• Introduction
  • Chapter 1 - Looking In The Rearview Mirror
  • Chapter 2 - Device Possibilities and Resources
  • Chapter 3: Models, Methods, and Modalities
  • Chapter 4 - Movements
  • Chapter 5 - Differentiated Learning
  • Chapter 6 - Digital Safety and Digital Citizenship
  • Chapter 7 - Pedagogical Implication, Putting It All Together
  • References
  • Download
  • Translations
  • Chapter 4 - Movements

    In this chapter, we are looking forward. What are the current trends in education? The main trends we will discuss aren't futuristic things that may or may not happen in 10 years. We will look at artificial intelligence, augmented reality, coding and app development, and virtual and flipped classrooms.
    The long road ahead
    "What's ahead?" by Z Andrei is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

    Learning Objectives

    After reading this chapter learners will be able to:

    1. Understand and be able to elaborate on tenets of various movements.
    2. Summarize the course content of the chapter. 

    We began this ebook with a look in the rearview mirror. In this chapter, we are looking forward. What are the current trends in education? The main trends we will discuss aren't futuristic things that may or may not happen in 10 years, but rather some leading technologies that are appearing in schools today. We will look at artificial intelligence, augmented reality, coding and app development, and virtual and flipped classrooms. 

    Artificial Intelligence

    ChatGPT has arrivedChatGPT is here!
    ChatGPT-3 is here

    In an article in the February-March, 2023 issue of Fortune Magazine  Jeremy Kahn (Kahn, 2023) wrote "There were web browsers as early as 1990. But it wasn't until Netscape Navigator came along in 1994 that most people discovered the internet. There were MP3 players before the iPod debuted in 2001, but they didn't spark the digital music revolution. There were smartphones before Apple dropped the iPhone in 2007 too-but before the iPhone, there wasn't an app for that. (p.44)" November 30, 2022 might be the day that artificial intelligence had what might be its Netscape Navigator moment. That is when Sam Altman, the CEO of OpenAI tweeted, "today we launched ChatGPT. try talking with it here." That tweet was followed by a link that allowed anyone to sign up for an account and begin chatting with OpenAI's new chatbot for free. 

    What is ChatGPT and how might it impact K-12 teaching?  Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3  ( GPT-3 ) was released in 2020 and is used to produce human-like text. Given an initial text as a prompt, it will produce text that continues the prompt. GPT is a deep learning neural network with more than 175 billion and is the largest neural network ever produced. Developed by OpenAI, it can take a small amount of input text and generate large volumes of relevant text and do so in a way that makes it convincing enough to think it was created by a human. 

    What ChatGPT has done is provide a very simple interface to interact with its tremendous amount of data. Simply enter a question or request and within seconds you will see the result. Looking back to the previous chapter you could ask, "explain the PICRAT model and how a teacher could use it in their planning" and in seconds you would see a report that the instructor would be hard-pressed to distinguish as computer generated. Maybe you would like a scope and sequence for a 4-week unit on the book "I Know Why a Caged Bird Sings" by Maya Angelou. I entered the following into the ChatGPT engine. "Create a scope and sequence for a 4-week unit on teaching when the cage bird sings to 9th grade students", typos and all. Here is the output and my follow-up requests:

    Create a scope and sequence for a 4 week unit on teaching when the cage bird sings to 9th grade students

    Sure, here's a possible scope and sequence for a 4 week unit on teaching "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" to 9th grade students:

    Week 1: Introduction to the Novel and the Author

    • Day 1: Introduce the novel "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" by Maya Angelou to the students. Provide some background information about the author and her life experiences.

    • Day 2: Begin reading the novel in class, starting with Chapter 1. Have students take notes on important characters, themes, and symbols.

    • Day 3: Continue reading and discussing the novel in class. Introduce the concept of a memoir and how it differs from other types of literature.

    • Day 4: Assign reading of Chapters 2-4 for homework. Have students write a brief reflection on the themes and ideas presented in these chapters.

    Week 2: Themes and Literary Analysis

    • Day 1: Review the themes and ideas presented in Chapters 2-4. Discuss how these themes are relevant to the students' own lives and experiences.

    • Day 2: Assign reading of Chapters 5-8 for homework. Have students identify and analyze the use of literary devices such as symbolism, imagery, and figurative language.

    • Day 3: Analyze the character development of Maya and Bailey Johnson, Jr. throughout the novel. Discuss how they grow and change over time.

    • Day 4: Assign reading of Chapters 9-12 for homework. Have students analyze the symbolism of the caged bird and its meaning in the novel.

    Week 3: Historical Context and Social Issues

    • Day 1: Provide background information on the historical context of the novel, including the civil rights movement and segregation.

