• Hybrid-Flexible Course Design
  • Unit I. Hybrid-Flexible Course Design to Support Student-Directed Learning Paths
  • Unit II. Implementation and Adoption of Hybrid-Flexible Instruction
  • Unit III. Hybrid-Flexible Implementations Around the World
  • Appendices
  • Practical Experience of Courses with Practical Applications: Video Lab HyFlex
  • Video Lab HyFlex: Practical Experiences of Courses with Practical Applications
  • Download
  • Translations
  • Appendix A

    Bibliography of Hybrid-Flexible Literature (using various terms)

    Note: An updated bibliography can be found at the HyFlex Learning Community site, hyflexlearning.org/bibliography - direct link: https://edtechbooks.org/-cazI

    Abdelmalak, M. (March, 2013). HyFlex course design: A case study of an educational technology course. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (SITE) International Conference, New Orleans, LA USA.

    Abdelmalak, M. (2014). Towards Flexible Learning for Adult Students: HyFlex Design. In M. Searson & M. Ochoa (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2014--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 706-712). Jacksonville, Florida, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 4, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-VxGa.

    Abdelmalak, M., Parra, J. (2016, October) Expanding Learning Opportunities for Graduate Students with
    HyFlex Course Design.
    International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design 6(4).

    Abdelmalak, M. M., & Parra, J. L. (2018). Case Study of HyFlex Course Design: Benefits and Challenges for Graduate Students. In R. Sharma (Ed.), Innovative Applications of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (pp. 298-317). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-5466-0.ch015

    Alexander, M.M., Lynch, J.E., Rabinovich, T., & Knutel, P.G. (2014). Snapshot of a hybrid learning environment. The Quarterly Review of Distance Learning, 15(1), 9-21.

    Beatty, B. (2006, October) Designing the HyFlex World- Hybrid, Flexible Classes for All Students. Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Dallas, TX.

    Beatty, B. (2007). Transitioning to an Online World: Using HyFlex Courses to Bridge the Gap. In C. Montgomerie & J. Seale (Eds.), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 2007--World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (pp. 2701-2706). Vancouver, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 5, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-ohe.

    Beatty, B. (2007, October). Hybrid Classes with Flexible Participation Options – If you build it, how will they come? Proceedings of the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Anaheim, CA.

    Beatty, B. (2007, November). Blended Learning for Students with Choice: The HyFlex Course and Design Process. Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Thirteenth Sloan-C International Conference on Online Learning, Orlando, FL.

    Beatty, B. (2008). HyFlex Delivery for US Army Counter Insurgency (COIN) Training Applications. In Lickteig, C. W., Bailenson, J., Beatty, B., Dunleavy, M., Graham, C. R., Kozlowski S.W., & Mayer, R. E.  Innovative Training Methods for the Contemporary Operating Environment: Contributions from the Consortium Research Fellows Program (ARI Special Report).  Arlington, VA:  U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    Beatty, B. (2008). Sloan Consortium Effective Practice Award: Using the “HyFlex” Course and Design Process. Retrieved 04/04/2016 from https://edtechbooks.org/-Zvd

    Beatty, B. (2009, October). Student Self-reflections on Learning in a Hybrid Course Environment: Do Participation Mode Differences Lead to Differences in Reflections? Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Louisville KY.

    Beatty, B. (2011, November). HyFlex Course Design: A Summary Report on Five Years of Implementation. Peer-reviewed paper presented at the Association for Educational Communication and Technology International Conference, Jacksonville, FL.

    Beatty, B. (2012, April). HyFlex Course Design: The Advantages of Letting Students Choose the Blend. Peer-reviewed paper presented at Sloan-C Blended Learning Conference, Milwaukee, WI.

    Beatty, B. J. (2014). Hybrid courses with flexible participation – The HyFlex Course Design. In L. Kyei-Blankson and E. Ntuli (Eds.) Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments. (pp. 153-177). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global.

    Beatty, B. J. (2019). Hybrid-Flexible Course Design: Implementing Student-Directed Hybrid Classes. EdTech Books. Available online: https://edtechbooks.org/hyflex/

    Beatty, B., Littlefield, C., Miller, J., Rhoads, D., Shaffer, D., Shurance, M. and Beers, M. (2016, April) Hybrid Flexible Course and Program Design: Models for Student-Directed Hybrids. Paper and panel session presented at the OLC Innovate 2016 Conference, New Orleans, LA.

