CoverIntroductionKey Civics and Government ConceptsDefining Critical Media LiteracyCritical Media Literacy GuidesTopic 1. Foundations of the United States Political System1.1 Social Media Policies and Community Standards on YouTube, Twitter, TikTok and More1.2 The Internet as a Public Utility1.3  21st Century Women STEM Innovators1.4 Media Coverage of Kings, Queens, and Royal Families1.5 Representations of Native Americans in Films, Local History Publications, and School MascotsTopic 2. The Development of United States Government2.1 Declarations of Independence on Social Media2.2 Media Marketing and Government Regulation of Self-Driving Cars and Electric Vehicles2.3 Representations of and Racism Toward Black Americans in the Media2.4 Political Debates Through Songs from Hamilton: An American Musical2.5 Bill of Rights on TwitterTopic 3. Institutions of United States Government3.1: Hollywood Movies About the Branches of Government3.2: Writing an Impeachment Press Release3.3: Members of Congress' Use of Social Media3.4: Political Impacts of Public Opinion Polls3.5: Website Design for New Political PartiesTopic 4. The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens4.1: Immigration in the News4.2: Portrayals of Immigrants in Television and Film4.3: COVID-19 Information Evaluation4.4: Women Political Leaders in the Media4.5: Online Messaging by Special Interest Groups4.6: Digital Games for Civic Engagement4.7: Social Media and the Elections4.8: Images of Political Leaders and Political Power4.9: Media Spin in the Coverage of Political Debates4.10: Celebrities' Influence on Politics4.11: Political Activism Through Social Media4.12: Media Recruitment of Public Sector Workers4.13 Deciding What Books Students Read in School4.14: Images of Teachers and Teaching4.15: For Whom Is and Could Your School Be Named4.16: Representing Trans Identities4.17: Media Framing of the Events of January 6, 20214.18: Music as Protest Art4.19: PACs, Super PACs, and Unions in the Media4.20 Brands and PoliticsTopic 5. The Constitution, Amendments, and Supreme Court Decisions5.1: Prohibition in the Media5.2: The Equal Rights Amendment on Twitter and Other Social Media5.3: Civil War Era News Stories and Recruitment Advertisements5.4: Representations of Gender and Race on U.S. Currency5.5: The Equality Act on Twitter5.6: Reading Supreme Court Dissents Aloud5.7: Television Cameras in CourtroomsTopic 6. The Structure of State and Local Government6.1: Native American Mascots and Logos6.2: A Constitution for the Internet6.3: Military Recruitment and the Media6.4: Your Privacy on Social Media6.5: Pandemic Policy Information in the Media6.6: Gendered Language in Media Coverage of Women in Politics6.7: Gender-Neutral Marketing of Toys 6.8: Environmental Campaigns Using Social Media6.9: Trusted Messengers, the Media, and the Pandemic6.10: Online Campaigning for Political Office6.11: Advertising the Lottery Online and In Print6.12: Local Governments, Social Media and Digital Democracy6.13: Protecting the CommonsTopic 7. Freedom of the Press and News/Media Literacy7.1: Press Freedom in the United States and the World7.2: Objectivity and Reporting the News from All Sides7.3: Investigative Journalism and Social Change7.4: News Photographs & Newspaper Design7.5: How Reporters Report Events7.6: Recommendation Algorithms on Social Media Platforms7.7: YouTube Content Creators7.8: Fake News Investigation and Evaluation7.9: Paywalls and Access to Online News7.10: Critical Visual Analysis of Online and Print Media7.11: Memes and TikToks as Political Cartoons7.12: Women Reporters in the Movies7.13: Design a 21st Century Indie Bookstore 7.14: Greenwashing and the Media7.15: AI Writing Tools and Political Information
Critical Media Literacy and Civic Learning

2.2 Media Marketing and Government Regulation of Self-Driving Cars and Electric Vehicles

Despite impressive advances, the technology does not exist yet to create fully self-driving cars that are capable of responding to all possible driving and weather conditions. 

Graphic of a car driving with radar signals indicating it's driving on its own
Self-Driving Car image by Julien Tromeur from Pixabay

Meanwhile, in television and online advertisements, automobile manufacturers are stressing the ease and convenience of letting the car do the driving for you. Using smart technology to implement what Volvo automobile ads call “standard driver assistance features,” cars engage in parallel parking, adapt cruise control to match speed to posted speed limits, give blind spot warnings, engage in emergency braking, and take over steering functions in some situations.

Many new cars already have built-in entertainment centers with Internet-connected Infotainment screens available for drivers and passengers (although in late 2021, Tesla announced it was installing a software update to prevent drivers from playing video games while the vehicle is in motion (Tesla to halt games on infotainment screens, The Boston Globe, December 24, p. B9).

