CoverI. Intellectual Property1. James Boyle, “The Why of Intellectual Property”2. James Boyle, “Thomas Jefferson Writes a Letter”II. Free Software3. Richard Stallman, “What is Free Software?”4. Richard Stallman, “The GNU Project”III. Open Source5. Eric Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar”6. Eric Raymond, “Homesteading the Noosphere”IV. Open Content7. David Wiley, “About the Open Publication License”8. David Wiley, “Open Content: The First Decade”V. Defining Free9. Franklin D. Roosevelt, “The Four Freedoms Speech”10. Richard Stallman, “Four Freedoms”11. Erik Moller, “Freedom Defined”12. Bruce Perens, “Debian Free Software Guidelines”VI. Defining Open13. Bruce Perens, “The Open Source Definition”14. David Wiley, “Open Content”15. OKFN, “Open Definition”16. David Wiley, “The Access Compromise and the 5th R”17. David Wiley, “Open Definitions, Specificity, and Avoiding Bright Lines”VII. Open Source Software Licenses18. GNU General Public License19. BSD License20. MIT License21. Apache License22. Comparison of Open Source LicensesVIII. Open Content Licenses23. Creative Commons Licenses24. GNU Free Documentation License25. Open Publication LicenseIX. Open CourseWare26. Charles Vest, “Disturbing the Educational Universe: Universities in the Digital Age — Dinosaurs or Prometheans?”27. History of MIT OCW28. MIT OCW Evaluation Report (2005)29. MIT Reaches OCW Milestone30. David Wiley, “OpenCourseWars”X. Open Educational Resources31. UNESCO Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing32. Cape Town Open Education Declaration33. UNESCO, “2012 Paris OER Declaration”34. Wiley, Bliss, and McEwen, “Open Educational Resources: OER Literature Review”35. Boston Consulting Group, “Open Educational Resources: The OER Ecosystem”XI. Open Textbooks36. Nicole Allen, “Open Textbooks: A Cover to Cover Solution: How Open Textbooks are the Path to Affordability”37. Frydenberg and Matkin, “Open Textbooks: Why? What? How? When?”XII. Research in Open Education38. OER Research Hub39. Open Education Group40. Marshall Smith, “Ruminations on Research on OER”XIII. The Economics of Open41. Yochai Benkler, “Coases Penguin, or Linux and The Nature of the Firm”42. Yochai Benkler, “Common Wisdom: Peer Production of Educational Materials”43. Yochai Benkler, “‘Sharing Nicely’: On shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production”XIV. Open Business Models44. Eric Raymond, “The Magic Cauldron”45. OSI, “Open Source Case for Business”46. Various, “A Summer 2014 Conversation on Business Models in Open Education”

Boston Consulting Group, “Open Educational Resources: The OER Ecosystem”

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In late 2012, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, one of the major benefactors of the Open Educational Resource movement, commissioned the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to do an evaluation of the OER ecosystem in an effort to determine its current state and its progress toward mainstream adoption. The BCG compiled primary and secondary research, in addition to conducting extensive interviews of roughly 375 OER experts and participants, teachers and educators. The OER Ecosystem is the summary report of their findings.

Key Points

The key research components included reviewing the role of OER, the role of the teacher, and the level of disruption, contrasted with how OER enriches existing resources, how OER is used as primary material, and how OER helps “flip” the classroom. The overall trend is that OER has some green shoots beginning to sprout but more resources are needed in order for it to become mainstream.

Confusion exists about teachers’ intellectual property rights. Do they have the authority and autonomy to share if they want to?
Why aren’t teachers using OER?

  1. Time to remix resources and logistics of getting someone to cover classes etc.
  2. Design knowledge

Discussion Questions

  1. What is the number one strategy you would employ to make OER more mainstream in K-12, and in higher ed?
  2. Which stakeholders are best positioned to escort OER into the mainstream population and why? Policy makers, administrators, educators, funders?
  3. Why is there more OER in K-12 science and math? Is OER in the arts an important area of focus? Why or why not?
  4. How does one unequivocally determine what the “best” OER looks like? For example, who decides which OER lesson on the Civil War is really the best? Explain how you arrive at your answer, and defend it.

Additional Resources