CoverAuthor GuidelinesLicensing InformationI. FoundationsOpen Educational ResourcesDefining the "Open" in Open Content and Open Educational ResourcesCopyright and Open LicensingThe Difference Between an Informational Resource and an Educational ResourceExcludabilityRivalryII. ResearchOpen educational resources and college textbook choicesThoughts on Continuous Improvement and OERContinuous Improvement of Instructional MaterialsContinuous Improvement DashboardsA/B Testing on Open TextbooksThe Rise FrameworkOpen Science in Education SciencesIII. Future DirectionsWhat is Open Pedagogy?OER-Enabled PedagogyOpen Pedagogy: The Importance of Getting it in the AirA Look at the Future of Open Educational ResourcesPragmatism vs. Idealism and the Identity Crisis of OER AdvocacyRecognizing and Overcoming Obstacles: What It Will Take to Realize the Potential of OERAssumptions and Challenges of Open ScholarshipThe OER DilemmaCultural Knowledge and OERIV. AppendicesChapter AuthorsGlossaryKeywordsIndexV. Student PresentationsA Brief Overview of Open EducationWhat I Know Now About Open EducationFalling 4 OEROpen Education Q & A Observations and Learnings About OERWhat is OER?Overview of Open Education

Index

Access 149Continuous Improvement 68Copyright 62Creative Commons 23Equity 8Legal 18Open License 22Public Domain 24Quality 96

Access

Open Educational Resources

  1. … rare Linux user who is unable to Access, download, read or play, modify and…
  2. … entities, which in this case is to Access them, reuse them, modify them and…
  3. The reference to "Access, reuse, modify and share" is partially adapted from…
  4. … print publications, 'freedom of Access' meant the institution of libraries and…
  5. … education that may be freely Accessed, reused, modified and shared by anyone.
  6. … stipulated in the definition - Access, use, modify, share - then the nature…
  7. … with enough money any person can Access, use, modify and share any resource,…
  8. 'Freedom of Access without conditions' entails a lot, and it extends far beyond…
  9. Access - is most frequently left off the definition of OERs, and yet is the most…
  10. … longer open if the only way to Access a resource is to pay money for it.
  11. … If a person can still freely Access, use, modify and share a resource, then…
  12. … rather, whether it allows anyone to Access, use, modify and share the material.
  13. … on the ability of a person to Access, use, modify and share the resource - is…
  14. … stipulate that the resource may be Access without conditions. This, by the definition,…

Copyright and Open Licensing

  1. … materials that should not be publicly Accessible and, therefore, allowed your…
  2. … because you have only limited Access to download, delete, or control your data…
  3. … copyright holder from selling Access to the article, which would be a violation.…

Rivalry

  1. … group of fishermen are no longer Accessible to another group, thus being rivalrous.…
  2. … considered non-rival. However, Access to cable TV services are only available…

Open educational resources and college textbook choices

  1. While increased Access to textbooks alone will not ensure the success of college…
  2. … is limited given the generally Accessible nature of blogs. It is not clear from…
  3. … textbooks. In other contexts students Access OER only through digital methods.…
  4. … ‘very familiar’ with open Access textbooks, while 52 % were ‘not at all…
  5. … that OER could help students Access learning materials at a much lower price.
  6. … creation of free, universally Accessible educational materials, which anyone…
  7. … felt that the OER “provided Access to more up-to-date material than is available…
  8. … impact and efficacy of the open-Access ChemWiki textbook project. Educause…
  9. … textbooks and increased student Access and outcomes. European Journal of Open,…
  10. … (2012). An experiment in open-Access textbook publishing: Changing the world…

Thoughts on Continuous Improvement and OER

  1. … improvement frameworks in open Access journals, and open source many of the…

Continuous Improvement of Instructional Materials

  1. … learners, as they could only be Accessed once new editions of a book were printed…
  2. … materials. The first factor is Access to editing tools—is the software needed…

Continuous Improvement Dashboards

  1. … view performance metrics and Access recommendations to improve their content. The…
  2. … content pages) and the people Accessing the content (in this case, the visitors…
  3. … logging into an LMS may have Access to a student-facing dashboard that provides…
  4. … a textbook or educational video) Accessed or completed? How do students rate…

A/B Testing on Open Textbooks

  1. … four guiding values of freedom, Accessibility, usability, and quality, providing…
  2. As readers Accessed the textbook on the platform for the first time, they were…
  3. … platform, readers of the textbook Accessed chapters in many ways but generally…
  4. … (2020). This textbook has been Accessed over 120,000 times in its short lifespan…

The Rise Framework

  1. Digital Access
  2. … textbooks and increased student Access and outcomes. European Journal of Open,…
  3. … the effectiveness of the open-Access ChemWiki resource as a replacement for…
  4. … of our study is we only have Access to aggregate course level data, when student…
  5. … student OER use by looking at Access to online learning materials. An example…
  6. … studies which collected digital Access or download data on how frequently students…
  7. … digital download data, and digital Access data tied to outcomes.