    • Day 2: Assign reading of Chapters 13-16 for homework. Have students identify and analyze the social issues presented in the novel, such as racism, gender roles, and poverty.

    • Day 3: Discuss the significance of the title "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and how it relates to the novel's themes and motifs.

    • Day 4: Assign reading of Chapters 17-20 for homework. Have students research and present on a related historical event or figure from the civil rights era.

    Week 4: Culminating Projects and Assessment

    • Day 1: Allow time for students to work on their culminating projects, which could include a creative writing assignment, a visual representation of a theme or symbol, or a research paper on a related topic.

    • Day 2: Have students present their projects to the class and engage in a discussion about the novel's themes and ideas.

    • Day 3: Administer an assessment that includes multiple choice questions, short answer responses, and an essay question.

    • Day 4: Wrap up the unit by reflecting on what the students have learned and how the novel's themes and ideas relate to their own lives and experiences.

    write a lesson plan for week 1 day 1

    Sure! Here is a possible lesson plan for Week 1, Day 1 of a 4 week unit on teaching "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" to 9th grade students:

    Lesson Plan: Introduction to the Novel and the Author

    Objective: Students will be able to understand the background information on the novel "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and its author Maya Angelou.


    • Copies of the novel "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings"

    • Whiteboard and markers

    • Handout with background information on the author Maya Angelou

    Warm-up (10 minutes):

    • Ask students to brainstorm what they know about Maya Angelou and her work.

    • Write their ideas on the whiteboard.

    Direct Instruction (20 minutes):

    • Provide some background information about the author Maya Angelou, her life experiences, and her career as a writer and activist.

    • Introduce the novel "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and explain its significance as a memoir and a work of literature.

    • Explain the themes and motifs of the novel, such as racism, identity, and coming of age.

    Guided Practice (15 minutes):

    • Begin reading the first chapter of the novel aloud as a class.

    • Pause at key moments to discuss the setting, characters, and themes presented in the text.

    • Encourage students to take notes on important details and ideas.

    Independent Practice (15 minutes):

    • Assign students to read Chapters 1-2 of the novel for homework.

    • Provide a handout with discussion questions for them to answer and bring to class tomorrow.

    • Encourage students to take notes on important characters, themes, and symbols as they read.

    Closure (5 minutes):

    • Recap the key ideas and themes presented in the lesson.

    • Remind students to bring their books and discussion questions to class tomorrow.


    • Informally assess students' understanding of the novel and the author by monitoring their participation in the warm-up and guided practice activities.

    write a handout for the background information

    Sure! Here's a possible handout with background information on the author Maya Angelou:

    Background Information on Maya Angelou

    Maya Angelou (1928-2014) was an American poet, memoirist, and civil rights activist. She is best known for her autobiographical works, including "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" (1969), which is widely regarded as a classic of African American literature.

    Angelou was born Marguerite Annie Johnson in St. Louis, Missouri, but spent much of her childhood in the segregated South. Her parents divorced when she was young, and she and her brother were sent to live with their grandmother in Stamps, Arkansas. Angelou's experiences growing up in the Jim Crow South had a profound influence on her writing and activism.

    In her early adulthood, Angelou worked as a dancer, singer, and actress, performing in clubs and theaters across the United States and in Europe. She also became involved in the civil rights movement, working with leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X.

    Angelou's first book, "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings," was published in 1969 and became an instant bestseller. The book is a coming-of-age memoir that explores Angelou's childhood and early adulthood, including her experiences with racism, sexual abuse, and trauma. The title of the book is taken from a poem by the African American poet Paul Laurence Dunbar, which contrasts the free bird with the caged bird as a metaphor for the struggle of African Americans to achieve equality and freedom.

    Angelou went on to write many more books, including poetry collections, essays, and additional memoirs. She was also a prominent speaker and advocate for civil rights and social justice. In 2010, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States.

    Angelou's writing and activism have had a lasting impact on American literature and culture. Her work continues to inspire readers and writers around the world.

    Here is another example:

    write a lesson plan for lesson 2-2 in everyday math

    Title: Adding and Subtracting Whole Numbers

    Grade Level: 2


    By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:

    • Add and subtract whole numbers up to 20.

    • Use the commutative and associative properties of addition to solve problems.

    • Use mental math strategies to solve addition and subtraction problems.


