CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Essay Shape and OrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsReference PageA Shifting StructureExample EssayTimed Writing 2Integrated Writing 2Descriptive EssaysExample Descriptive EssayPrewritingWriting: Word ChoiceSources: QuotingRevisingRevise a Descriptive EssayExplore Other Genres: Creative WritingTimed Writing 3Integrated Writing 3Personal StatementsExample Personal StatementTypes of Personal StatementsOrganization for Comprehensive Personal StatementOrganization for Prompted Personal StatementWriting: DevelopmentRevisingRevise a Personal StatementExplore Other Genres: Formal EmailsTimed Writing 4Integrated Writing 4Cause-Effect EssaysExample Cause-Effect EssayPrewritingWriting: UnitySources: SummarizingRevisingRevise a Cause-Effect EssayExplore Other Genres: ReviewsTimed Writing 5Integrated Writing 5Persuasive EssaysExample Persuasive EssayPrewritingWriting: CohesionSources: ParaphrasingRevisingRevise a Persuasive EssayExplore Other Genres: ReflectionsTimed Writing 6Integrated Writing 6Appendix A: Argumentative EssaysExample Argumentative EssayStructure of an ArgumentPrewritingWriting: Cohesion in ArgumentsRevisingRevise an Argumentative EssayAppendix B: Using SourcesFinding SourcesIn-text CitationsMore about Reference PagesAppendix C: Extra TOEFL ResourcesTOEFL Integrated WritingTOEFL Independent Writing

Appendix C: Extra TOEFL Resources

Timed writing can take many forms, but the obvious unique factor of this type of writing is the fact that there is a limit on the amount of time you have to complete it. This most commonly occurs in an exam situation, where the tester is evaluating how well you understand a topic and/or can explain your thoughts without any external assistance. The amount of time and the expected length of your writing will vary based on the instructions.

Many international students seeking to study at English-speaking universities will take an English proficiency exam such as the TOEFL. The TOEFL exam includes a section to test students' ability to write in English. There are two distinct parts: the integrated writing task and the independent writing task. The integrated task determines whether students can synthesize two sources that they read and listened to. The independent task determines whether students can write about their own opinion with supporting detail.

In this textbook, you have learned how to write for general timed writing and integrated writing situations you will encounter in real-world situations. The two TOEFL writing tasks have a much more specific format and requirements than you learned for general real-world situations. Appendix C includes extra information and practice specific to the format and requirements needed to score well on the TOEFL. This is an optional bonus chapter for student-independent study or teacher-directed use.