Open Science in Education Sciences

  1. Open Access
  2. … institution is mandated to be open and Accessible to the public (Executive Order…
  3. … The citation advantage of open-Access articles. Journal of the American Society…
  4. … (2006). Citation advantage of Open Access articles. PLoS Biology, 4(5), e157.…
  5. … article when the authors include Access to their data and code. Other institutions,…
  6. … materials to their data sets for easy Access. Similar to Open Data, repositories…
  7. … replications, researchers will need Access to the original materials, including…
  8. … will need to be able to find and Access the data sets containing their variables…
  9. … researchers make their data findable, Accessible, interoperable, and reusable.
  10. … B.-C. (2012). A study of open Access journals using article processing charges.…
  11. … Central, and NSF uses its own public Access repository, NSF-PAR. Research in…
  12. … This guarantees data sets remain Accessible with the same identifier over longer…
  13. … data management plan and public Access to articles, IES adopted the Standards…
  14. … Materials, Preregistration, and Open Access) and resources on best practices…
  15. … researchers should make decisions about Access options. Besides making the data…
  16. … Stamerjohanns, H., Hilf, E. R. (2004). The Access/impact problem and the green…
  17. The last element, Open Access, may be the most fundamental element of Open Science.…
  18. … Open Science, increasing the Access of data, analyses, and results to the general…
  19. … Materials, Preregistration, and Open Access, researchers in LD can create an…
  20. … practitioners the opportunity to Access tools that could benefit individuals…
  21. … science and LD, as well as their Access options. Preprints can take the form…
  22. … researchers or researchers with less Access to funding to conduct small replication…
  23. … research results and open the Access to all elements of a research project to…
  24. Open Access refers to making research reports publicly available without a subscription…

What is Open Pedagogy?

  1. … definitely save money and increase Access to core instructional materials. Increasing…
  2. … it possible without the free Access and 4R permissions characteristic of open…
  3. … it possible without the free Access and 4R permissions characteristic of open…

A Look at the Future of Open Educational Resources

  1. … run on the desktop, or they may Access a service called Binder (https://mybinder.org/)…
  2. … APIs which allows developers to Access and leverage government datasets and…
  3. … license to reproduce the content. Access restrictions on content are therefore…
  4. … whole set of resources that are Accessible as educational resources.
  5. … like GitHub, individuals can Access this document, clone it, and have their…
  6. … exists, but that it will be easily Accessible as a service to the population…
  7. … how far they enable not only Access but active participation in a research community…
  8. … license that permits no-cost Access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others…
  9. … alt tag, so the image can be Accessible; the alt tag can be read by a screen…
  10. … product for sale, thus making Access to the OER contingent on purchasing the…
  11. … ‘pattern language’ of open Access algorithms and tools; proprietary tools…
  12. … improvements, location-based Access protocols are still based on a single point…
  13. … The idea is this: instead of Accessing an online resource using a URL the way…
  14. … actual computer program, it can Access live data as it runs. For example, a…
  15. … methods being used to store and Access digital resources on distributed and…
  16. Access to content that is stored on the cloud requires an Internet connection.…
  17. … easier to use to create open and Accessible resources.
  18. … hosting, we mean storing and Accessing our content on computers Accessible through…

Pragmatism vs. Idealism and the Identity Crisis of OER Advocacy

  1. … effort. For this group, unfettered Access for their students is highly desirable,…
  2. … also want to first ensure basic Access for all whereas idealists may think it…
  3. … one based on leasing 180-day Access to digital content delivery platforms. As…

Recognizing and Overcoming Obstacles: What It Will Take to Realize the Potential of OER

  1. Accessibility and Usability
  2. … resources, which results in poor Accessibility and usability of the OER. Because…
  3. … helps eliminate some economic and Access barriers, particularly for first-generation…
  4. … with similar content has been Accessed or downloaded 10-times more frequently.Footnote19 Which…
  5. … technologies to solve system-level Accessibility and usability issues before…
  6. … finished work, such as automated Accessibility and grammar checks. Those guides…
  7. … learning. OER allow students to Access essential information on the first day…
  8. … OER quality, issues surrounding Accessibility and usability, and perceived lack…
  9. … thereby capitalizing on an open Access bump.Footnote6 Furthermore, reducing…

Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

  1. Kuchma, I. (2008). Open Access, equity, and strong economy in developing and…
  2. … of OER, our publishing in open Access journals when we feel a journal is appropriate…
  3. Lewis, S. P. (2006). Open Access articles have a greater research impact than…
  4. … (2006). Citation advantage of open Access articles. PLoS Biol, 4(5), e157.
  5. Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002). Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-cbS
  6. … subscription-based constraints on Accessibility, providing OA will increase…
  7. … (2006). The effect of “Open Access” upon citation impact: An analysis of…
  8. … envisioned to occur within widely Accessible online venues such as social media,…
  9. Davis, P. (2006, March). Do open-Access articles really have a greater research…
  10. … The citation advantage of open-Access articles. Journal of the American Society…
  11. … digital sge: The role of open Access institutional repository. Canadian Journal…
  12. … may enable scholars efficient Access to up-to-date information, networks of…
  13. … be sufficient to pay for open Access journal publishing or self-archiving, independent…
  14. … engagement with such networks. Unequal Access to technology and/or lack of digital…
  15. … Self-selected or mandated, open Access increases citation impact for higher…
  16. … (2011). The development of open Access journal publishing from 1993 to 2009. PLoS…
  17. … the information that scholars Access online via algorithms that are intended…
  18. … noble goals (e.g., providing Access to scholars who could not otherwise afford…
  19. … justice. As the Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002) explains, the aim of…
  20. … participatory cultures, open Access publishing, information management, digital…
  21. … the aspirations of broadening Access to education and knowledge through openness.…
  22. … ease with which scholars can Access resources from a diverse range of sources…
  23. … provision of MOOCs, use of open Access journals, Accessibility and use of OER,…
  24. Researchers have also found open Access to be financially prudent for universities…
  25. … J., & Amin, M. (2007). Do open Access articles have greater citation impact?…
  26. … freely through online venues. Open Access (OA) publishing has grown rapidly…
  27. … reputation and status as well as Access to resources and social and practical…
  28. … comparison of the growth of open Access and how it increases research citation…
  29. … take three major forms: (1) open Access and open publishing, (2) open education,…
  30. Furlough, M. (2010). Open Access, education research, and discovery. The Teachers…
  31. … Coursera, Udacity, and EdX allow Access to educational opportunities, this argument…
  32. … capacity. Therefore, free and open Access to educational opportunity is a basic…
  33. … that open practices will broaden Access to education and knowledge, reduce costs,…
  34. … Search may give scholars quick Access to a wide array of open resources, the…
  35. … Comparing the impact of open Access (OA) vs. non-OA articles in the same journals. D-Lib…
  36. … including (1) publishing in open Access journals and submitting publications…
  37. … research. In N. Jacobs (Ed.), Open Access: Key strategic, technical and economic…
  38. Open Access Journals and Institutional Repositories
  39. … A., & Reimer, J. (2009). Open Access and global participation in science. Science,…
  40. … (2006). The economic impact of enhanced Access to research findings (Centre…
  41. … movements seek “to provide open Access to high quality digital educational…

A Brief Overview of Open Education

  1. … content may continually have Access. Revise allows users to change and edit…

Falling 4 OER

  1. … started, I thought it was free and Accessible and it is both of those things,…

Open Education Q & A

  1. -Free and Accessible by anyone, so it has an open license, is mostly in digital…

Observations and Learnings About OER

  1. … available to anyone who has internet Access worldwide. No ads, no collecting…

Continuous Improvement

Open Educational Resources

  1. … objects would still be around for Continuous Improvement and reuse.

Thoughts on Continuous Improvement and OER

  1. Learning Design and Continuous Improvement
  2. … sufficient – condition for Continuous Improvement.
  3. … learning design process and our Continuous Improvement process. The outcome alignment process…
  4. … we are now eager to open our Continuous Improvement process to all faculty members, with the…
  5. … alignment is fundamental to the Continuous Improvement process. With assessment items aligned…
  6. … make to content, publish our Continuous Improvement frameworks in open access journals, and…
  7. … with us in a community-based Continuous Improvement process. We’re calling this initiative…
  8. Engaging in the Continuous Improvement of OER in this manner allows us to make OER support learning…
  9. Continuous Improvement is an iterative cycle. In the case of OER, the Continuous Improvement
  10. Continuous Improvement of OER, then, is the iterative process of:
  11. … and organizations to adopt a Continuous Improvement mindset. Given the amount of effort and…
  12. … semester – also known as “Continuous Improvement” – is where we see some of the most…
  13. … specifically to support this Continuous Improvement process, and we have been refining our process…

Continuous Improvement of Instructional Materials

  1. … state of affairs by engaging in Continuous Improvement activities in their own instructional…
  2. … may not be able to engage in Continuous Improvement.
  3. … order to be able to engage in Continuous Improvement, instructional materials must be designed…
  4. … and expensive, today the entire Continuous Improvement process is within reach of those who…
  5. … student use, and the cycle of Continuous Improvement can begin again.
  6. … open educational resources for Continuous Improvement. The International Review of Research…
  7. … designers who want to engage in Continuous Improvement. Because our focus is on the improvement…
  8. The modern approach to Continuous Improvement designed for use in the context of online services…
  9. … succeeding (Learn). When this Continuous Improvement process is followed, instructional materials…
  10. … outcomes will be selected for Continuous Improvement, or they will confirm that there is still…
  11. … learning outcome was selected for Continuous Improvement work.

