See Media, Method, and Modality

AAA process

a process for working with data that includes Ask, Analyze, and Act.

activity data

Data that are indirect measures that often help explain student learning patterns such as participation, effort, engagement, and activity levels.

adaptive software programs

this software uses computer algorithms to deliver a customized path through learning activities for students based on their needs and past performance.

assessment validity

An assessment of whether a specific assessment is accurately measuring what it is intended to measure and is appropriate for the students it is given to.


Technology-based interactions that happen at different times (e.g., a discussion that can be completed at the student's own pace). Examples include email, discussion boards, etc.

Blended Learning

the strategic combination of online and in-person learning. A common K-12 definition adds that the blend needs to provide students with some control over time, place, path, and/or pace.

Blended Teaching Roadmap

a resource in this book (Appendix C) that is used to help teachers and administrators plan and implement blended teaching.

Bloom's Taxonomy

a hierarchy of assessment that evaluates the level of students' understanding with the lowest level being "remembering," and then progressing upward through "understanding," "applying," "analyzing," and "evaluating," with "creating" being the highest level.

choice board

a graphic organizer, typically in the form of a table or grid, with one activity in each cell. Students choose among the activities to learn a particular concept.

choice boards

graphic organizers, typically in the form of a table or grid, with one activity in each cell. Students choose among the activities to learn a particular concept.

clamshell technique

when students are using laptops and the teacher needs to provide instruction, students close the laptop to a 30-degree angle so their attention is focused on the teacher.


knowledge and skills needed to master a content or ability.


meeting with a student one-on-one, or in small groups, to set goals or discuss progress toward meeting goals.

convergent prompt

discussion prompts meant to build consensus.

course and a half syndrome

online components are simply added to a fully in-person class, students then feel like they must complete a course (the in-person activities) and a half (the online activities).

cross-curricular life skills

a description of skills or abilities that are not content-specific such as creativity, collaboration, critical thinking, and communication.

data dashboard

a tool that helps you visualize student data in real-time; charts are updated instantaneously as new student data is added to the system.

differentiated learning

the act of changing the order of learning activities, or the activities themselves, based on student needs or performance.

digital learning playlist

A learning playlist maintained digitally that typically allows options for personalizing path or pace.


the core values, beliefs, and attitudes that influence the way you teach.
  • Student Ownership and Agency: allowing students to take on more responsibility for making decisions about the time, place, pace, and/or path of their learning.
  • Mastery Learning Orientation: allowing students to move forward based on their mastery of a specific concept, rather than moving from one subject to another according to a timeline.
  • Value of Data-Driven Decisions: relying on data to guide instructional decision-making.
  • Growth Orientation: having a willingness to try new things and fail because failure is seen as part of the improvement process.
  • Emphasis on Life Skills: seeing value in using online technologies to enable the development of cross-curricular life skills like creativity, collaboration, critical thinking, and communication.
  • Value of Online Learning: valuing online learning as a core, essential part of the classroom blend due to its various benefits, such as the 7Ps.

divergent prompt

discussion prompts that encourage students to consider different views, or arrive at different conclusions.

dynamic groupings

placing students in groups that can change based on changing student interests or performance.


a teaching role that focuses on explaining how to solve problems upfront as opposed to intervening when students cannot find a solution.


a teaching role that focuses on leading students to and through learning experiences as opposed to presenting them with learning experiences through presentations and lectures.


the amount of communication cues that are present, e.g., low fidelity is mostly text-based with no communication cues and high fidelity has many communication cues such as tone of voice, facial expressions, and body language.

fixed groupings

placing students in groups that are not meant to change.

flex model

a majority of a students' learning takes place online with in-person support.

flipped classroom

before students come to class, they receive direct instruction via online videos and activities.

formative assessments

typically shorter, frequent, and diagnostic assessments used to see what students still need to learn.

four core competency

he four core competency areas used in this book to organize blended teaching knowledge and skills: (1) Online Integration, (2) Data Practices, (3) Personalizing Instruction, and (4) Online Interaction.


a teaching role in which teachers are more generally proficient in various topics as opposed to being specialists in one specific content area.

Imagine Learning

an adaptive learning platform that offers online lessons in Literacy, Spanish, and Mathematics.

in-person interactions

face-to-face interactions that take place in the same place and time between a student and a teacher or a student and other students.

individualized learning

a structure of learning that uses mastery data to provide students with learning opportunities tailored to their own individual levels of understanding and/or ability.


a teaching role in which the teacher provides assistance to students at the exact moment that they need help as opposed to explaining everything upfront.

lab or whole-group rotation model

students rotate through stations in the classroom as a whole group, such as having the whole class move from in-person instruction to online learning.


what students have Learned, how it Applies to the topic or content, and what students are still Wondering about.

learner-content interaction

students engage with learning materials through reading, listening, watching, interacting, creating, and/or reflecting.

learner-instructor interaction

students share what they have learned from their content interactions, demonstrate new knowledge, and receive feedback by communicating with the teacher as an "expert."

