CoverAbout This Book1. Introduction to Project Management1.1. Project Management Defined1.2. Project Definition and Context1.3. Key Skills of the Project Manager1.4. Introduction to the Project Management Knowledge Areas2. Project Profiling2.1. Using a Project Profile2.2. Project Profiling Models2.3. Complex Systems and the Darnall-Preston Complexity Index2.4. Darnall-Preston Complexity Index Structure2.5. Using the Darnall-Preston Complexity Index to Measure Organizational Complexity3. Project Phases and Organization3.1. Project Phases and Organization3.2. Project Phases and Organization4. Understanding and Meeting Client Expectations4.1. Including the Client4.2. Understanding Values and Expectations4.3. Dealing with Problems5. Working with People on Projects5.1. Working with Individuals5.2. Working with Groups and Teams5.3. Creating a Project Culture6. Communication Technologies6.1. Types of Communication6.2. Selecting Software7. Starting a Project7.1. Project Selection7.2. Project Scope7.3. Project Start-Up7.4. Alignment Process7.5. Communications Planning8. Project Time Management8.1. Types of Schedules8.2. Elements of Time Management8.3. Critical Path and Float8.4. Managing the Schedule8.5. Project Scheduling Software9. Costs and Procurement9.1. Estimating Costs9.2. Managing the Budget9.3. Identifying the Need for Procuring Services9.4. Procurement of Goods9.5. Selecting the Type of Contract9.6. Procurement Process10. Managing Project Quality10.1. Standards of Quality and Statistics10.2. Development of Quality as a Competitive Advantage10.3. Relevance of Quality Programs to Project Quality10.4. Planning and Controlling Project Quality10.5. Assuring Quality11. Managing Project Risk11.1. Defining Risk11.2. Risk Management Process11.3. Project Risk by Phases11.4. Project Risk and the Project Complexity Profile12. Project Closure12.1. Project Closure

Project Profiling Models

Keywords: Management Tools, Planning, Project Tools


  1. Understand different methods of typing projects.
man following a design plan
Image by PehMed2020


Shenhar and Dvir observed that the project execution approach was connected to the project type. The study identified different management patterns associated with project type as well as different management tools and practices. As the project system scope became more complex and the system scope of the project became larger, more sophisticated management tools were put in place to reduce project uncertainty. As project technology increased, project managers became more invested in processes to manage technical issues such as redesign and testing. As projects increased in system scope, project managers became more invested in formal planning and control issues. In later research, Shenhar2 developed recommendations for adjusting the project management approach based on the project typology. For example, project managers will use more risk management techniques (see Chapter 11) when the technological uncertainty is high.

Robert Youker3 identified basic differences in project types. Among the attributes he used were the uncertainty and risk, level of sophistication of the workers, the level of detail in the planning, the newness of the technology, and the time pressure. Youker also looked at project size, duration, geographic location, number of workers, cost, complexity, urgency, and organizational design as attributes that help determine a project profile.


  • There are many different typology methods to consider when characterizing a project in order to meet its specific needs and scope. Some things to consider might be technological uncertainty and complexity of scope, risk, worker sophistication, location, urgency, and organizational design.

[1] Aaron J. Shenhar and Dov Dvir, “Toward a Typological Theory of Project Management,”Research Policy 25 (1996): 607–32.

[2] Aaron J. Shenhar, Adapting Your Project Management Style: The Key to Project Success (Hoboken, NJ: Stevens Institute of Technology, 1999).

[3] Robert Youker, “Defining the Hierarchy of Project Objectives,” IPMA Conference (Slovenia: American Society for Advancement of Project Management, 1998).


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