Continuous Improvement Dashboards

  1. Best Practices in Designing a Continuous Improvement LAD
  2. Continuous Improvement Learning Analytics Dashboards
  3. … teaching strategies are employed, a Continuous Improvement LAD attributes poor performance to…
  4. … been created to facilitate the Continuous Improvement of online learning resources. This emerging…
  5. To begin, Continuous Improvement LADs should display high-level summaries that can be viewed…
  6. … visualizations displayed on a Continuous Improvement LAD for a government website would likely…
  7. … design. As explained previously, Continuous Improvement LADs facilitate the Continuous Improvement
  8. Continuous Improvement LADs often require data integration, which is defined as “the process…
  9. Example of a Continuous Improvement Learning Analytics Dashboard
  10. … updates (Few, 2013). Designers of Continuous Improvement LADs should consider both the purpose…
  11. … emerging type of LAD, known as a Continuous Improvement LAD, helps content creators make incremental…
  12. … the problem of invalid data, Continuous Improvement LADs must clearly document iterative changes…
  13. … Demonstrating success: Web analytics and Continuous Improvement. Journal of Web Librarianship,…
  14. Designers of Continuous Improvement LADs may benefit from frequent communication and collaboration with…
  15. As a recent example of a Continuous Improvement LAD, in 2018, the Massachusetts Digital Services…
  16. … illustrates, designing an effective Continuous Improvement LAD can be a complex task that requires…
  17. … address a challenge unique to Continuous Improvement LADs; namely, the data used to inform actions…
  18. … performance applies neatly to Continuous Improvement LADs. Are students able to successfully…
  19. … the dashboard. In the case of Continuous Improvement LADs, metrics should be selected that measure…

A/B Testing on Open Textbooks

  1. … Books is the goal of supporting Continuous Improvement and improved perceptions of open textbook…
  2. … Strader, R., & Bodily, R. (2021). Continuous Improvement of instructional materials. In  J.…
  3. … open educational resources for Continuous Improvement. International Review of Research in Open…
  4. For these reasons, applying Continuous Improvement cycles to open educational resources is of…
  5. … of using A/B testing to inform Continuous Improvement and increase the perceived quality of…
  6. … ongoing research and practice with Continuous Improvement efforts and open educational resources.
  7. … research efforts in iterative, Continuous Improvement where a variety of strategies might be…
  8. … it would allow for rapid and Continuous Improvement (especially when coupled with the other…
  9. … open textbooks can also undergo Continuous Improvement efforts that iteratively improve their…
  10. … also at the implementation and Continuous Improvement phase. For instance, if a font size experiment…
  11. … places on using these data for Continuous Improvement is that we seem to need an absurdly large…
  12. … interested in engaging in data-driven Continuous Improvement efforts for several reasons. First,…

The Rise Framework

  1. Continuous Improvement: Combining OER and Learning Analytics
  2. Because the Continuous Improvement process can consume a significant amount of time and many…
  3. … using analytics to engage in Continuous Improvement of OER, we were unable to locate any publications…
  4. Continuous Improvement is a term indicating a feedback loop between learning analytics data and…
  5. The process known as Continuous Improvement relies on student data regarding assessment performance…
  6. … evaluation data) to enable the Continuous Improvement of educational content. First, we review…
  7. This Continuous Improvement process is also discussed by the Online Learning Initiative (OLI).…
  8. … the framework for supporting Continuous Improvement.
  9. … what resources to modify in the Continuous Improvement process, we also need to have legal permissions…

Recognizing and Overcoming Obstacles: What It Will Take to Realize the Potential of OER

  1. … revision to existing OER, fostering Continuous Improvement for curricula at many institutions.Footnote12 Scott…
  2. … redefined through the lens of Continuous Improvement.Footnote16 This lens ensures that the…
  3. … because these materials allow for Continuous Improvement and adaptability to students' needs,…

Licensing Information

  1. … particular, chapters that are noted as Copyrighted are included with permission…
  2. … the original publication. Any Copyright questions should be directed to original…

Defining the "Open" in Open Content and Open Educational Resources

  1. … educational resources" describe any Copyrightable work (traditionally excluding…