    Bell, J., Sawaya, S., & Cain, W. (2014). Synchromodal classes: Designing for shared learning experiences between face-to-face and online students. International Journal of Designs for learning, 5(1), 68-82.

    [French language] Bergeron, M.-H. (2014). Innovating to promote access to higher education in rural areas. Pédagogie Collégiale Vol. 27, No 4, Summer 2014. Retrieved from http://aqpc.qc.ca/sites/default/files/revue/Bergeron-Vol_27-4.pdf. 

    Binnewies, S., Wang, Z. (2019) Challenges of Student Equity and Engagement in a HyFlex Course. In C. Allan, C. Campbell, and J. Crough (Eds.) Blended Learning Designs in STEM Higher Education: Putting Learning First (pp. 209-230). Singapore: Springer Nature

    Boelens, R., De Wever, B., & Voet, M. (2017). Four key challenges to the design of blended learning: A systematic literature review. Educational Research Review, 22, pp. 1-18. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2017.06.001

    Bower, M., Dalgarno, B., Kennedy, G. E., Lee, M. J. W., & Kenney, J. (2015). Design and implementation factors in blended synchronous environments: Outcomes from a cross-case analysis. Computers & Education, 86, 1-17.

    Bower, M.,Kennedy, G. E., Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., and Kenney, J. (2014). Blended synchronous learning: A handbook for educators.  Retrieved from http://blendsync.org/handbook/

    Bower M., Kenney, J., Dalgarno, B., Lee, M. J. W., & Kennedy, G. E. (2014). Patterns and principles for blended synchronous learning: Engaging remote and face-to-face learners in rich-media real-time collaborative activities. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(3), 261-272.

    Butz, N. T., Stupnisky, R. H., Peterson, E. S., & Majerus, M. M. (2014). Self-determined motivation in synchronous hybrid graduate business programs: Contrasting online and on-campus students. Online Learning and Teaching, 10, 211-227.

    Butz, N. T., Stupnisky, R. H. (2017). Improving student relatedness through an online discussion intervention: The application of self-determination theory in synchronous hybrid programs. Computers & Education, 114 (2017), pp. 117-138, 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.06.006

    Day, S. & Verhaart, M. (2016). Determining the requirements for geographically extended learning (gxLearning): A multiple case study approach. In S. Barker, S. Dawson, A. Pardo, & C. Colvin (Eds.), Show Me The Learning. Proceedings ASCILITE 2016 Adelaide (pp. 182-191). 

    Day, S., & Verhaart, M. (2016). Beyond Wi-Fi: Using Mobile devices for gxLearning in the field. In M. Verhaart, A. Sarkar, E. Erturk & R. Tomlinson (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of Computing and Information Technology Education and Research in New Zealand incorporating the 29th Annual Conference of the NACCQ, Wellington, New Zealand, 11th-13th July 2016 (pp. 27-33). Retrieved from http://www.citrenz.ac.nz/conferences/2016/pdf/2016CITRENZ_1_Day_gxLearning_16-3.pdf 

    Detienne, L., Raes, A. & Depaepe, F. (2018). Benefits, Challenges and Design Guidelines for Synchronous Hybrid Learning: A Systematic Literature Review. In T. Bastiaens, J. Van Braak, M. Brown, L. Cantoni, M. Castro, R. Christensen, G. Davidson-Shivers, K. DePryck, M. Ebner, M. Fominykh, C. Fulford, S. Hatzipanagos, G. Knezek, K. Kreijns, G. Marks, E. Sointu, E. Korsgaard Sorensen, J. Viteli, J. Voogt, P. Weber, E. Weippl & O. Zawacki-Richter (Eds.), Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 2004-2009). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 20, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-woe.

    Donovan, S. A. G. (2018). Mixed methods study of the fit instructional model on attributes of student success (Order No. 10935064). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: The Humanities and Social Sciences Collection. (2115548318). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/2115548318?accountid=13802

    Educause. (2010). Seven things you should know about the HyFlex course model. Retrieved 04/04/2016 from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7066.pdf

    Elder, S. J. (2018). Multi-Options: An Innovative Course Delivery Methodology. Nursing Education Perspectives 39(2), pp. 110-112.

    Gobeil-Proulx, J. (2019). La perspective étudiante sur la formation comodale, ou hybride flexible. [What do university students think about hybrid-flexible, or HyFlex courses?] Revue internationale des technologies en pédagogie universitaire16(1), pp. 56-67. Available online: https://doi.org/10.18162/ritpu-2019-v16n1-04

    Gounari, P. and Koutropoulos, A. (2015). Using Blended Principles to Bridge the Gap between Online and On-Campus Courses. In L. Kyei-Blankson and E. Ntuli (Eds.) Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments. (pp. 178-190). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global.

