CoverPrefaceAcknowledgmentsContributorsPart I. Context1. Introduction2. Understanding (O)ER3. Digital Transformation in the World4. Higher Education Systems and Institutions in their ContextsPart II. The Country Studies1. The Case of Australia2. Digital Transformation in Canada3. China's Approach to Digital Transformation of Higher Education4. Open Educational Resources within the Digital Transformation of German Higher Education5. The Case of Japan and Korea6. Analysis of Higher Education (HE) Systems’ Approach in South Africa7. The Case of Spain8. Digital Transformation and Openness in the Turkish Higher Education SystemPart III. International Comparison1. Macro Level: The Situation at the National or Federal Level2. Meso Level: The Situation at the Institutional Level3. Micro Level: The Situation at the Level of Teaching and Learning4. Conclusions of the International ComparisonReferences Part I & IIIGlossary

Glossary

Acronym Explanation
ACBS Academic Credit Bank System
ACDE African Council for Distance Education
ACE Advancement of College Education (Case of Japan and Korea)
ACE Academic Commons for Education
ACE Awards for OpenCourseWare Excellence
ACODE Australasian Council on Open, Distance and e-Learning
ACT Australian Capital Territory
ACU ASEAN Cyber University
ACU-OCW ASEAN Cyber University-OpenCourseWare
ADDIE Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation
ADMS Academic Data Management System
AfSIS African Soil Information Service
AHERO African Higher Education Research Online
AI Artificial Intelligence
ANECA National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation of Spain
ANU Australian National University
ANU Africa Nazarene University
AOASG Australasian Open Access Strategy Group
API Application Programming Interface
APQN Asia Pacific Quality Network
AQF Australian Quality Framework
AQU Catalan University Quality Assurance Agency
ARC Australian Research Council
ARCA RSS Aggregator for the Academic Community
ARDC Australian Research Data Commons
ARDEB Research Support Program
AR4D Agricultural Research for Development
ARROW Australian Research Repositories Online to the World
ASARECA Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa
ASCILITE Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education
ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations
ASSAF Academy of Science of South Africa
ATEN African Teacher Education OER Network
ATN Australian Technology Network of Universities
ATSIDA Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Data Archive
AusGOAL Australian Government Open Access and Licensing Framework
AVU African Virtual University
BAP Scientific Research Projects
BASE Bielefeld Academic Search Engine
BC British Columbia
BCIT British Columbia Institute of Technology
BMBF Federal Ministery of Education and Research
BNU Beijing Normal University
BOU Beijing Open University
BTK Information Technology and Communications Authority
BW Baden-Württemberg
CAP Chinese Advanced Placement
CARL Canadian Association of Research Libraries
CAUDIT Council of Australasian University Directors of Information Technology
CAUL Council of Australian University Librarians
CAULLT Council of Australasian University Leaders in Learning and Teaching
CC Creative Commons
CCK08 Connectivism and Connective Knowledge
CDLRA Canadian Digital Learning Research Association
CDO Chief Digital Officer
CEDEC National Centre of Curricular Development in non Proprietary Systems
CELTSC Chinese E-Learning Technology Standardization Committee
CENT Centre of Education and New Technologies
CEOE Spanish Confederation of Corporate Organisations
CERNET China Education and Research Network
CET Centre for Educational Technology
CHE Centre for Higher Education
CHE Council on Higher Education
CHEA Council for Higher Education Accreditation
CIC Interuniversity Council of Catalonia
CIGI Centre for International Governance Innovation
CILT Centre for Innovation in Learning and Teaching
CiNii Academic Information Circulation System
CIO Chief Information Officer
CK Creative Korea
CLO Colleges Libraries Ontario
CMFS China MOOCs for Foreign Studies
CMS Content Management System
CMTN Coast Mountain College
CNC College of New Caledonia
CNIE Canadian Network for Innovation in Education
COER College of humanities‘ Research and Education
COHE Council of Higher Education
CoL Commonwealth of Learning
CoSTEP Communication in Science and Technology Education & Research Program
CotR College of the Rockies
CPC Communist Party of China
CPD Continuing Professional Development
CPEHE Center for the Promotion of Excellence in Higher Education
CRDHE The Center for Research and Development of Higher Education
CRUE Conference of Vice-Chancellors of Spanish Universities
CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
CSUC Consortium of Catalan University Services
CTL Center for Teaching and Learning
CU C University
CU+ Career Up Plus
CUM Chinese University MOOC
CUMCM Contemporary Undergraduate Mathematical Contest in Modeling
DBE Department of Basic Education, South Africa
DET Department of Education and Training, South Africa
DHET Department of Higher Education and Training, South Africa
DH-NRW Digital University North Rhine-Westphalia
DIIS Department of Industry Innovation and Science
DIPF Leibniz Institute for Research and Information in Education
DIPIP Data Informed Practice Improvement Project
DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals
DOAR Directory of Open Access Repositories