Copyright and Open Licensing

  1. Copyright and Technology
  2. The Copyright Symbol
  3. Gaining Copyright
  4. Losing Copyright
  5. … about any substantive use of Copyrighted materials.
  6. … an exception or limitation to Copyright law that allows you to use some Copyrighted…
  7. … had unintended consequences for Copyright law, and Copyright law has always been…
  8. … determine if a desired use of Copyright-restricted material would fall under fair…
  9. … that you only use as much of the Copyrighted material as is necessary to achieve…
  10. The Copyright symbol may be placed on a work to remind and inform users of its Copyright
  11. Copyright can only be applied to specific types of works (e.g., books, movies, images)…
  12. … the author of a work holds the Copyright on that work. The main exception to this…
  13. Since Copyright applies as soon as a work is created, authors do not need to go…
  14. … they probably do not violate Copyright):
  15. … your own work is a violation of Copyright. At minimum, you should attribute such…
  16. … generally provide a web link to Copyrighted material from your own materials without…
  17. … legal repercussions. Even if Copyright is violated, the risks associated with violation…
  18. Under the current US Copyright law, any Copyrighted work will automatically pass…
  19. Copyright is established in federal law and varies from country to country. In the…
  20. … chapter has provided an overview of Copyright, public domain, fair use, and open…
  21. … example of fair use in which Copyrighted materials may be used to critique the…
  22. Since they are not subject to Copyright protection, public domain works may be used…
  23. Copyright applies to any tangible or electronic creative work, such as a book, movie,…
  24. … or on this website would be a Copyright violation, because I did not seek the author's…
  25. Copyright generally means that others cannot use Copyrighted material without the…
  26. Copyright comes with a time limit. The purpose of this is that the U.S. government…
  27. … some institutions will allow Copyrighted materials to be used up to a certain percent…
  28. Copyright law varies from country to country, but in the US, Public Domain is a…
  29. … it online would be a blatant Copyright violation. Fair use becomes problematic…
  30. … fourth principle considers whether Copyrighted material negatively impacts the…
  31. … does not have a statement of Copyright status attached to it, you should generally…
  32. … (i.e., they probably violate Copyright):
  33. … balance between the restrictions of Copyright and the unfettered freedoms of public…
  34. … there is any question about your Copyright-restricted material use.
  35. … actual speed was reasonable. Like Copyright, this law sounds fairly fuzzy. Let's…

Excludability

  1. … also susceptible to piracy and Copyright infringements. This can result in many…

Thoughts on Continuous Improvement and OER

  1. … are educational materials whose Copyright licensing grants everyone free permission…

Continuous Improvement of Instructional Materials

  1. Technical Note: The Role of Copyright and File Formats
  2. … instructional materials. Because Copyright prohibits the creation of derivative…

A/B Testing on Open Textbooks

  1. … Comparing teacher evaluations of Copyright-restricted, open, and open/adapted textbooks.…
  2. … quality when compared to their Copyright-restricted alternatives (Kimmons, 2015;…

The Rise Framework

  1. … used in courses are subject to Copyright restrictions that make it illegal for…
  2. … with a commercial, traditionally Copyrighted learning resource.

Open Science in Education Sciences

  1. … sharing materials infringes on Copyright, for example, for commercialized assessments…

Open Pedagogy: The Importance of Getting it in the Air

  1. … academic freedom than traditionally Copyrighted materials do, we will significantly…
  2. Traditionally Copyrighted creative works are “immune” to the incredible capabilities…
  3. … choice to adopt traditionally Copyrighted textbooks and other materials, they are…
  4. … technology called the printing press, Copyright laws were created. Among other…
  5. … the antiquated (and now far overreaching) Copyright law reared its head. It looked…
  6. … ubiquity (even ambience?) of Copyright in our lives. An educator asking the question…
  7. … when you adopt traditionally Copyrighted materials. Earlier than infancy, this…

A Look at the Future of Open Educational Resources

  1. … governing content licensing and Copyright differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction…
  2. … contracts: the missing link in Copyright licensing? International Journal of Law…

Recognizing and Overcoming Obstacles: What It Will Take to Realize the Potential of OER

  1. … benefits that far exceed what Copyright-restricted materials can offer. Students…
  2. … example, one of his chapters on Copyright considerations for teachers that was…
  3. … benefits unmatched by traditional Copyrighted resources, yet most faculty still…

Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

  1. … equivalents and as issues of Copyright infringement and illegal sharing become…

Open Education Q & A

  1. -costs money, is under Copyright restrictions, can be in digital or hard copy form,…

Observations and Learnings About OER

  1. … now have the internet and such Copyright restrictions as were in place before the…

Creative Commons

Licensing Information

  1. … work is released under a CC BY (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0) License, which means…

Open Educational Resources

  1. … is also partially adapted from Creative Commons. But it also incorporates some things…
  2. … ability to "modify" a resource. Creative Commons has a "derivatives" clause but is otherwise…
  3. … copies of your modified versions". Creative Commons addresses sharing under the 'share…

Defining the "Open" in Open Content and Open Educational Resources

  1. … in open licenses. For example, Creative Commons, the most important provider of open licenses…

Copyright and Open Licensing

  1. Creative Commons
  2. More details on specific Creative Commons licenses are provided in the Attribution Quick…
  3. … All you need to do is place the Creative Commons license on your work or state that the…
  4. … licenses have been created by Creative Commons. Many works found on the internet are licensed…
  5. Creative Commons License Brief Explanation Table
  6. Creative Commons licenses come in a number of varieties. Two are merely restatements of…
  7. … For instance, if you include a Creative Commons image in a book you are writing, the attribution…
  8. … you are releasing it under. The Creative Commons site provides a wizard to create a statement…
  9. More details about the Creative Commons licenses may be found on the Creative Commons website.
  10. In general, copyleft and Creative Commons licenses value open practices in that they seek…

