CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Essay Shape and OrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsA Shifting StructureExample EssayTimed Writing 2Integrated Writing 2Descriptive EssaysExample Descriptive EssayPrewritingWriting: Word ChoiceSources: QuotingRevisingRevise a Descriptive EssayCreative WritingTimed Writing 3Integrated Writing 3Personal StatementsExample Personal StatementTypes of Personal StatementsOrganization For Comprehensive Personal StatementOrganization for Personal Statement with PromptRevisingWriting: DevelopmentExample Personal StatementMini-Writing: Formal EmailsTimed Writing 4Integrated Writing 4Problem-Solution EssaysExample Problem-Solution EssayPrewritingWriting: UnitySources: SummarizingRevisingRevise a Problem-Solution EssayMini-Writing: ReviewsTimed Writing 5Integrated Writing 5Argumentative EssaysExample Argumentative EssayPrewritingWriting: CohesionSources: ParaphrasingRevisingRevise an Argumentative EssayReflectionsTimed Writing 6Integrated Writing 6Using SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsReference Page

A Shifting Structure

This structure is sometimes referred to as a traditional "five-paragraph essay." When you write a five-paragraph essay, your organization is very predictable. There is always one introduction paragraph with the thesis at the end, body paragraphs that each develop one topic related to the thesis, and a conclusion paragraph that begins with a restatement of the thesis. This structure is excellent to use when you write short essays (e.g., essays for AA/AB, the TOEFL independent essay, etc.).

By properly using a five-paragraph essay structure, you show that you understand the basics of American English writing. This foundation is important because once you can write a solid five-paragraph essay, then you can expand it without confusing your reader.

In longer academic essays, the structure has to become more flexible. Imagine an eight-page research paper with only five paragraphs. The topic and the length is too complex for a five-paragraph structure. Longer essays may have more than one paragraph for the introduction, headings may signal major parts of the essay, or one topic may be developed over several paragraphs. The same general principles apply to longer writing that you have learned for shorter essays, but you should not try to fit an eight-page research paper into five massive paragraphs.

Do not be surprised if your college writing teachers ask you to stop using the five-paragraph essay for your writing assignments. One of the most essential steps to success when you write in college is to clearly understand the professor's expectations. If your professor shows you a sample of what you need to write, you should use the sample to help you understand what your professor expects.

Your college teachers may ask you to write something other than an essay (e.g., a literary analysis, reflection, chapter summary, etc.). Often, these other types of writing assignments will have an entirely different structure. This book emphasizes the importance of analyzing model writing because that will help you know how to write whatever you need to write in college, regardless of the structure of the assignment.

Consider how the following essay starts to break the patterns of a typical five-paragraph essay. The structure is less predictable, but it still follows the same general principles of good essay writing that you have learned. Click to see the example essay on the next page.


1 Exercise: Analyze Example Essay

Consider how the essay in the following chapter of this book starts to break the patterns of a typical five-paragraph essay. The structure is less predictable, but it still follows the same general principles of good essay writing that you have learned.