CoverForewordUnit I. Atoms1. Introduction2. Matter3. Measurement4. The Atom5. Periodic Table6. Moles & Mass7. Light8. Blackbody Radiation, Photoelectric Effect9. Atomic Spectra, Bohr Model10. Orbitals & Quantum Numbers11. Electron Configurations12. Periodic TrendsUnit II. Molecules13. Bonding14. Nomenclature15. Lewis Structures Part 116. Lewis Structures Part 217. Molecular Shape18. Polarity19. Organic Molecules20. Isomers21. Valence Bond Theory22. Molecular Orbital TheoryUnit III. Interactions23. Pressure & Gas Laws24. Combined & Ideal Gas Laws25. Dalton's Law, Graham's Law, Henry's Law26. Kinetic Molecular Theory, Real Gases27. Intermolecular Forces28. Properties of Water29. Applications of IMF30. Phase DiagramsUnit IV. Reactions31. Stoichiometry32. Limiting Reactants, % Yield33. % Composition, Empirical Formulas34. Energy, Heat, and Work35. Calorimetry Part 136. Calorimetry Part 237. Enthalpy Part 138. Enthalpy Part 239. Entropy40. Gibb's Free Energy41. Climate and Human ImpactsKeywords
General College Chemistry


General College Chemistry was created to serve as the textbook for the first semester general chemistry course at Brigham Young University (BYU). The contents are derived from open education resources including OpenStax, LibreTexts, and content created by the author and released into the public domain. Any content that does not come directly from OpenStax and LibreTexts (which have specific licensing and attribution statements) is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license. 

The chapters are organized by the day of class that they correspond to; a standard semester at BYU has 42 class days, so there are 41 chapters, reserving one day for a holiday or review. At the end of each chapter, there are additional resources housed on google drive that contain pdf files of lecture slides for use by the instructor, participation worksheets for use by students working in groups during class, and problem sets of practice problems and exercises for students to complete after class or after reading the textbook chapter.

The author, Dr. Rebecca Sansom, is an Associate Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at BYU. She has taught at BYU since 2014. Dr. Sansom was the recipient of the Oustanding Teaching Award from the BYU College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences in 2022. This award provided funding to develop the ancillaries and support several undergraduate students, including Mikaela Anderson, Andrea Augustus, Amanda Carlson, and Elia Hafen, who assisted in that process. Many of the practice problems were derived from earlier versions created by other faculty members at BYU. The online General College Chemistry book was built and constructed by Abby Boekweg, a graduate student in the Instructional Psychology and Technology department at BYU as part of her Master's project. We gratefully acknowledge her effort, care, and diligence in preparing this text for use by students. 

Instructors who wish to adopt and use this text in their classrooms may contact the author, Dr. Rebecca Sansom, at to get access to instructor PowerPoint files, word document versions of participation and problem sets, and answer keys for the problem sets. Be sure to use your institutional email and include a link to the institution's website showing that you are an instructor there. If there are errors that you would like to report, please contact Dr. Sansom at the email given above with sufficient detail to explain where the error is located in the book, and what content you find problematic. 

Thank you for your interest in using General College Chemistry. We hope that it will help you on your chemistry learning journey.


CC BY: This work is released under a CC BY license, which means that you are free to do with it as you please as long as you properly attribute it.