Examining the Intersection Between Instructional Design Decision-Making and Problem-Solving of Ill-Structured Problems through Bounded Rationality
The theory of bounded rationality suggests that individuals engage in solving problems by making decisions by relying on their own cognitive abilities and limitations, information available to them at the time of deciding, and time constraints associated with making a decision. In this paper, I will argue that bounded rationality provides a necessary theoretical construct to further examine the intersection between decision-making and problem-solving of ill-structured problems in the field of learning, design, and technology.
Improving the Design of Learning Interaction
Learning design and technology (LTD) researchers can use the Window of Interaction framework to provide context, explanation, and critique to the field. This framework provides the opportunity to analyze the technological characteristics of different types of interactive objects, including learning objects and learning environments, while keeping in mind pedagogical affordances. Using the framework enables LDT researchers to establish a link between interactive features of learning objects and learning goals and find better ways to design interactive learning experiences.
Designing for Productive Disciplinary Engagement and Responsive Assessment with Situated Cognition and Expansive Framing
This paper summarizes over two decades of design-based research that insistently draws on situative theories of cognition. This research is consistent with the current focus of AECT and the AECT Research and Theory Division. This focus primarily concerns enduring problems in education and only secondarily concerns the technologies used to help address such problems. The first decade of research consisted of collaborations with leading innovators in multimedia and immersive learning. This resulted in a “multi-level” model of assessment that balanced formative and summative assessment, balanced extrinsic and intrinsic motivators, and boosted performance without “teaching to the test.” The second decade primarily concerned online contexts and included extended research of “open digital badges” and other web-enabled digital credentials. Embedding the design principles from Randi Engle (1965-2012) for productive disciplinary engagement and expansive framing resulted in a comprehensive framework called Participatory Learning and Assessment (PLA). This research qualified widely-held assumptions about “authentic” and “real world” instruction to address enduring problems such as online instructor “burnout,” student social isolation, synchronous vs. asynchronous learning, and secure online assessment. Recent and current efforts extended these ideas to address historical and continuing inequities in education and help define a new consensus on our theories of learning transfer.
The Theory of Learning in Micro
The Theory of Learning in Micro is a proposed theory on how people micro-learn. This theory is based on the hypothesis that learning is a continual process better supported with smaller, more focused learning resources and activities. Based on two main beliefs, knowledge and design, The Theory of Learning in Micro was crafted as a foundation for how people learn in micro, providing a set of beliefs and assumptions for the microlearning design and development community.
Understanding Empathy in Instructional Design
Empathy, the ability to vicariously imagine, understand, and emote another’s perspective, has become an increasingly critical soft skill for instructional designers. However, theories about how instructional designers build empathy with users remain scarce. This article aims to trace the theoretical roots of empathy in instructional design practices and establish a solid understanding of empathy and empathic design in this setting.