• (Open) Educational Resources around the World
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Contributors
  • Part I. Context
  • Part II. The Country Studies
  • Part III. International Comparison
  • References Part I & III
  • Glossary
  • Download
  • Translations
  • Glossary

    Acronym Explanation
    ACBS Academic Credit Bank System
    ACDE African Council for Distance Education
    ACE Advancement of College Education (Case of Japan and Korea)
    ACE Academic Commons for Education
    ACE Awards for OpenCourseWare Excellence
    ACODE Australasian Council on Open, Distance and e-Learning
    ACT Australian Capital Territory
    ACU ASEAN Cyber University
    ACU-OCW ASEAN Cyber University-OpenCourseWare
    ADDIE Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation
    ADMS Academic Data Management System
    AfSIS African Soil Information Service
    AHERO African Higher Education Research Online
    AI Artificial Intelligence
    ANECA National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation of Spain
    ANU Australian National University
    ANU Africa Nazarene University
    AOASG Australasian Open Access Strategy Group
    API Application Programming Interface
    APQN Asia Pacific Quality Network
    AQF Australian Quality Framework
    AQU Catalan University Quality Assurance Agency
    ARC Australian Research Council
    ARCA RSS Aggregator for the Academic Community
    ARDC Australian Research Data Commons
    ARDEB Research Support Program
    AR4D Agricultural Research for Development
    ARROW Australian Research Repositories Online to the World
    ASARECA Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa
    ASCILITE Australian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education
    ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations
    ASSAF Academy of Science of South Africa
    ATEN African Teacher Education OER Network
    ATN Australian Technology Network of Universities
    ATSIDA Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Data Archive
    AusGOAL Australian Government Open Access and Licensing Framework
    AVU African Virtual University
    BAP Scientific Research Projects
    BASE Bielefeld Academic Search Engine
    BC British Columbia
    BCIT British Columbia Institute of Technology
    BMBF Federal Ministery of Education and Research
    BNU Beijing Normal University
    BOU Beijing Open University
    BTK Information Technology and Communications Authority
    BW Baden-Württemberg
    CAP Chinese Advanced Placement
    CARL Canadian Association of Research Libraries
    CAUDIT Council of Australasian University Directors of Information Technology
    CAUL Council of Australian University Librarians
    CAULLT Council of Australasian University Leaders in Learning and Teaching
    CC Creative Commons
    CCK08 Connectivism and Connective Knowledge
    CDLRA Canadian Digital Learning Research Association
    CDO Chief Digital Officer
    CEDEC National Centre of Curricular Development in non Proprietary Systems
    CELTSC Chinese E-Learning Technology Standardization Committee
    CENT Centre of Education and New Technologies
    CEOE Spanish Confederation of Corporate Organisations
    CERNET China Education and Research Network
    CET Centre for Educational Technology
    CHE Centre for Higher Education
    CHE Council on Higher Education
    CHEA Council for Higher Education Accreditation
    CIC Interuniversity Council of Catalonia
    CIGI Centre for International Governance Innovation
    CILT Centre for Innovation in Learning and Teaching
    CiNii Academic Information Circulation System
    CIO Chief Information Officer
    CK Creative Korea
    CLO Colleges Libraries Ontario
    CMFS China MOOCs for Foreign Studies
    CMS Content Management System
    CMTN Coast Mountain College
    CNC College of New Caledonia
    CNIE Canadian Network for Innovation in Education
    COER College of humanities‘ Research and Education
    COHE Council of Higher Education
    CoL Commonwealth of Learning
    CoSTEP Communication in Science and Technology Education & Research Program
    CotR College of the Rockies
    CPC Communist Party of China
    CPD Continuing Professional Development
    CPEHE Center for the Promotion of Excellence in Higher Education
    CRDHE The Center for Research and Development of Higher Education
    CRUE Conference of Vice-Chancellors of Spanish Universities
    CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
    CSUC Consortium of Catalan University Services
    CTL Center for Teaching and Learning
    CU C University
    CU+ Career Up Plus
    CUM Chinese University MOOC
    CUMCM Contemporary Undergraduate Mathematical Contest in Modeling
    DBE Department of Basic Education, South Africa
    DET Department of Education and Training, South Africa
    DHET Department of Higher Education and Training, South Africa
    DH-NRW Digital University North Rhine-Westphalia
    DIIS Department of Industry Innovation and Science
    DIPF Leibniz Institute for Research and Information in Education
    DIPIP Data Informed Practice Improvement Project
    DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals
    DOAR Directory of Open Access Repositories
    DOE Department of Education, China
    DOT4D Digital Online Textbooks for Development
    DRIVER Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research
    DST Department of Science and Technology, South Africa
    DUCE Dar es Salaam College of Education
    DVC Deputy Vice-Chancellors
    EBA Educational Informatics Network
    ECTS European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
    ECUAD Emily Carr University of Art + Design
    eCULT+ eCompetence and Utilities for Learners and Teachers