Even more connectivity is on the way, such as cars communicating directly with stop signs to determine the right of way; cars receiving highway database information to navigate away from traffic jams; cars which wirelessly exchange information with other cars to improve traffic flow; cars with biosensors to adjust in-the-vehicle environment to reduce stress for drivers and passengers (Fast Forward: The Future of Automobile Technology Is Now, Your AAA Magazine, Winter, 2021). There are plans to make it possible for cars to stop operating if the vehicle detects a driver has had too much alcohol to drink. What health and safety features would you mandate in self-driving cars and electric vehicles?

Many of these self-driving technologies have been shown to improve traffic safety and save lives in accidents. Left unsaid in the ads, however, is that many drivers can and do disable these features, negating any positive impacts (see Uber disabled Volvo's safety system before self-driving accident), and that split-second, sometimes life-or-death decisions, usually made by humans are being handed over to artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms.

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The following activities are drawn from debates over the role and powers of the federal government versus state government that have existed since the Articles of Confederation and the writing of the U.S. Constitution. You will investigate how auto manufacturers are marketing self-driving cars and electric vehicles and what local, state, and national governments should be doing to create safer driving for everyone.

Activity 1: Evaluate Who Should Regulate Self-Driving Cars

  1. Research the recommendations and rules regarding self-driving cars (if any) from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the National Traffic Safety Board, and your local town/city and state governments.
  2. Watch ads for new cars on television and/or online and focus on how self-driving and autonomous operation features are promoted in words and visuals. Use the questions on the Teacher and Student Guide to Analyzing Advertisements document to guide your analysis of the media. 
  3. Then, consider the following question:
    • Do you think the state government (like under the Articles of Confederation), the federal government (under the Constitution’s federal system), or private companies (as in a competitive marketplace) should take responsibility for regulating self-driving technology?
  4. Design a TV or social media advertisement, using the techniques you uncovered in step 2, that persuades viewers to understand your point of view regarding who should regulate self-driving technology.  

Designing for Learning: Student-Created Activity Example

Analyzing Self-Driving Cars Ads & Autonomous Cars Ad by Lydia Jankowski, Suhyun Shin, Emily Inman

Activity 2: Design an Electric Vehicle Charging Plan for Your Community

While Electric Vehicles (EVs) represented only 2% of new car purchases in 2021, the trend is racing rapidly forward. The Biden Administration has a goal of making EVs half of all new vehicle sales by 2030. It is estimated that the country will need 1.25 million public charging outlets by then (there are currently about 150,000 gas stations, although with multiple pumps) (Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure: Where the U.S. Stands Today, Bipartisan Policy Center, August 10, 2021).

Currently charging stations are either operated privately by homeowners or available to car owners in parking lots and other spaces where users pay a fee to use them. Such stations are either owned by the business that has the space where the charger is located or that business pays another organization that produces, operates, and maintains the charger. 

Design a plan to make more charging stations available to drivers in your community. Begin by conducting Internet and media-based research about EV charging stations. Then, consider the following prompts before you develop your plan:

Designing for Learning: Student-Created Activity Example

Electric Car Charging Station Plan by Lydia Jankowski, Suhyun Shin, Emily Inman

Additional resources:

Connecting to the Standards

  • Massachusetts Civics & Government Standards
    •  Analyze the weaknesses of the national government under the Articles of Confederation and describe the crucial events (e.g. Shays' Rebellion) leading to the Constitutional Convention (Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for History and Social Studies) [8.T2.2]
  • ISTE Standards
    • Digital Citizen
      • 2c: Students demonstrate an understanding of and respect for the rights and obligations of using and sharing intellectual property.
    • Knowledge Constructor
      • 3a: Students plan and employ effective research strategies to locate information and other resources for their intellectual or creative pursuits.
      • 3b: Students evaluate the accuracy, perspective, credibility and relevance of information, media, data, or other resources.
      • 3d: Students build knowledge by actively exploring real-world issues and problems, developing ideas and theories and pursuing answers and solutions.
    • Creative Communicator
      • 6a: Students choose the appropriate platforms and tools for meeting the desired objectives of their creation or communication.
      • 6b: Students create original works or responsibly repurpose or remix digital resources into new creations.
      • 6d: Students publish or present content that customizes the message and medium for the intended audiences.
  • DLCS Standards
    • Ethics and Laws (CAS.b)
    • Interpersonal and Societal Impact (CAS.c)
    • Digital Tools (DTC.a)
    • Collaboration and Communication (DTC.b)
    • Research (DTC.c)
  • English Language Arts > History/Social Studies Common Core Standards
    • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.4
    • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.6
    • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.7
    • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.8
  • English/Language Arts Common Core Standards


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