    He, W., Gajski, D., Farkas, G., Warschauer, M. (2015). Implementing flexible hybrid instruction in an electrical engineering course: The best of three worlds? Computers & Education, vol 81, pp.59-68.

    Hill, J., Yang, X., Kim, E. E., Oh, J, Choi, I., Branch, R. M., Lee, H., & Keisler, B. (2018). Creating a Flexibly Accessible Learning Environment. Conference presentation at Association for Educational Communications and Technology Annual Convention. Kansas City, MO. (2018, October).

    Irvine, V. (2009). The emergence of choice in ‘multi-access’ learning environments: transferring locus of control of course access to the learner. In G. Siemens, C. Fulford (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2009, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Chesapeake, VA (2009), pp. 746-752.

    Irvine, V. (2010). Exploring learner needs for collaboration and access. In J. Herrington, B. Hunter (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2010, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Chesapeake, VA (2010), pp. 1093-1097.

    Irvine, V., Code, J., & Richards, L. (2013). Realigning higher education for the 21st century learner through multi-access learning. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 172. 

    [Spanish language] Juarez-Popoca, D., Gastelu, C. A. T., Herrera-Diaz, L. E. (2014). El modelo HyFlex: Una propuesta de formación híbrida y flexible. In I. E. Gamez (Ed.)  Los Modelos Tecno-Educativos, revolucionando el aprendizaje del siglo XXI,  pp. 127-142.

    Koskinen, M. (2014). Understanding the Needs of Adult Graduate Students: An Exploratory Case Study of a Hyflex Learning Environment. Northeastern University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2018. 13419414.

    Kyei-Blankson, L. & Godwyll, F. (2010). An Examination of Learning Outcomes in Hyflex Learning Environments. In J. Sanchez & K. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2010--World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 532-535). Orlando, Florida, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 5, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-wNs.

    Kyei-Blankson, L., Godwyll, F., Nur-Awaleh, M. & Keengwe, J. (2011). The New Blend: When students are given the option to choose. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2011--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 433-436). Nashville, Tennessee, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved April 5, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-PxP.

    Kyei-Blankson, L., Godwyll, F., Nur-Awaleh, M. (2014). Innovative blended delivery and learning: exploring student choice, experience, and level of satisfaction in a hyflex course. International Journal of Innovation and Learning 16(3), pp. 243-252.

    Lafortune, A. M. (2018). Differences in Students’ Perceptions of the Community of Inquiry in a Blended Synchronous Delivery Mode. Université de Sherbrooke Dissertation.

    Lakhal, S., Bateman, D. & Bédard, J. (2017). Blended Synchronous Delivery Mode in Graduate Programs: A Literature Review and Its Implementation in the Master Teacher Program. Collected Essays on Learning and Teaching 10, pp. 47-60.

    Lakhal, S., Khechine, H. & Pascot, D. (2014). Academic Students’ Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in a HyFlex Course: Do Delivery Modes Matter?. In T. Bastiaens (Ed.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning (pp. 1075-1083). New Orleans, LA, USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved June 21, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-ysYq.

    Lieberman, M. (2018, January 24). Introducing a new(-ish) learning mode: Blendflex/hyflex. Inside Higher Ed. Available online: https://edtechbooks.org/-pww

    Leijon, M., & Lundgren, B. (2016). Connecting physical and virtual spaces in a HyFlex pedagogic model with focus on interaction. Presented at: Designs for Learning conference. Designing New Learning Ecologies, Copenhagen, 2016, Aalborg, Denmark: Aalborg University Press.

    Leijon, M., & Lundgren, B. (2019). Connecting Physical and Virtual Spaces in a HyFlex Pedagogic Model with a Focus on Teacher Interaction. Journal of Learning Spaces, 8(1), 2019.

    Lightner, C. A., & Lightner-Laws, C. A. (2016). A blended model: simultaneously teaching a quantitative course traditionally, online, and remotely. Interactive Learning Environments24(1), 224–238. https://doi-org.jpllnet.sfsu.edu/10.1080/10494820.2013.841262

    Liu, C. A., & Rodriguez, R. C. (2019). Evaluation of the impact of the Hyflex learning model. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 25(4), pp. 393-411.

