Paraphrasing is restating something. It is very similar to a summary; the most obvious difference between them is length. You typically use summaries for text that is too long to paraphrase. A paraphrase will usually be approximately the same length as the original source text. The page number is not required in the in-text citation for a paraphrase, but it is encouraged.
An effective paraphrase—
- is written in your own words.
- keeps the original meaning (does not add or take away important ideas or relationships).
- does not keep the structure of the original while only changing some words for synonyms.
- is approximately the same length as the original.
Below is an excerpt from a website article that discusses literacy and communication in the digital age
"You can reach anyone, anywhere, instantly, and you can communicate with them in ways we didn't imagine even a decade ago."
Communication today is very different from communication ten years ago and is not limited by person, place, or time (Van Camp, 2016).
General steps for writing a paraphrase:
- Read or listen to what you will paraphrase.
- Divide the sentence into parts and make sure you understand what each part means.
- Identify any logical connectors (e.g., because, and, while, in contrast, etc.).
- Rephrase each of the parts of the sentence (using synonyms, word forms, etc.).
- Put the sentence back together.
- Compare the paraphrase to the original.
Read/listen to the source
As with a summary, before you can write an effective paraphrase, you need to have a solid understanding of the source text. You should look up any new words in the original text if possible.
Divide the sentence
Many English sentences combine clauses and phrases together, and you will need to understand each of the clauses before you can paraphrase a sentence. Start by dividing the sentence into clauses (a clause has both a subject and a verb). If you can't look at the sentence and find the main verbs quickly, you can try crossing out or simplifying phrases that don't have verbs or that you can identify as adjective clauses. Remember that your goal is to find the verbs so you can find the clauses.
Identify any logical connectors
The way that two clauses are joined shows you the relationship that they have. Here are some common connectors and their general relationship:
|cause/effect:||because, since, due to, as a result, consequently, thus, therefore|
|contrast:||however, but, in contrast, on the other hand, whereas, although|
|example: ||for example, for instance|
|time/order: ||when, before, after, while, during, since, until, then, next, last, first, second|
Rephrase each part
Here are some strategies for rephrasing clauses and phrases. Most paraphrases combine several strategies.
- Use synonyms
- EX: the communication styles > methods of communicating
- Use equal transition words/conjunctions (if possible)
- Change from active to passive voice
- EX: Nearly everyone uses the internet. > The internet is used by almost everyone.
- Change word forms
- EX: Communication is difficult. > One difficulty people experience is communication.
- Change the grammatical subject of the sentence or clause
- EX: You can be misunderstood. > Misunderstandings happen.
- Change an adjective into an adjective clause
- EX: new types of relationships > types of relationships that are new
Return to the example given and look at how each part of the sentence was changed.
Put the sentence back together
After you have changed the sentence parts, you can put it back together. Many people change the order of the clauses at this point. Make sure that the structure of the paraphrase is different than the original structure.
Compare to the original
Make sure you changed the structure, but not the meaning.
You now know how to use sources in three ways. You can use quotes, paraphrases, and summaries. These ways to use sources are similar in some ways and different in others.
|A paraphrase||the source in your own words and about the same length as the original|
|A quote||the source in the author's exact words|
|A paraphrase||the source in your own words and about the same length as the original|
|A summary||the source in your own words and shorter than the original|
Exercise 1: Identify a good paraphrase
Choose the best paraphrase for the original quote:
“One of the most tangible examples of Andrew Carnegie’s philanthropy was the founding of 2,509 libraries...” (Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, n.d.).
- One of the greatest evidences of his philanthropy was the establishment of 2,509 libraries (Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, n.d.).
- Carnegie built many libraries (Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, n.d.).
- While Carnegie was more famous for other things, his philanthropic life is evident in building libraries (Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, n.d.).
- The many libraries that he established are a physical testament to his philanthropy (Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, n.d.).
- Carnegie decided to be a philanthropist because he loved building libraries (Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy, n.d.).
“We understand the importance of religious institutions to their congregants and believe that religious freedom is a cherished American value and constitutional right" (DelBene, 2022).
