CoverIntroduction1. How to Retrieve Data From a Single Table1.1. The Five Clauses of the SELECT Statement1.2. Column Specifications1.3. LIKE and REGEXP Operators1.4. Arithmetic Operators1.5. Column Aliases1.6. Comparison Operators1.7. IS NULL, BETWEEN, IN Operators1.8. AND, OR, NOT Logical Operators1.9. DISTINCT Clause2. How to Retrieve Data from Multiple Tables2.1. The JOIN Clause2.2. Joining More Than Two Tables2.3. The OUTER JOIN Clause2.4. How to Code a UNION3. Using Functions3.1. Date Functions3.2. Numeric Functions3.3. String Functions4. How to Insert, Update, Delete Data in Tables4.1. The INSERT Clause With a Column List4.2. The INSERT Clause Without a Column List4.4. The UPDATE Clause With a Column List4.4. The DELETE Clause5. Summary Queries and Aggregate Functions5.1. Aggregate Functions5.2. Grouping Data5.3. Simple GROUP BY Query5.4. Improving the GROUP BY Query5.5. Using the HAVING Clause5.5. Using the HAVING and WHERE Clauses Together5.6. COUNT(column_name) and COUNT(*)5.7. Using the DISTINCT Statement6. Working With Subqueries6.1. The Subquery In a SELECT Statement6.2. The Subquery in an UPDATE statement6.3. Create a Duplicate Table From An Existing Table 6.4. The Subquery In a Delete Statement7. SQL Views7.1. SQL View Explained7.2. Benefits of Using Views7.3. Views That Allow UPDATE Statements8. SQL Indexes8.1. SQL Indexes Explained8.2. Clustered vs. Non-clustered Indexes8.3. Create an Index in Workbench Using an ERD8.4. How to Manually Add an Index to an Existing TableGlossaryIndex

The JOIN Clause

The Join Clause

  • A JOIN clause allows you to access data from two or more tables in a query.
  • A join links to tables on a common key between the two tables. Usually the primary key on one table is compared to the foreign key on another table using the equals ( = ) sign. This is an equijoin or an inner-join. However, other comparison operators are also valid.
  • If column names from each table in the join have the same name, they must be qualified with the table name or a table alias.

Below is a basic example of a SQL statement with an inner join clause using explicit syntax.

1    USE world;
2    SELECT AS "City Name", 
3 AS "Country Name" 
4    FROM country 
6        JOIN city 
5            ON city.CountryCode = country. Code;

You could write SQL statements more succinctly with an inner join clause using table aliases. Instead of writing out the whole table name to qualify a column, you can use a table alias.

1    USE world;
2    SELECT AS "City Name", 
3 AS "Country Name" 
4    FROM city ci 
5        JOIN country co 
6            ON ci.CountryCode = co.Code;

The results of the join query would yield the same results as shown below whether or not table names are completely written out or are represented with table aliases. The table aliases of co for country and ci for city are defined in the FROM clause and referenced in the SELECT and ON clause:



Let us break the statement line by line:

USE world;

SELECT AS “City Name”, AS “Country Name”

FROM city ci

JOIN country co

ON ci.CountryCode = co.Code;

CC BY-NC-ND International 4.0

CC BY-NC-ND International 4.0: This work is released under a CC BY-NC-ND International 4.0 license, which means that you are free to do with it as you please as long as you (1) properly attribute it, (2) do not use it for commercial gain, and (3) do not create derivative works.

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