    Love, S. (2015). A Quantitative Inquiry into First Generation Students' Readiness for Distance Education. n.p.: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

    Malczyk, B. R. (2019). Introducing Social Work to HyFlex Blended Learning: A Student-centered Approach. Journal of Teaching in Social Work 39(4-5), pp. 414-428.

    Marquart, M., Englisher, M., Tokieda, K., and Telfair-Garcia, A. (2018, February 22). One class, two modes of participation: Fully integrating online students into residential classes via web conferencing. Poster presented at the Columbia University Center for Teaching and Learning’s Celebration of Teaching and Learning Symposium, New York, NY. doi:10.7916/D8KW6TK3.

    McCluskey, C. P. S., Shaffer, D. R., Grodziak, E. M., & Hove, K. W. (2012). Strategic Plan on FlexLearning. The Pennsylvania State University Lehigh Valley campus, Center Valley, PA.

    McGee, P., & Anderson, M. (2013). Project realities: Shifting course delivery method . In Benson, A. D., Moore, J. L., & van Rooji, S. W. (Eds.) Cases on Educational Technology Planning, Design and Implementation: A Project Management Perspective, pp. 114-13. Hersey, PA: IGI Global.

    McGee, P., & Reis, A. (2012). Blended course design: A synthesis of best practices. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 16(4), 7-22.

    Meyer zu Hörste, H., and Vanderbeke, J. (2018). Multimedia Students: Engaging across platforms. An Investigation of Student Engagement in the Media and Communication Master Programme at Malmö University. Master’s thesis at Malmö universitet/Kultur och samhälle (2018).

    Available online: https://iase-web.org/icots/10/proceedings/pdfs/ICOTS10_4H2.pdf

    Miller, J. B., Risser, M. D., and Griffiths, R. P. (2013). Student Choice, Instructor Flexibility: Moving Beyond the Blended Instructional Model. Issues and Trends in Educational Technology 1(1), pp. 8-24. Available at: https://edtechbooks.org/-MBVi

    Miller, W. (2011). Mode-neutral and the need to transform teaching. Public Administration Quarterly, 35(4), 446-465.

    Mousa, M., Abdelmalak, M., and Parra, J. L. (2018). Case Study of HyFlex Course Design: Benefits and Challenges for Graduate Students. In R. C. Sharma (Ed.), Innovative Applications of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (pp. 298-317). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global.

    Musgrove, A. & Bryan, V. C. (2014). Theory and Application: Construction of Multimodal eLearning. In V. X. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Education and Technology in a Changing Society, (pp. 1068-1083). Hershey, PA:  IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6046-5.ch079

    Nortvig, A-M. (2014). E-learning in poly-topic settings. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 12(2), 206-214.

    Nur-Awaleh, M. , & Kyei-Blankson, L. (2010). Assessing e-learning and student satisfaction in a blended and flexible environment. 2010 International Conference on Information Society, (pp. 481-483).

    Parra, J. & Bontly, S.W. (2016). Transforming learning environments: Co-constructionism in higher education classrooms. In Proceedings of EdMedia 2016--World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (pp. 719-723). Vancouver, BC, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 13, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-aqg.

    [Spanish language] Popoca, D. J., Gastelu, C. A. T., and Diaz, L.E.H. (2014). El modelo HyFlex: Una propuesta de formación híbrida y flexible. In I. E. Gómez (Ed.). Los Modelos Tecno-Educativos, revolucionando el aprendizaje del siglo XXI. pp. 127-142. Universidad Veracruzana- Región Veracruz. 

    Raes, A., Vanneste, P., Pieters, M., Windey, I., Van Den Noortgate, W., & Depaepe, F. (2020). Learning and instruction in the hybrid virtual classroom: An investigation of students’ engagement and the effect of quizzes. Computers & Education, 143, (2020) 103682.

    Rasmussen, R. C. (2003). The quantity and quality of human interaction in a synchronous blended learning environment. Doctoral dissertation. Brigham Young University. Available from: ProQuest Dissertations & theses. (UMI No. 305345928).

    Rhoads, D. D. (2020). Traditional, Online or Both? A Comparative Study of University Student Learning and Satisfaction Between Traditional and Hyflex Delivery Modalities. Dissertation Concordia University Irvine, 2020, 148; 27995688. Retrieved July 1, 2020 from https://edtechbooks.org/-pzuA 

    Robertson, B. and Kelly, K. (2013). Operating a Very Large-Section, Hybrid Principles of Marketing Class at a Public University: Lessons Learned over Ten Years. Atlantic Marketing Journal 2(3), Article 10. Retrieved September 7, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-jVE

    [Spanish language] Romero, H. Y., Chávez, N. V., and Gutiérrez, I. M. (2016). HyFlex, hybrid and flexible model for university education: Case study: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja — Ecuador, 2016 11th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), Las Palmas, 2016, pp. 1-4.