learner-learner interaction

students share what they have learned, experienced, or believe by communicating with their peers as other learners.

learning playlist

a group of learning activities ordered in a linear sequence.


a teaching role focused on providing students with learning opportunities through presentations and lectures.

mastery gradebooks or trackers

tools that allow you to quickly and easily see how well a student has mastered each SLO.

mastery-based progression

students move forward in the curriculum once they have mastered a concept.


one of the 3Ms with an indirect impact on student learning, used to identify the tools teachers use to provide instruction to their students, such as textbooks, whiteboards, tablets, and laptops.


the most important of the 3Ms because it has a direct impact on student learning, used to describe the teaching strategies and pedagogies that teachers use to provide learning opportunities.


one of the 3Ms with an indirect impact on student learning, used to describe the environment in which instruction takes place such as in-person, online, or blended.


a set of agreed upon conventions for how to behave in an online space.

online interactions

online learning activities that include learner-learner or learner-instructor communication.


relating to teaching or instruction.

performance data

Data that are direct measures of student learning, such as how students have performed on assessments


system of mindsets and practices that allows teachers to increase a student's chance of engaging with learning materials, mastering learning materials, and applying learning materials to the real world based upon the student's own interests, wants, and goals. This system has an emphasis on customization (tailoring/customizing the learning experience to the individual student's needs and interests) and student control (giving students some element of control over their learning goals, time, place, pace, and path).


a framework for evaluating students' use of technology.
  • Passive (P): Technology is presented to students in a one-size-fits all approach that is meant for student consumption with no requirement for response.
  • Interactive (I): Technology is responsive to student performance and behavior.
  • Creative (C): Students use technology to produce original materials.

PICRAT framework

used to determine the students' relationship to technology (passive, interactive, or creative) and whether their use of technology replaces, amplifies, or transforms traditional activities and classroom practices.

printed growth chart

a hard-copy of a chart showing a student's growth in a particular class or concept; unlike the data dashboard, this chart is not updated instantaneously.

question banks

groups of questions used in formative and/or summative assessments that allow for random questions to be selected for each attempt or assessment.


a framework for evaluating the relationship between online or technology-based and traditional offline activities as well as classroom environments:
  • Replaces an activity (R): technology is used to make an activity more efficient or accessible, but the activity itself does not change in any meaningful way.
  • Amplifies an activity (A): technology allows the teacher or students to do the same activity with some improvements that would be difficult or impossible without technology, such as receiving immediate feedback.
  • Transforms an activity (T): technology is used to reimagine the learning activity and to do something completely different that would be difficult or impossible without technology, such as communicating with people outside of the classroom.
  • Replaces the classroom (R): technology allows a class meeting to take place online without having to come to the same location, such as the brick and mortar school.
  • Amplifies the classroom (A): technology provides more class time for activities that the teacher wouldn't normally have time for, such as doing a lab, mock debate, or writer's workshop.
  • Transforms the classroom (T): technology has become the primary method for delivering instruction, resulting in a great change of roles for teachers.


when a student falls below an established "near mastery" threshold and requires more extensive coaching in a concept.

screen-time/face-time technique

when it is more important to see students’ screens than their faces, have the students turn their backs to the teacher, but when it is time for face-to-face instruction, have the students turn around to face the teacher.

seat time

the amount of time a student has spent in the classroom.

social presence

the extent to which students are able to project their own personalities, interests, beliefs, and culture in an online space.


a teaching role in which teachers focus on one specific content area or set of skills as opposed to being able to move between more general content areas or skills.


the various parties and people concerned with student success: students, parents, other teachers, administrators, the community, etc.

station rotation

the act of having students rotate on a schedule or at the teacher's discretion from one station to the next to complete various learning activities (see Station Rotation Model).

station rotation model

stations set up in the classroom so that students can rotate on a schedule or at the teacher's discretion to complete various learning activities.

student information systems (SIS)

management information system for education establishments to manage student data.

student learning outcome (SLO)

measurable and verifiable knowledge, skills, abilities, and/or attitudes that students should obtain by the end of a unit, program, or project. These generally make up larger standards or general instructional objectives.

summative assessments

usually given at the end of a unit, course, or school year and may be created by someone other than the teacher.


activities that happen in real-time with a low lag time.

teacher-centered learning activities

technology focused on making it easier for teachers to lecture.

technology integration

teachers using technology to support their current practices.

The Four C's

important 21st century skills including Communication, Collaboration, Critical Thinking, Creativity.

The Seven P's

possible benefits from quality blended teaching including: Participation, Pacing, Personalization, Place, Personal Interaction, Preparation, Practice with Feedback.

THINK system

a system that can help make online communication expectations explicit: Is it true? Is it helpful? Is it inspiring? Is it necessary? Is it kind?

time-based progression

students in a class move forward in the curriculum based on a timeline, allowing student performance on a concept to vary.

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