Open educational resources and college textbook choices

  1. … such a way (typically with a Creative Commons license) so as to allow for reuse and revision…

Continuous Improvement of Instructional Materials

  1. … under an open license (like a Creative Commons license) that grants the instructional…

Open Pedagogy: The Importance of Getting it in the Air

  1. … with 5R permissions (like the Creative Commons licenses do), those works becomes “susceptible”…

A Look at the Future of Open Educational Resources

  1. … example in the development of the Creative Commons open educational strategies that is…
  2. … time, an organization called Creative Commons introduced a set of licenses designed for…
  3. … licensing standards, such as Creative Commons, is often unclear and requires litigation…
  4. Creative Commons. (2019). Creative Commons Certificate. Retrieved from https://certificates.creativecommons.org/

Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

  1. … Foundation, Project Gutenberg, Creative Commons, Flat World Knowledge, and Saylor.org.…

Equity

Recognizing and Overcoming Obstacles: What It Will Take to Realize the Potential of OER

  1. … host OER (e.g., EdTech Books, Equity Press, PressBooks, OpenStax, CK-12) can…
  2. … group needs, thereby promoting Equity and differentiation for individuals and…

Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

  1. Kuchma, I. (2008). Open access, Equity, and strong economy in developing and…
  2. … relating to power, fairness, and Equity.
  3. … or unresponsive to calls for Equity, sharing, and transparency.

A Brief Overview of Open Education

  1. … quality and pedagogy, promote Equity, and ground everything in student learning.

Falling 4 OER

  1. … to OER I thought, what about Equity, inclusion, underrepresented voices, how…

Overview of Open Education

  1. … there's also the question of Equity that comes into play that is Equity being…

Defining the "Open" in Open Content and Open Educational Resources

  1. Legal Requirements and Restrictions Make Open Content and OER Less Open
  2. … open licenses provide users with Legal permission to engage in the 5R activities,…

Copyright and Open Licensing

  1. … classrooms without worrying about Legal repercussions. Even if copyright is…
  2. … copyright-restricted resources in a Legal manner. They should also be able…
  3. … required of the user to do so Legally. For instance, the Creative Commons Attribution…

Continuous Improvement of Instructional Materials

  1. Legal permission to create derivative works can be rendered ineffective if the…
  2. … instructional designers must have Legal permission to make changes to the instructional…

The Rise Framework

  1. … context where instructors have the Legal permissions necessary to change and…
  2. … copyright restrictions that make it ilLegal for faculty to continuously improve…
  3. … open, as the designer has the Legal ability to modify and adapt course content.…
  4. … process, we also need to have Legal permissions to modify and improve the content.…

Open Science in Education Sciences

  1. … researcher to protect their work Legally by assigning it a license, such as…

Open Pedagogy: The Importance of Getting it in the Air

  1. … possible their open licenses make Legally possible.
  2. … possible their copyright makes Legally impossible. Long before the internet…
  3. … capabilities of the internet. Adding Legal permission to technological capacity…

A Look at the Future of Open Educational Resources

  1. Chinoy, S. (2019). We Built a (Legal) Facial Recognition Machine for $60. New…

Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

  1. … copyright infringement and ilLegal sharing become more common, scholars have…

A Brief Overview of Open Education

  1. … and practices that are free of Legal, financial and technical barriers and…

Open License

Open Educational Resources

  1. If these projects used Open Licenses and open file formats, the digital objects would…

Defining the "Open" in Open Content and Open Educational Resources

  1. While Open Licenses provide users with legal permission to engage in the 5R activities,…
  2. … sometimes, or always be included in Open Licenses. For example, Creative Commons,…
  3. … 5R permissions by means of an "Open License" qualifies a creative work to be described…

Copyright and Open Licensing

  1. Public Domain or an Open License?
  2. … can release your it under an Open License or into the public domain. All you need…
  3. … appropriate. All work licensed under an Open License will generally require you to…
  4. Common Open Licenses
  5. … public domain, fair use, and Open Licenses. With this knowledge, teachers should feel…
  6. … others can do with their work. Open Licenses have arisen as a means for openly sharing…
  7. Releasing your work under an Open License is easy. Just place a statement somewhere…
  8. Open Licenses find a nice balance between the restrictions of copyright and the unfettered…

Continuous Improvement of Instructional Materials

  1. … materials must be licensed under an Open License (like a Creative Commons license)…

What is Open Pedagogy?