    • Everyday Math Student Reference Book

    • Whiteboard and markers

    • Counters or other manipulatives

    • Addition and subtraction worksheets

    Introduction (10 minutes):

    1. Review the concept of addition and subtraction, and ask students to share what they know about these operations.

    2. Display a set of counters or other manipulatives, and ask students to count them.

    3. Write a simple addition problem (e.g., 2 + 3) on the board, and ask students to use the counters to solve it.

    4. Repeat with a subtraction problem (e.g., 5 - 2).

    Direct Instruction (20 minutes):

    1. Display a more complex addition problem (e.g., 8 + 6), and ask students to solve it using their fingers or mental math.

    2. Discuss the commutative property of addition, and demonstrate how to use it to solve problems (e.g., 6 + 8 is the same as 8 + 6).

    3. Display an addition problem (e.g., 3 + 7 + 5), and demonstrate how to use the associative property of addition to solve it (e.g., (3 + 7) + 5 or 3 + (7 + 5)).

    4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 with subtraction problems.

    Guided Practice (15 minutes):

    1. Display a set of addition and subtraction problems on the board.

    2. Have students work in pairs to solve the problems using the mental math strategies they learned.

    3. Circulate the room and provide assistance as needed.

    Independent Practice (15 minutes):

    1. Distribute worksheets with addition and subtraction problems.

    2. Instruct students to complete the problems independently.

    3. Circulate the room and provide assistance as needed.

    Closure (5 minutes):

    1. Review the commutative and associative properties of addition and subtraction.

    2. Ask students to share one thing they learned during the lesson.

    3. Preview the next lesson.


    • Monitor student participation during the lesson.

    • Review student worksheets to check for understanding.

    • Use exit tickets to assess student learning at the end of the lesson.

    write an exit ticket

    Exit Ticket: Adding and Subtracting Whole Numbers

    Name: ________________________

    1. What is the commutative property of addition? Give an example.

    2. What is the associative property of addition? Give an example.

    3. Solve the following problem using mental math: 9 + 5 - 3 = _____

    4. Fill in the blank: The commutative property of subtraction states that a - b is the same as ________.

    5. Circle the addition problem: 12 - 7 or 4 + 9?

    6. Solve the following problem using the associative property of addition: 2 + (5 + 3) = ______.

    7. True or false: The answer to an addition problem is always greater than the numbers being added.

    8. How did you feel about today's lesson? Circle one: Confident, Okay, Unsure.

    9. What is one thing you learned today about adding and subtracting whole numbers?

    Thank you for your hard work!



    I could have continued and asked to create the assessments or the slide presentations. Where was this when we were all undergraduates? I hope you are as blown away as I was. This technology has the potential to be transformative. Of course, there is also the potential for danger. 

    Augmented Reality

    Let's begin with augmented reality and virtual reality. Augmented reality layers computer-generated enhancements on top of an existing reality in a way that makes it more meaningful through the ability to interact with it. Augmented reality requires just a few things – a smartphone or tablet with a back-facing camera, an augmented reality app, and a trigger image. An internet connection is also needed for the real-time overlaying of information. The trigger image can simply be a QR code or it might be a specialized matrix or image that is designed to be viewed through a specific app. Does this sound complicated and way out of reach for younger learners? Take a look at the Quiver app. 

    We have seen augmented reality in the business world for a few years now. You can layer furniture, paint, and more over the image of your living room before you buy. AR in the classroom can increase engagement and allow learners to view and manipulate an object they are learning about and gain a deeper understanding. Think about AR on a classroom word wall or book review. How much more engaged might a learner be if we included AR when studying Civil War battles?  Five Ways To Use Augmented Reality In The Classroom (Keet, 2021) presents some additional great ideas. 

    Virtual Reality

    While AR overlays objects on top of existing reality, VR puts people into a completely virtual, computer-generated environment. While almost anyone with a smartphone can access AR, VR requires a VR headset and often a set of controllers. These can range from a few dollars for a Google Cardboard to a few hundred dollars for a Sony or Meta system. 

    Think about the implications for teacher education if prospective teachers can actually practice in a robust virtual classroom in which the professor controls the parameters. In the K-12 classroom, VR can be used in geography to explore various parts of the globe, either in the present or in the past. Think about learners sitting in on the Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia or talking looking over Edison's lab in Menlo Park. Teachers could also use VR in physical education classes. For example, virtual reality can be used to play tennis, volleyball, baseball, golf, etc. Here is an example of what VR can do in a high school classroom. 

    Coding and App Development

    One of the recommendations of the ACOT2 study is to engage learners in the creation of content. They shouldn't just be consumers of knowledge but creators as well. This also aligns very well with the three frameworks we learned about in the previous chapters. One way to enable this is to teach learners to code. When learners code they quickly see that they are the ones who control their devices rather than the devices controlling them. The great thing about coding is that the tools and programs available today make coding accessible to even the youngest of learners. What this "Grow with Google" video and see the excitement coding brings to young learners. This final quote in this video is especially important.