- Religoius freedom is America's crowning value and right enabled by its Constitution (DelBene, 2002).
- Most Americans highly value their religious institutions because of their religious freedome (DelBene, 2002).
- Says DelBene (2002), church-goers value their religious freedom as a constitutional right.
- DelBene (2002) acknowledges the significance of religious freedom in America as both a value and consitutional right.
“Drug use is a serious concern, not only for the concepts of integrity and fair play in competitive sports, but because of the health threats to the athletes" (Meldrum, 2008).
- Drug use among athletes has long caused debate and concern by those who watch the competitive sports (Meldrum, 2008).
- Both the integrity of the competition, and the health risks to the athletes cause concern for drug use in athletes (Meldrum, 2008).
- Meldrum (2008), explains that drug use in athletes causes significant problems in athletes' health.
- The safety and integrity of competitive sports is endangered by druge use in athletes (Meldrum, 2008).
Exercise 2: Write paraphrases
Write a paraphrase for the original sentence below. Read the sentence carefully and then divide it to understand each of its parts. Rephrase each of the parts. Finally, put the parts back together in a new way and compare it to the original.
"Texting, chatting, and instant messages are an entirely new form of communication, different from spoken or traditional written English" (Van Camp, 2016, para. 15).
"These days, an ordinary phone owner send 65 texts every two days, and more than half of all internet browsing takes place on a smartphone" (Van Camp, 2016, para 4).
"The interaction between the teacher and student in the initial phase of the trial can best be described as teacher-directed learning" (Hastie et al., 2007, p. 284).
"Differentiation as an instructional approach promotes a balance between a student's style and a student's ability. Differentiated instruction provides the student with options for processing and internalizing the content, and for constructing new learning in order to progress academically" (Thompson, 2009).
Exercise 3: Write a quote, summary, and paraphrase
Using the paragraph below, write a quotation, a summary, and a paraphrase. For the quotation and the paraphrase, choose one sentence. For the summary, summarize the entire paragraph. Include the correct citation for each.
Author: Van Camp
"Emoji started as prettier versions of text emoticons like the smiley face or sad face, but have quickly grown into much more. There are now 1,922 emoji on the iPhone. Hundreds of faces, objects, flags, families of every skin color, activities, and more now have an emoji image. Apple is such a fan that in iOS 10, a feature will suggest emoji replacements for words" (Van Camp, 2016)
Exercise 4: Write a quote, summary, or paraphrase
Using the paragraph below, write a quotation, a summary, or a paraphrase. For the quotation and the paraphrase, choose one sentence. For the summary, summarize the entire paragraph. Include the correct citation.
"The words that surround us every day influence the words we use. Since so much of the written language we see is now on the screens of our computers, tablets, and smartphones, language now evolves partly through our interaction with technology. And because the language we use to communicate with each other tends to be more malleable than formal writing, the combination of informal, personal communication and the mass audience afforded by social media is a recipe for rapid change" (Reed, 2014).
Canegie Medal of Philanthropy (n.d.). Reading Ahead. Medal of Philanthropy. https://www.medalofphilanthropy.org/andrew-carnegie/
DelBene, S. (2022). DelBene, Huffman call on IRS to reveiw tax-exempt 'church status' for known hate group. Press Releases. https://delbene.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=3204
Hastie, M. Chen, N., & Kuo, Y. (2007). Instructional design for best practice in the synchronous cyber classroom. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 10(4), 281-294. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/jeductechsoci.10.4.281
Meldrum, R. & Feinberg, J. R. (2008). Drug use by college athletes: Is random testing an effective deterrent? The Sport Journal. https://thesportjournal.org/article/drug-use-by-college-athletes-is-random-testing-an-effective-deterrent/
Reed, J. (2014). How social media is changing language. The Journal. https://www.thejournal.ie/readme/social-media-changing-language-1600561-Aug2014/
Thompson, V. (2009). The impact of differentiation on instructional practices in the elementary classroom (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3396372)
Van Camp, J. (2016). Tech is upending the ways we write, speak, and even think. Digital Trends. https://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/dt10-language-and-tech/