DOE Department of Education, China
DOT4D Digital Online Textbooks for Development
DRIVER Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research
DST Department of Science and Technology, South Africa
DUCE Dar es Salaam College of Education
DVC Deputy Vice-Chancellors
EBA Educational Informatics Network
ECTS European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
ECUAD Emily Carr University of Art + Design
eCULT+ eCompetence and Utilities for Learners and Teachers
EDMS Electronic Document Management System
EDTSC Educational Digitalization Technology Standard Committee
EHEA European Higher Education Area
EKUAL National Academic License for Electronic Resources
ELAN E-Learning Academic Network
eLOR eLearning Objects Repository
ENI National Interoperability Framework of Spain
ENQA European Quality Assurance Association in Higher Education
EOSC European Open Science Cloud
EQA Education Quality Assurance
ER Educational Resources
ERIC Education Resources Information Center
EUA European Universities Association
F.A.I.R. Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable
FARA Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa
FECYT Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology
FHSST Free High School Science Texts
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GeRDI Generic Research Data Infrastructure
GLOBE Global Learning Object Brokered Exchange
HAW Hamburg Hamburg University of Applied Sciences
HBZ University Library Center of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia
HE Higher Education
HEC Higher Education Council
HEI Higher Education Institution
HEQC Higher Education Quality Council
HERDSA Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia
HFD Hochschulforum Digitalisierung
HOOU Hamburg Open Online University
IA Infrastructure Australia
IATI International Aid Transparency Initiative
ICC Information & Computer Center
ICT Information and Communications Technology
ICTS Information and Communication Technology Services
ICU International Christian University, Japan
ID Instructional Design
IDRC Canadian International Development Research Centre
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
iFLYTEK Chinese information technology company
IIC Information Initiative Center
INTEF National Institute of Educational Technologies and Teacher Training, Spain
INQUAAHE International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education
IoT Internet of Things
IP Intellectual Property
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
IR Institutional Repository
IRDB Institutional Repositories Database
IRRODL International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning
ISA Innovation and Science Australia
ISKME Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education
IS&T Information System and Technology
ITAC Information Technology Association of Canada
ITC Information Technology Center
IWM Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien
JIBC Justice Institute of British Columbia
JISC Joint Information Systems Committee
JMOOC Japan Massive Open Online Education Promotion Council
JOCW Japan OpenCourseWare
JPCOAR Japan Consortium for Open Access Repository
KCU Consortium Korea Cyber University Consortium
KEM Korea Education Metadata
KERIS Korea Education and Research Information Service
KMK Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs, Germany
K-MOOC Korean Massive Open Online Course
KNUST Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
KOCW Korea OpenCourseWare
KOCWC Korean OpenCourseWare College
KPU Kwantlen Polytechnic University
KREN Korea Education Network
LCKC Learning Cell Knowledge Community
LIFE Libraries For Everyone
LINC+ Leaders in INdustry-university Cooperation
LMS Learning Management System
LOCKSS Lots Of Copies Keep Stuff Safe
LOM Learning Object Metadata
LOR Learning Object Repository
LRMI Learning Resource Metadata Initiative
LTIP Learning and Teaching Induction Program
LTSM Learning and Teaching Support Materials
LTSC Learning Technology Standards Committee
MDERC Modern Distance Education Resources Committee
MDX Teaching Materials in Net
MECD Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, Spain
METU Middle East Technical University
MOE Ministry of Education, China
MoNE Ministry of National Education, Turkey
MOOC Massive Open Online Course
mOOC micro Open Online Course
MOST Mutual Online System for Teaching & Learning
NARS National Agricultural Research Systems
NCI National Computational Infrastructure
NERC National E-learning Resources Center
NFDP New Faculty Development Program, ICU
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council
NIC North Island College
NII National Institute of Informatics
NILE National Institute for Lifelong Education
NLC Northern Lights College
NMMU Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
NOOC Nano Open Online Massive
NOUN National Open University of Nigeria
NRC National Reading Coalition
NRF National Research Foundation
NRW North Rhine-Westphalia
NSW New South Wales
NT Northern Territory
NVIT Nicola Valley Institute of Technology
NZ New Zealand
OAI Open Archives Initiative
OAI-ORE Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse and Exchange
OAI-PMH Open Archives Initiative-Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
OAIS Open Archival Information System
OCAV Ontario Council of Academic Vice-Presidents
OCLS Ontario Colleges Library Service
OCUL Ontario Council of University Libraries
OCW OpenCourseWare