    Yes, what problems do you want to solve when you grow up?

    Hour of Code LogoOne great way to begin coding is the Hour of Code developed by code.org. The Hour of Code is the brainchild of Code.org and more than 400 partners and 200,000 educators. A mixture of one-hour tutorials, special events, and activities related to the field of computer science, the Hour of Code is a grassroots effort to illustrate the importance of coding in the classroom. Pre-readers learn to create shapes with Kodable, help a monkey find bananas with Code Monkey Junior, create interactive stories with PBS Kids Scratch Junior, and much more. Older learners can create artificial intelligence apps using Hyperpad, create a photo filter using Javascript, and much more. A great thing about the Hour of Code activities is that each one comes with a link to the specific standards that the activity addresses. Many also come with teacher guides. 

    Technology shouldn't be used just for technology's sake. As we learned in previous chapters, technology should be used intentionally and purposefully. Learning to code involves logic, problem-solving, backward planning, and other thinking skills. Teachers of all subject areas could consider making coding a part of their content area. For a deeper dive into "why coding" read the Teacher's Essential Guide to Coding in the Classroom produced by Common Sense Education. 

    Virtual and Flipped Classrooms

    There aren't a lot of great things that COVID-19 brought to education, but one positive is that COVID literally forced schools to rapidly move to virtual learning. The road was bumpy at first, but districts took advantage of Federal relief dollars to provide devices for students and expand internet accessibility, both in their schools and in many cases, throughout their communities. Teachers learned new teaching strategies to enable them to teach virtually. While most schools have since returned to face-to-face learning, some parents and students found they actually learned better working independently and have remained virtual. 

    The unplanned, rapid shift to virtual learning had another positive. Blended and flipped learning became teaching strategies that many teachers learned and have added to their teaching toolbelts. Blended and flipped learning are related but different. In an article written for Educational Technology and Mobile Learning, Dr. Med Kharback articulates four models of blended learning teachers should know about. These four models are:

    • the station rotation model,
    • lab rotation model,
    • flex model, and
    • flipped learning. 

    Read his article and think about which model might work with your situation. Here are some things to consider before moving into blended learning:

    • Not every student is a good fit for blended learning,
    • Some learners won't respond well to a self-directed learning style,
    • Flipped learning required more front-end work on the teacher's part,
    • Blended learning requires equal and adequate bandwidth and technology for both teachers and all learners.

    On the other hand, in blended and flipped learning:

    • teachers can focus more on individual learners,
    • learners gain better access to the content, 
    • learners move at their own pace and learn to be more independent and self-directed, and 
    • learning is more consistent because learner absences due to illness, family travel, snow days, etc. don't stop learning.

    There is a fifth blended model that some elementary teachers and teachers in communities with limited access at home have used effectively. I refer to this as the faux flipped model. In this model, all of the learning takes place in the classroom. Learners begin the process by watching a teacher-created or collated video and then taking a quiz on the material. Based on their score on the quiz they either move to a center with the teacher or review the material in the video. Here is a video from the Highland Park, ISD showing the faux flipped model in action.

    Moving to a blended or completely flipped teaching and learning model can seem daunting, but remember this. You don't have to make the transition all at once. Take it one step at a time. Pick one of the models that makes sense for your teaching style and your learners learning styles. Think about technology access at school and in the homes in your community. Then take one lesson and move it to a blended format. Build on that success and turn that lesson into a unit and then another and another. While there is more front loading in this style of teaching, you only have to do that once. The next year you will have a number of lessons or units in the bank and can keep building. 

    In this chapter, we looked at blended and flipped classrooms, but we also acknowledged that learners have different learning styles and what works well for some might not work well for others. In the next chapter, we will look at differentiation and how technology can add to a differentiated classroom.


    To help deepen your understanding of the ideas presented in this chapter, create a visually appealing* infographic exploring one of the movements presented in this chapter - augmented/virtual learning, coding and app development, or flipped classrooms.

    • Briefly explain the topic you chose and why.
    • What did you find most beneficial from the readings?
    • What would you like to know more about regarding this topic?
    • How do you think you could use something you learned in your teaching or leadership role?

    *In order to make an infographic visually appealing, make sure you consider organization and layout, font style/size, and image/media use.

    Here are some sample Infographic creation sites: SmoreLinks, CanvaPiktochart, or Easel.ly.

    This content is provided to you freely by EdTech Books.

    Access it online or download it at https://edtechbooks.org/integrating_technology/chapter_4___movement.