Introduction1. How to Retrieve Data From a Single Table1.1. The Five Clauses of the SELECT Statement1.2. Column Specifications1.3. LIKE and REGEXP Operators1.4. Arithmetic Operators1.5. Column Aliases1.6. Comparison Operators1.7. IS NULL, BETWEEN, IN Operators1.8. AND, OR, NOT Logical Operators1.9. DISTINCT Clause2. How to Retrieve Data from Multiple Tables2.1. The JOIN Clause2.2. Joining More Than Two Tables2.3. The OUTER JOIN Clause2.4. How to Code a UNION3. Using Functions3.1. Date Functions3.2. Numeric Functions3.3. String Functions4. How to Insert, Update, Delete Data in Tables4.1. The INSERT Clause With a Column List4.2. The INSERT Clause Without a Column List4.4. The UPDATE Clause With a Column List4.4. The DELETE Clause5. Summary Queries and Aggregate Functions5.1. Aggregate Functions5.2. Grouping Data5.3. Simple GROUP BY Query5.4. Improving the GROUP BY Query5.5. Using the HAVING Clause5.5. Using the HAVING and WHERE Clauses Together5.6. COUNT(column_name) and COUNT(*)5.7. Using the DISTINCT Statement6. Working With Subqueries6.1. The Subquery In a SELECT Statement6.2. The Subquery in an UPDATE statement6.3. Create a Duplicate Table From An Existing Table 6.4. The Subquery In a Delete Statement7. SQL Views7.1. SQL View Explained7.2. Benefits of Using Views7.3. Views That Allow UPDATE Statements8. SQL Indexes8.1. SQL Indexes Explained8.2. Clustered vs. Non-clustered Indexes8.3. Create an Index in Workbench Using an ERD8.4. How to Manually Add an Index to an Existing TableGlossaryIndex

The Five Clauses of the SELECT Statement

The Five Clauses of the SELECT statement

  • SELECT – the columns in the result set
  • FROM – names the base table(s) from which results will be retrieved
  • WHERE – specifies any conditions for the results set (filter)
  • ORDER BY – sets how the result set will be ordered
  • LIMIT – sets the number of rows to be returned

The clauses MUST appear in the order shown above.

Code Example:1    USE world;
2    SELECT name
3    FROM city
4    WHERE CountryCode = “AFG”
5    ORDER BY name
6    LIMIT 3



Let us break the statement line by line:

USE world;


FROM city



Table 1. Column Specifications




Base Table Value

Show all columns


Base Table Value

Column Name

Comma-separated list of column names

Calculated Value

Calculation result

Arithmetic expression

Calculated Value

Calculation result


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