  1. … without the permissions granted by Open Licenses. This is the ultimate test of whether…
  2. … without the permissions granted by Open Licenses. This is the ultimate test of whether…

Open Pedagogy: The Importance of Getting it in the Air

  1. … creative works are distributed under Open Licenses that provide people with 5R permissions…

A Look at the Future of Open Educational Resources

  1. … or have been released under an Open License that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation…

Pragmatism vs. Idealism and the Identity Crisis of OER Advocacy

  1. … open education, are aware of Open Licenses, and are often advocates for OERs . . .…
  2. … one hand and the affordances of Open Licenses and digital technologies on the other…
  3. … have some awareness of OER, or Open Licenses, but they have a pragmatic approach toward…

Open Education Q & A

  1. … and resources with a free and Open License.
  2. … accessible by anyone, so it has an Open License, is mostly in digital format, still…

Public Domain

Defining the "Open" in Open Content and Open Educational Resources

  1. … source") that is either (1) in the Public Domain or (2) licensed in a manner that provides…

Copyright and Open Licensing

  1. Public Domain
  2. Public Domain or an Open License?
  3. Public Domain Repositories
  4. … under an open license or into the Public Domain. All you need to do is place the Creative…
  5. … discussed further in the case of Public Domain works).
  6. … photos taken) may be placed in the Public Domain by virtue of their employment.
  7. … to use it, release it into the Public Domain. If you want to receive credit (be cited)…
  8. … to release that work into the Public Domain by simply labelling the work (e.g., "this…
  9. … groups of works that are in the Public Domain:
  10. … movie McLintock! passed into the Public Domain in 1994.
  11. … will automatically pass into the Public Domain 70 years after the death of the author.…
  12. … Two are merely restatements of Public Domain, while the rest provide the author of…
  13. … provided an overview of copyright, Public Domain, fair use, and open licenses. With…
  14. … subject to copyright protection, Public Domain works may be used for anything and may…
  15. … copyrighted materials move into the Public Domain. Copyrighted materials may also lose…
  16. … country to country, but in the US, Public Domain is a technical term referring to…
  17. … and the unfettered freedoms of Public Domain, making them a good option for anyone…

A Look at the Future of Open Educational Resources

  1. … otherwise—that reside in the Public Domain or have been released under an open license…

Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

  1. … “resources that reside in the Public Domain or have been released under an intellectual…
  2. … they term the romance of the Public Domain,
  3. … M. (2004). The romance of the Public Domain. California Law Review, 92(5), 1331-1373.
  4. [c]ontemporary scholarship extolling the Public Domain presumes a landscape where each…

Open Education Q & A

  1. … allow for open context that is Public Domain and allows others to retain, revise, remix,…

Quality

Open educational resources and college textbook choices

  1. … of methods used, and the uneven Quality of the studies” (p. 3). If such heavily…
  2. … bias their perception of the Quality of the resources.
  3. … in the instances in which high-Quality Open Educational Resources (OER) are available…
  4. … the OER textbooks had the same Quality as traditional textbooks and nearly 40 %…
  5. … blogs featuring OER were of equal Quality to the blogs that did not feature OER,…
  6. … overall satisfaction with the Quality of the OER. An additional 17 % stated…
  7. … that investigate the perceived Quality of OER textbooks and their efficacy in…
  8. … have proven efficacy and trusted Quality (Allen and Seaman 2014). The purpose…
  9. … find that OER are comparable in Quality to traditional learning resources, and…
  10. … are available to locate high-Quality open textbooks, a subset of OER often used…
  11. … resources had a higher “trusted Quality” than OER (however nearly two-thirds…
  12. … 56 % said they were the same Quality; 41 % said they were better than typical…
  13. … comments do you have regarding the Quality of the open materials used in your…
  14. … commercial textbooks when high-Quality, free and openly-licensed textbooks are…
  15. … had about the same “trusted Quality” as traditional resources, 26.3 % said…
  16. … and/or student perceptions of OER Quality, or educational outcomes. Fourth, the…
  17. … curricular effectiveness: Judging the Quality of K-12 mathematics evaluations.…
  18. … Thanos, K. (2013a). The cost and Quality of open textbooks: Perceptions of community…

Continuous Improvement of Instructional Materials

  1. … most important measure of the Quality of instructional materials is the degree…

Continuous Improvement Dashboards

  1. … and content creators can improve the Quality of their content. Rather than attributing…
  2. … educational content creators about the Quality and performance of educational…
  3. … findability, (2) outcomes, (3) content Quality, and (4) user satisfaction (Desrosiers,…
  4. … collect and report data about the Quality and performance of their content, content…
  5. … point in time (e.g., current Quality rating of an educational video) whereas…
  6. … about SNAP benefits had a Content Quality score of 2, the content creator could…
  7. … or completed? How do students rate the Quality of the resource? Put simply,…

