IV. Technology and Media
Technology and media has always been central to the field of LIDT. While many in the field have argued that technology can represent any tool, even conceptual ones, this section will discuss the more popular digital technologies. You will read about current research trends in technology integration, and frameworks for understanding what effective technology integration is. There is also a summary of the essential topic of distance education, and an older, but classic, cautionary article about how much of the research into distance education (and any new educational technology) falls into the classic "media comparison" trap that has plagued our field since the classic Clark versus Kozma debates in Educational Technology Research and Development and Review of Educational Research in the 1980s and 1990s (see this summary [http://edtechbooks.org/-HMN]). A few of the many current trends are also represented in this section, with articles on open educational resources, gamified learning, data mining, learning analytics, and open badges. While reading these articles, I refer you back to Andrew Gibbons' article in the design section, where he defines the various "centrisms" he has observed in our field. While it is common for many students to begin their careers media-centric, as you develop wisdom and expertise, you should come to see technology and media as a means, instead of an end, to your instructional design goals.