APA 7 Job Aid

Basic Formatting Requirements


Element Formatting
Margins 1" on all sides
Line Spacing Double-space (without extra line breaks between paragraphs and headings)
Paragraph Indentation Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5" (use the indentation feature rather than manual tabs or spaces)
Paragraph Alignment Left-align

Font Style

Style Group Options
Serif 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or 10-point Computer Modern
Sans-Serif 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode


Level Formatting
1 Centered, Bold, Title Case
2 Flush Left, Bold, Title Case
3 Flush Left, Bold, Italic, Title Case
4 Indented, Bold, Title Case, Ending with Period.
5 Indented Bold, Italic, Title Case, Ending with Period.

Headings are best utilized by using your word processor's built-in style system. Here is a simple Google Docs template with the styles preset so that all you need to do is highlight your heading and apply the appropriate style to apply the proper formatting. Using styles is also preferable to manually formatting each heading because it allows the word processor to identify headings for the purpose of constructing outlines and tables of contents.


Author Count Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation  
One (Kimmons, 2020) Kimmons (2020) found that...  
Two (Kimmons & Veletsianos, 2019) Kimmons and Johnstun (2019) argued that...  
Three or more (Kimmons et al., 2020) Kimmons et al. (2020) suggested that...  

Parenthetical citations are used within paragraphs to cite the source of a claim. An example of this would be the following:

Current trends in educational technology reveal that exploring new technologies may be prioritized over addressing persistent educational problems (Kimmons, 2020).

Narrative citations are similar to parenthetical citations but are mainly used if the name of the author is important for adding gravity to the claim or for making clear that the claim is that of the cited author and not your own. An example of this would be the following:

Kimmons and Johnstun (2019) argue that the multihyphenate approach to navigating paradigms in educational technology is superior to alternatives.


References are included at the end of your paper to provide full details for any parenthetical or narrative citations that were included. References should be formatted with a hanging indent of 0.5".

Journal Article

Surname, F. M., & Surname, F. M. (2020). Journal article title goes here. Journal Title Goes Here, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.10.10/10.10.10

In this example, the number 1 is the journal volume number and the number 2 is the journal issue number. If there is no issue number, exclude the number and the parentheses.

If a DOI is available, always include it at the end of the reference as a complete URL.


Surname, F. M. (2020). Book title goes here. Publisher Name.

Book Chapter from Edited Volume

Surname, F. M. (2020). Chapter title goes here. In F. M. Surname & F. M. Surname (Eds.), Book title (pp. 23-67). Publisher Name.


Author Count Reference (Journal Article)
Kimmons, R. (2020). Current trends in educational technology research and practice. TechTrends, 64(6).
Kimmons, R., & Johnstun, K. (2019). Navigating paradigms in educational technology. TechTrends, 63(5), 631-641.
Three to Twenty
Kimmons, R., Graham, C., & West, R. (2020). The PICRAT model for technology integration in teacher preparation. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 20(1).


Direct quotations should generally be used sparingly (relying instead on paraphrasing), but they are sometimes useful for preserving the exact wording used by a cited author or to ensure that you are not misrepresenting an author's claim (especially when you intend to argue against it).

When including a direct quotation, you should encapsulate it in quotation marks and include the page number (p. XX) or paragraph number (para. XX) of the quote within the citation. An example of this would be the following:

The authors argued that paradigmatic plurality "may be a necessary reality of addressing complex educational problems" (Kimmons & Johnstun, 2019, p. 632).

Lengthy quotations of 40 words or more should not be encapsulated in quotation marks, however, and should represent their own block of text with a 0.5" indentation on the left. An example of this would be the following:

Though the hard sciences may be more amenable to a single-paradigm model (e.g., the Earth and the Sun cannot both be the center of the universe), social sciences and endeavors like education will exhibit greater plurality as professionals harbor fundamental disagreements about morality, people, and the social world. Either way, we have not, as a field, adequately grappled with this plurality nor articulated intentional ways for professionals to navigate it. (Kimmons & Johnstun, 2019, p. 632)

Suggested Citation

(2018). APA 7 Job Aid: Basic Formatting Requirements. In & (Eds.), Rapid Academic Writing. EdTech Books. https://edtechbooks.org/rapidwriting/apa_formatting_job_aid

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