    EDMS Electronic Document Management System
    EDTSC Educational Digitalization Technology Standard Committee
    EHEA European Higher Education Area
    EKUAL National Academic License for Electronic Resources
    ELAN E-Learning Academic Network
    eLOR eLearning Objects Repository
    ENI National Interoperability Framework of Spain
    ENQA European Quality Assurance Association in Higher Education
    EOSC European Open Science Cloud
    EQA Education Quality Assurance
    ER Educational Resources
    ERIC Education Resources Information Center
    EUA European Universities Association
    F.A.I.R. Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable
    FARA Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa
    FECYT Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology
    FHSST Free High School Science Texts
    GDP Gross Domestic Product
    GeRDI Generic Research Data Infrastructure
    GLOBE Global Learning Object Brokered Exchange
    HAW Hamburg Hamburg University of Applied Sciences
    HBZ University Library Center of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia
    HE Higher Education
    HEC Higher Education Council
    HEI Higher Education Institution
    HEQC Higher Education Quality Council
    HERDSA Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia
    HFD Hochschulforum Digitalisierung
    HOOU Hamburg Open Online University
    IA Infrastructure Australia
    IATI International Aid Transparency Initiative
    ICC Information & Computer Center
    ICT Information and Communications Technology
    ICTS Information and Communication Technology Services
    ICU International Christian University, Japan
    ID Instructional Design
    IDRC Canadian International Development Research Centre
    IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
    iFLYTEK Chinese information technology company
    IIC Information Initiative Center
    INTEF National Institute of Educational Technologies and Teacher Training, Spain
    INQUAAHE International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education
    IoT Internet of Things
    IP Intellectual Property
    IPR Intellectual Property Rights
    IR Institutional Repository
    IRDB Institutional Repositories Database
    IRRODL International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning
    ISA Innovation and Science Australia
    ISKME Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education
    IS&T Information System and Technology
    ITAC Information Technology Association of Canada
    ITC Information Technology Center
    IWM Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien
    JIBC Justice Institute of British Columbia
    JISC Joint Information Systems Committee
    JMOOC Japan Massive Open Online Education Promotion Council
    JOCW Japan OpenCourseWare
    JPCOAR Japan Consortium for Open Access Repository
    KCU Consortium Korea Cyber University Consortium
    KEM Korea Education Metadata
    KERIS Korea Education and Research Information Service
    KMK Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs, Germany
    K-MOOC Korean Massive Open Online Course
    KNUST Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
    KOCW Korea OpenCourseWare
    KOCWC Korean OpenCourseWare College
    KPU Kwantlen Polytechnic University
    KREN Korea Education Network
    LCKC Learning Cell Knowledge Community
    LIFE Libraries For Everyone
    LINC+ Leaders in INdustry-university Cooperation
    LMS Learning Management System
    LOCKSS Lots Of Copies Keep Stuff Safe
    LOM Learning Object Metadata
    LOR Learning Object Repository
    LRMI Learning Resource Metadata Initiative
    LTIP Learning and Teaching Induction Program
    LTSM Learning and Teaching Support Materials
    LTSC Learning Technology Standards Committee
    MDERC Modern Distance Education Resources Committee
    MDX Teaching Materials in Net
    MECD Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, Spain
    METU Middle East Technical University
    MOE Ministry of Education, China
    MoNE Ministry of National Education, Turkey
    MOOC Massive Open Online Course
    mOOC micro Open Online Course
    MOST Mutual Online System for Teaching & Learning
    NARS National Agricultural Research Systems
    NCI National Computational Infrastructure
    NERC National E-learning Resources Center
    NFDP New Faculty Development Program, ICU
    NGO Non-Governmental Organization
    NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council
    NIC North Island College
    NII National Institute of Informatics
    NILE National Institute for Lifelong Education
    NLC Northern Lights College
    NMMU Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
    NOOC Nano Open Online Massive
    NOUN National Open University of Nigeria
    NRC National Reading Coalition
    NRF National Research Foundation
    NRW North Rhine-Westphalia
    NSW New South Wales
    NT Northern Territory
    NVIT Nicola Valley Institute of Technology
    NZ New Zealand
    OAI Open Archives Initiative
    OAI-ORE Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse and Exchange
    OAI-PMH Open Archives Initiative-Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
    OAIS Open Archival Information System
    OCAV Ontario Council of Academic Vice-Presidents
    OCLS Ontario Colleges Library Service
    OCUL Ontario Council of University Libraries
    OCW OpenCourseWare
    ODL Open and Distance Learning
    ODLAA Open & Distance Learning Australia
    OEC Center for Open Education
    OEC Open Education Consortium
    OECD Organisation for Economic, Co-operation and Development
    OEP Open Educational Practices
    OER Open Educational Resources
    OJS Open Journal Systems
    OL Open Learning