    Schaffhauser, D. (2012). Tuning the Blend. Campus Technology, December 2012, pp. 22-24.

    Smith, B., Reed, P., and Jones, C. (2008) ‘Mode Neutral’ Pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning. https://edtechbooks.org/-nba

    Staff Writers, (2013, January 17). The HyFlex Learning Model: Online Ed’s Most Customizable Idea Yet [Web log post]. Retreived from https://edtechbooks.org/-SNt

    [Chinese language] Su, M. (2013). Traditional Universities Need Innovative Change: An Interview with Prof. Brian Beatty. China Open Education Research, 19(1), pp. 4-8.

    Taylor, J. A., and Newton, D. (2012). Beyond Blended Learning: A case study of institutional change at an Australian university. Internet and Higher Education 18(2013) pp. 54-60.

    Wright, D. (2016). The HyFlex Course Design: A Case Study on Adult and Career Education Courses. National Social Science Journal 48(2). pp. 88-93.

    Tsuji, B., Pierre, A., Van Roon, P. & Vendetti, C. (2012). Web Versus Face-to-Face Tutorials: Why I Didn’t Go To Class In My Pyjamas. In T. Bastiaens & G. Marks (Eds.), Proceedings of E-Learn 2012--World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 1 (pp. 802-806). Montréal, Quebec, Canada: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved September 13, 2019 from https://edtechbooks.org/-zURC.

    Verhaart, M. & Hagen-Hall, K. (2012). gxLearning, teaching to geographically extended classes. In M. Lopez, M. Verhaart (Eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference of the Computing and Information Technology Research and Education of New Zealand Conference (Incorporating the 25th NACCQ Conference), Christchurch, New Zealand. October 7-10. pp 75-81.

    Weitze Laerke, C. (2016). Learning Design Patterns for Hybrid Synchronous Video-Mediated Learning Environments. In: Nortvig, A.-M., Sørensen, B. H., Misfeldt, M., Ørngreen, R., Allsopp, B. B., Henningsen, B. S., & Hautopp, H. (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Designs for Learning, 1st ed., 236–252. Aalborg Universitetsforlag. DOI: https://edtechbooks.org/-zsa 

    [Spanish language] Yaguana Romero, H., Chavez, N., & Gutierrez, I. (2016). HyFlex, hybrid and flexible model for university education: Case study: Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja — Ecuador. 2016 11th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2016, 1-4.

    Yuskauskas, A., Shaffer, D., & Grodziak, E. (2015). Employing disruptive innovation in a nascent undergraduate health policy program. The Journal of Health Administration Education, 32(4), 515.

    Zemeckis, D. R. (2020). Offering a Hyflex Fisheries Science Course for Stakeholders of New Jersey’s Fisheries. Journal of Extension, 58(1), Article #58-1iw4.

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    Brian J. Beatty

    San Francisco State University

    Dr. Brian Beatty is Professor of Instructional Technologies and co-coordinator of the Instructional Design and Technology MA program in the Department of Equity, Leadership Studies and Instructional Technologies at San Francisco State University. Brian’s primary areas of interest and research include social interaction in online learning, flipped classroom implementation, and developing instructional design theory for Hybrid-Flexible learning environments. At SFSU, Dr. Beatty pioneered the development and evaluation of the HyFlex course design model for blended learning environments, implementing a “student-directed-hybrid” approach to better support student learning.  

    Previously (2012 – 2020), Brian was Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs Operations at San Francisco State University (SFSU), overseeing the Academic Technology unit and coordinating the use of technology in the academic programs across the university. He worked closely with IT professionals and leaders in other units to coordinate overall information technology strategic management at SFSU. Prior to 2012, Brian was Associate Professor and Chair of the Instructional Technologies department in the Graduate College of Education at SFSU. He received his Ph.D. in Instructional Systems Technology from Indiana University Bloomington in 2002. Dr. Beatty also holds several CA single-subject teaching credentials, an M.A. in Instructional Technologies from SF State and a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Marquette University. Dr. Beatty has more than 30 years of experience as a classroom teacher, trainer, and instructional designer at schools, businesses, and the US Navy.

    This content is provided to you freely by EdTech Books.

    Access it online or download it at https://edtechbooks.org/hyflex/biblio.