Constructivism is a learning theory that emphasizes the role of the learner in creating knowledge through interaction with their environment and peers. Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, and John Dewey are three influential psychologists who contributed to constructivist theory. They believed that learning is an active process where individuals construct their own understanding through experience and reflection.

Piaget proposed that knowledge is constructed through a process of accommodation and assimilation, where learners adapt and modify existing knowledge to fit new experiences. Vygotsky emphasized the importance of social interaction in learning, arguing that learners can develop higher levels of cognitive ability through collaboration with more knowledgeable peers. Dewey focused on inquiry-based learning, encouraging learners to engage in real-world activities and reflect on their experiences to deepen their understanding.

While constructivism has limitations, such as the potential for groupthink or the need for more time-consuming implementation, it offers a unique perspective on learning that emphasizes the learner's agency and creativity in the acquisition of knowledge. By providing learners with opportunities to actively construct their own understanding through reflection and collaboration, constructivist teaching can lead to deeper and more meaningful learning outcomes.