CoverI. Intellectual Property1. James Boyle, “The Why of Intellectual Property”2. James Boyle, “Thomas Jefferson Writes a Letter”II. Free Software3. Richard Stallman, “What is Free Software?”4. Richard Stallman, “The GNU Project”III. Open Source5. Eric Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar”6. Eric Raymond, “Homesteading the Noosphere”IV. Open Content7. David Wiley, “About the Open Publication License”8. David Wiley, “Open Content: The First Decade”V. Defining Free9. Franklin D. Roosevelt, “The Four Freedoms Speech”10. Richard Stallman, “Four Freedoms”11. Erik Moller, “Freedom Defined”12. Bruce Perens, “Debian Free Software Guidelines”VI. Defining Open13. Bruce Perens, “The Open Source Definition”14. David Wiley, “Open Content”15. OKFN, “Open Definition”16. David Wiley, “The Access Compromise and the 5th R”17. David Wiley, “Open Definitions, Specificity, and Avoiding Bright Lines”VII. Open Source Software Licenses18. GNU General Public License19. BSD License20. MIT License21. Apache License22. Comparison of Open Source LicensesVIII. Open Content Licenses23. Creative Commons Licenses24. GNU Free Documentation License25. Open Publication LicenseIX. Open CourseWare26. Charles Vest, “Disturbing the Educational Universe: Universities in the Digital Age — Dinosaurs or Prometheans?”27. History of MIT OCW28. MIT OCW Evaluation Report (2005)29. MIT Reaches OCW Milestone30. David Wiley, “OpenCourseWars”X. Open Educational Resources31. UNESCO Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing32. Cape Town Open Education Declaration33. UNESCO, “2012 Paris OER Declaration”34. Wiley, Bliss, and McEwen, “Open Educational Resources: OER Literature Review”35. Boston Consulting Group, “Open Educational Resources: The OER Ecosystem”XI. Open Textbooks36. Nicole Allen, “Open Textbooks: A Cover to Cover Solution: How Open Textbooks are the Path to Affordability”37. Frydenberg and Matkin, “Open Textbooks: Why? What? How? When?”XII. Research in Open Education38. OER Research Hub39. Open Education Group40. Marshall Smith, “Ruminations on Research on OER”XIII. The Economics of Open41. Yochai Benkler, “Coases Penguin, or Linux and The Nature of the Firm”42. Yochai Benkler, “Common Wisdom: Peer Production of Educational Materials”43. Yochai Benkler, “‘Sharing Nicely’: On shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production”XIV. Open Business Models44. Eric Raymond, “The Magic Cauldron”45. OSI, “Open Source Case for Business”46. Various, “A Summer 2014 Conversation on Business Models in Open Education”
11

Erik Moller, “Freedom Defined”

Read the article at https://edtechbooks.org/-dop

Background

As proponents of Stallman’s vision of freedom saw what was happening with open content, they attempted to reclaim the conversation by beginning to speak about “free content.” (This is one place in the historical record where open came first.) However, there was significant ambiguity around the phrase free content, particularly as it was used by participants in Wikimedia projects.

The Freedom Defined work was initiated by Erik Möller as a means to resolve the ambiguity about the phrase free content. It was inspired by the Free Software Definition. Helpful feedback was provided during the initial authoring process (in this chronological order) by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation, Lawrence Lessig of Creative Commons, and Angela Beesley, board member of the Wikimedia Foundation and Vice President of Wikia, Inc. Benjamin Mako Hill, who had been pursuing similar goals (as exemplified in his paper “Towards a Standard of Freedom“) quickly joined the project and helped to improve the definition even before the launch of the open editing phase, which occured in 2006.

Key Points

  1. the freedom to use the work and enjoy the benefits of using it
  2. the freedom to study the work and to apply knowledge acquired from it
  3. the freedom to make and redistribute copies, in whole or in part, of the information or expression
  4. the freedom to make changes and improvements, and to distribute derivative works

Discussion Questions

  1. How did Stallman’s Four Freedoms influence this definition?
  2. The Free Culture Licenses seem to have the same rules as Stallman’s Free Software, are they the Content arm of Free Software?

Additional Resources

Licenses. Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-xTd

Portal:Index. Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-isTL

Freedom. Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-dop

Free Software Foundation. (2013).  What is Free Software. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-awLr

Four Freedoms. Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-RUJE

History of Freedom: Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-MuV