A/B Testing on Open Textbooks

  1. … changes that resulted in small Quality differences, then as these changes were…
  2. … perceptions of open textbook Quality. Toward this end, the system provides A/B…
  3. … accessibility, usability, and Quality, providing authors with tools to easily…
  4. … at the end of every chapter, Quality assurance surveys provided results to authors…
  5. Kimmons, R. (2015). OER Quality and adaptation in K-12: Comparing teacher evaluations…
  6. … who anonymously answered the Quality assurance measure at the end of the chapter,…
  7. … textbooks are of relatively poor Quality when compared to their copyright-restricted…
  8. … Amazon or Yelp to determine the Quality of products or services, even if the…
  9. … hoc bivariate correlation of Quality measures, predicted reads, and textual complexity…
  10. Screenshot of a Chapter Quality Display for a Chapter
  11. … improvement and increase the perceived Quality of open textbooks. Relying upon…
  12. … perceived open textbook chapter Quality. It is no secret that educational research…
  13. To improve perceived Quality of the targeted chapters, format- and content-based…
  14. … decisions for improving perceived Quality would not vary by reader category.
  15. … relying on self-report data like Quality ratings may still have a place (especially…
  16. … difference is to help improve the Quality of these resources. Some initial work…
  17. … mildly influence overall chapter Quality perceptions, let alone aggregate effects.
  18. … experimental flight readers answered the Quality survey, which means that even…
  19. … photos is predicted to reduce user Quality perceptions of your chapters by 11.5%”).
  20. Because perceptions of poor Quality are a major barrier to open textbook adoption…
  21. … usefulness, usability, and perceived Quality of open resources.

The Rise Framework

  1. … educational resources (OER) and Quality assurance in universities in Nigeria.…
  2. … bling: An evaluation of textbook Quality and usability in open educational resources…
  3. … permissions to engage in continuous Quality-improvement processes such as incremental…

Open Science in Education Sciences

  1. … CONSORT checklist improve the Quality of reports of randomised controlled trials?…
  2. … establish indicators of research Quality for correlational, group design, single…
  3. … guidelines has led to an increase in Quality of medical clinical trial reporting…
  4. … Stroup, D. F. (1996). Improving the Quality of reporting of randomized controlled…
  5. … S. W. (2005). Evaluating the Quality of evidence from correlational research…
  6. … C., Innocenti, M. S. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental…
  7. … executed increasing the overall Quality of the work and transparency about research…
  8. … different direct or distal, high-Quality replications across three different…
  9. By focusing on producing high-Quality research and adhering to mandates from funding…

Open Pedagogy: The Importance of Getting it in the Air

  1. … turn, significantly increase the Quality (through open pedagogy) and affordability…

Pragmatism vs. Idealism and the Identity Crisis of OER Advocacy

  1. … the intention of improving its Quality, relevance or currency. (pp. 84-85)
  2. … their free use, reliability and Quality. (p. 85)

Recognizing and Overcoming Obstacles: What It Will Take to Realize the Potential of OER

  1. Perceptions of Quality
  2. … faculty should be to provide Quality learning opportunities to as many individuals…
  3. … redefine our understanding of Quality is by looking at student involvement with…
  4. … the opportunity to redefine the Quality of textbooks (and other resources) by…
  5. … support, technological tools, Quality, skill, and time prevents many educators…
  6. … open textbooks as being poor in Quality.Footnote10 Although this perception…
  7. … us to rethink what we mean by "Quality," they may also empower us to rethink…
  8. … creates more accessible and higher-Quality OER that can benefit students with…
  9. Similarly, OER allow textbook Quality to be redefined through the lens of continuous…
  10. … OER should be designed to make Quality a top priority. Whether institutions choose…
  11. … barriers—including perceived lack of OER Quality, issues surrounding accessibility…

Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

  1. … Democratization, Human Rights, EQuality, and Justice
  2. … “to provide open access to high Quality digital educational material” (Caswell,…
  3. … who value ideals of democracy, eQuality, human rights, and justice.
  4. … the ideals of democratization, eQuality, and justice or whether organizations…
  5. … democratization, human rights, eQuality, and justice, it is presently unclear…
  6. … increases citation impact for higher Quality research. Plos One, 5(10), e13636.
  7. … democratization, fundamental human rights, eQuality, and justice. As the Budapest…

A Brief Overview of Open Education

  1. … use the materials without cost. Quality is another benefit of OER. Open materials…
  2. … take practical steps, emphasize Quality and pedagogy, promote equity, and ground…
  3. … does not magically change the Quality or effectiveness of the book. However,…

What I Know Now About Open Education

  1. … open content to make it higher Quality and more practical, more inexpensive to…
  2. … open is usually equal or better Quality than traditional materials.
  3. … and so you might be unsure of Quality.
  4. … best way to provide effective Quality education to our students, which should…
  5. … It's hard to know if it's good Quality or not. There's a wide variety of open…

Open Education Q & A

  1. … people being concerned about Quality.
  2. … form, most of the information is Quality because it has been reviewed several…
  3. … open source websites which have Quality books and resources with a free and open…
  4. … by anyone does that mean the Quality is lower, or how much time will instructors…
  5. … digital format, still contains Quality information, and can be edited by anyone…
  6. … can be edited by anyone is the Quality lower?

Observations and Learnings About OER

  1. … leverage OER to address completion, Quality, and affordability challenges, especially…

Overview of Open Education

  1. … education that's perhaps the Quality is lesser there's a lot of oer options out…