how to swim

recall: accessing information without cues

recognition: identifying previously learned information after encountering it again, usually in response to a cue

rehearsal: repetition of information to be remembered

relearning: learning information that was previously learned

retrieval: act of getting information out of long-term memory storage and back into conscious awareness

self-reference effect: tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance

semantic encoding: input of words and their meaning

semantic memory: type of declarative memory about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts

sensory memory: storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes

short-term memory (STM): holds about seven bits of information before it is forgotten or stored, as well as information that has been retrieved and is being used

storage: creation of a permanent record of information

visual encoding: input of images

analytical intelligence: aligned with academic problem solving and computations

convergent thinking: providing correct or established answers to problems

creative intelligence: ability to produce new products, ideas, or inventing a new, novel solution to a problem

creativity: ability to generate, create, or discover new ideas, solutions, and possibilities

crystallized intelligence: characterized by acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it

cultural intelligence: ability to which people can understand and relate to those in another culture

divergent thinking: ability to think “outside the box” to arrive at novel solutions to a problem

emotional intelligence: ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others

fluid intelligence: ability to see complex relationships and solve problems

Multiple Intelligences Theory: Gardner’s theory that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence

practical intelligence: aka “street smarts”

triarchic theory of intelligence: Sternberg’s theory of intelligence; three facets of intelligence; practical, creative, and analytical

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