For many people in the United States and around the world, access to news online is limited by paywalls, a method of restricting information to those who pay for it through purchases or subscriptions. Paywalls are now an ever-present feature of today’s online news media environment.Image by Pexels is under Pixabay License
Researchers from the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford (2019) looked at four types of news outlets in the United States and Europe (i.e., daily newspapers, weekly newspapers and news magazines, Television news, and digital news) and found three primary types of paywalls across the platforms:
Many major newspapers and news magazines charge readers for some or all of their digital content using a freemium model. The New York Times or The Washington Post, for example, require paid subscriptions to view all of their content while making some stories, especially those related to pressing news, free to the public. OnThe Washington Post Coronavirus page there is a note that states: "The Washington Post is providing our daily live updates, comprehensive guide to the pandemic and our Coronavirus Updates newsletter for free, so that all readers have access to this important information about the coronavirus pandemic."
Paywalls are not the only business model being used by digital news companies. Some choose to make money by collecting, selling, and using data from visitors to their websites. They collect personally identifiable information from readers, share it with third-parties to create targeted advertising profiles, and then populate their news website with targeted ads. The revenue from user data and targeted advertisements allows these news outlets to "freely" share their articles with the public.
Certain right-wing digital news outlets, as well as Fox News Channel (Fox News is the most watched channel with some 2.14 million viewers in 2021), have the advantage of providing information for free while the New York Times and other center-leaning sources provide access to information behind different types of paywalls.
The implications of pay-for-news business practices are huge -- Paywalls mean that unless people are willing or able to pay for news sources, they will get ‘locked out’ of information gathered by credible and trustworthy journalists. At a time when everyone is encouraged to pay close attention to current events, what happens when people who can't afford subscriptions or purchase articles are restricted from accessing information from news outlets?
In the following activity, you will have the opportunity to evaluate your level of access to different sources of news and information.
Compare and Contrast Access to Major Newspapers and Television News
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