ODL Open and Distance Learning
ODLAA Open & Distance Learning Australia
OEC Center for Open Education
OEC Open Education Consortium
OECD Organisation for Economic, Co-operation and Development
OEP Open Educational Practices
OER Open Educational Resources
OJS Open Journal Systems
OL Open Learning
OLC Online Learning Consortium
ON Ontario
OOI Ontario Online Institute
OPE Operation Phakisa in Education
OpenDOAR Directory of Open Access Repositories
OUC Open University of China
OUJ Open University Japan
ORC-ID Open Researcher and Contributor ID
PD Professional Development
PEQAB Postsecondary Education Quality Assessment Board
PHEA Partnership for Higher Education in Africa
PKU Peking University
PSE Postsecondary Education
PSET Post-school Education and Training
QA Quality Assurance
QTI Question & Test Interoperability
Que Queensland
QULOC Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation
R&D Research and Development
REBIUN Network of Spanish University Libraries
RECOLECTA Open Science Harvester, Spain
RISS Research Information Sharing Service
RMIT Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
ROAR Registry of Open Access Repositories
ROARMAP Registry of Open Access Repositories Mandatory Archiving Policies
ROER4D Research on Open Educational Resources for Development
ROIS Research Organization of Information and Systems
RRU Royal Roads University
RTVU China Central Radio and Television University
RUBRIC Regional Universities Building Research Infrastructure Collaboratively
RUC Renmin University of China
RWTH Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University
SA South Australia
SABINET South African Bibliographical and Information Network
SABIS Sakarya University Information System
SAIDE South African Institute of Distance Education
SAIIA South African Institute of International Affairs
SAIVCET South African Institute for Vocational and Continuing Education and Training
SALDRU Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit
SANLIC South African National Library and Information Consortium
SAUX Sakarya University Extended
SCI Science Citation Index
SciELO Scientific Electronic Library Online
SCORM Sharable Content Object Reference Model
SCOSS Global Sustainability Coalition for Open Science Services
SCUT South China University of Technology
SFU Simon Fraser University
SINET Science Information NETwork
SNU Seoul National University
SOS Study of Success
SPARC Smart Pavements Australia Research Collaboration
SPOCs Small Private Online Courses
SSCI Social Sciences Citation Index
STEM Science Technology Engineering Mathematics
SWOT Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
SynLLOER Synergies for Teaching and Learning through OER
TA Teaching Assistant
TBD Turkish Informatics Association
TDX Doctoral Thesis in Net
TEL Technology Enhanced Learning
TEQSA Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency
TESSA Teacher Education in Sub Saharan Africa
THE Times Higher Education
THEQC Turkish Higher Education Quality Council
TRU Thompson Rivers University
TSMDERC Technical Specifications for Modern Distance Education Resources Construction
TSSSCC Technical Specifications for State-benchmarking Shared Courses Construction
TÜBİTAK Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
TUHH Technical University of Hamburg
TUT Tshwane University of Technology
TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training
UAB Autonomous University of Barcelona
UADMK National Open Courseware Consortium
UB University Library
UB University of Barcelona
UBC University of British Columbia
UCM Complutense University of Madrid
UC3M University Carlos III of Madrid
UCT University of Cape Town
UDE University Duisburg Essen
UdG University of Girona
UDIMA, private open university Distance University of Madrid
UdL University of Lleida
UFS University of the Free State
UFV University of the Fraser Valley
UG University of Ghana
UH University H, Japan
UIB University of the Balearic Islands
UJ University of Johannesburg
UJS Turkish Academic Network and Information Center Journal Systems
UKZN University of Kwazulu Natal
ULAKBIM Turkish Academic Network and Information Center
UNBC University of Northern British Columbia
UNED National University of Distance Education
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNIA University of Seville
UNIR International University of La Rioja
Unisa University of South Africa
UNED National Distance Education University
UOC Open University of Catalonia
UOW University of Wollongong
UP University of Pretoria
UPC Polytechnic University of Catalonia
UPF Pompeu Fabra University
UPM Polytechnic University of Madrid
UPV Polytechnic University of Valencia
URV University of Rovira i Virgili
USAf Universities South Africa
USQ University of Southern Queensland
UTAS University of Tasmania
UTEID Unit for Educational Technology and Innovative Teaching
UTokyo University of Tokyo
UTS University of Technology Sydney
UVic University of Victoria
UVic University of Vic
UWC University of Western Cape
UZEMs Distance Education Centers
VCC Vancouver Community College
VET Vocational Education and Training
VHB Virtual University Bavaria
Vic Victoria, Canada
VIU Vancouver Island University
VUT Vaal University of Technology
WA Western Australia
WOS Web of Science
XCITR eXplore Chemical Information Teaching Resources
ZIM Learning Technologies Division of the Centre for Media and Information Services
ZOERR The Central OER Repository of the Universities of the State of Baden-Württemberg