    OLC Online Learning Consortium
    ON Ontario
    OOI Ontario Online Institute
    OPE Operation Phakisa in Education
    OpenDOAR Directory of Open Access Repositories
    OUC Open University of China
    OUJ Open University Japan
    ORC-ID Open Researcher and Contributor ID
    PD Professional Development
    PEQAB Postsecondary Education Quality Assessment Board
    PHEA Partnership for Higher Education in Africa
    PKU Peking University
    PSE Postsecondary Education
    PSET Post-school Education and Training
    QA Quality Assurance
    QTI Question & Test Interoperability
    Que Queensland
    QULOC Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation
    R&D Research and Development
    REBIUN Network of Spanish University Libraries
    RECOLECTA Open Science Harvester, Spain
    RISS Research Information Sharing Service
    RMIT Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
    ROAR Registry of Open Access Repositories
    ROARMAP Registry of Open Access Repositories Mandatory Archiving Policies
    ROER4D Research on Open Educational Resources for Development
    ROIS Research Organization of Information and Systems
    RRU Royal Roads University
    RTVU China Central Radio and Television University
    RUBRIC Regional Universities Building Research Infrastructure Collaboratively
    RUC Renmin University of China
    RWTH Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University
    SA South Australia
    SABINET South African Bibliographical and Information Network
    SABIS Sakarya University Information System
    SAIDE South African Institute of Distance Education
    SAIIA South African Institute of International Affairs
    SAIVCET South African Institute for Vocational and Continuing Education and Training
    SALDRU Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit
    SANLIC South African National Library and Information Consortium
    SAUX Sakarya University Extended
    SCI Science Citation Index
    SciELO Scientific Electronic Library Online
    SCORM Sharable Content Object Reference Model
    SCOSS Global Sustainability Coalition for Open Science Services
    SCUT South China University of Technology
    SFU Simon Fraser University
    SINET Science Information NETwork
    SNU Seoul National University
    SOS Study of Success
    SPARC Smart Pavements Australia Research Collaboration
    SPOCs Small Private Online Courses
    SSCI Social Sciences Citation Index
    STEM Science Technology Engineering Mathematics
    SWOT Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
    SynLLOER Synergies for Teaching and Learning through OER
    TA Teaching Assistant
    TBD Turkish Informatics Association
    TDX Doctoral Thesis in Net
    TEL Technology Enhanced Learning
    TEQSA Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency
    TESSA Teacher Education in Sub Saharan Africa
    THE Times Higher Education
    THEQC Turkish Higher Education Quality Council
    TRU Thompson Rivers University
    TSMDERC Technical Specifications for Modern Distance Education Resources Construction
    TSSSCC Technical Specifications for State-benchmarking Shared Courses Construction
    TÜBİTAK Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
    TUHH Technical University of Hamburg
    TUT Tshwane University of Technology
    TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training
    UAB Autonomous University of Barcelona
    UADMK National Open Courseware Consortium
    UB University Library
    UB University of Barcelona
    UBC University of British Columbia
    UCM Complutense University of Madrid
    UC3M University Carlos III of Madrid
    UCT University of Cape Town
    UDE University Duisburg Essen
    UdG University of Girona
    UDIMA, private open university Distance University of Madrid
    UdL University of Lleida
    UFS University of the Free State
    UFV University of the Fraser Valley
    UG University of Ghana
    UH University H, Japan
    UIB University of the Balearic Islands
    UJ University of Johannesburg
    UJS Turkish Academic Network and Information Center Journal Systems
    UKZN University of Kwazulu Natal
    ULAKBIM Turkish Academic Network and Information Center
    UNBC University of Northern British Columbia
    UNED National University of Distance Education
    UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
    UNIA University of Seville
    UNIR International University of La Rioja
    Unisa University of South Africa
    UNED National Distance Education University
    UOC Open University of Catalonia
    UOW University of Wollongong
    UP University of Pretoria
    UPC Polytechnic University of Catalonia
    UPF Pompeu Fabra University
    UPM Polytechnic University of Madrid
    UPV Polytechnic University of Valencia
    URV University of Rovira i Virgili
    USAf Universities South Africa
    USQ University of Southern Queensland
    UTAS University of Tasmania
    UTEID Unit for Educational Technology and Innovative Teaching
    UTokyo University of Tokyo
    UTS University of Technology Sydney
    UVic University of Victoria
    UVic University of Vic
    UWC University of Western Cape
    UZEMs Distance Education Centers
    VCC Vancouver Community College
    VET Vocational Education and Training
    VHB Virtual University Bavaria
    Vic Victoria, Canada
    VIU Vancouver Island University
    VUT Vaal University of Technology
    WA Western Australia
    WOS Web of Science
    XCITR eXplore Chemical Information Teaching Resources
    ZIM Learning Technologies Division of the Centre for Media and Information Services
    ZOERR The Central OER Repository of the Universities of the State of Baden-Württemberg

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