CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Essay Shape and OrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsA Shifting StructureExample EssayTimed Writing 2Integrated Writing 2Descriptive EssaysExample Descriptive EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingTimed Writing 3Integrated Writing 3Personal StatementsExample Personal StatementTypes of Personal StatementsOrganization for Comprehensive Personal StatementOrganization for Personal Statement with PromptWriting: DevelopmentRevisingRevise a Personal StatementTimed Writing 4Integrated Writing 4Cause-Effect EssaysExample Cause-Effect EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise a Cause-Effect EssayTimed Writing 5Integrated Writing 5Argumentative EssaysExample Argumentative EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingTimed Writing 6Using SourcesIntegrated Writing 6

Conclusion Paragraphs

Your conclusion paragraph should logically conclude your essay, just like your conclusion sentences logically conclude your body paragraphs. The conclusion paragraph should begin by restating your thesis, and then you should broaden back out to a general topic. End with a closing statement.

Restate your thesis

The first sentence of your concluding paragraph should restate your thesis.

Example: Restated thesis

Thesis: Some of the most impactful inventions of the nineteenth century that changed the way we live were the telephone, the bicycle, and plastic.

Restated Thesis: It is obvious that these three nineteenth-century inventions dramatically changed our lifestyles.

The thesis changed by implying the main points, instead of stating them directly. Even though the words were changed, the overall meaning did not change. Other ways to restate a thesis include reversing the order of the clauses or using different word forms (e.g., adjective to noun: essential>the importance).

How to Paraphrase a Thesis Statement

A restated thesis statement says the ideas from the thesis statement again but in different words. It is a paraphrase of the original thesis statement.

An Effective Paraphrase

  • explains the most important parts of the original
  • is written in your own words. 
  • keeps the original meaning. 
  • does not merely cut and copy from the original

How to Make a Paraphrase

  1. Determine your purpose. 
  2. Read or listen to what you will paraphrase
  3. Make a list of the main points
  4. Write the paraphrase. 
  5. Compare the paraphrase to the original 

(Adapted from Stephen, n.d.)

Exercise 1: Paraphrasing Practice

Pretend you are writing an essay to answer the prompt below. You have already written your thesis statement. You are now writing the restated thesis statement. To practice your paraphrasing skills, write three versions of the same restated thesis statement on the lines below. A completed example done with a different prompt has been given. 

Prompt: What are the effects of eating a healthy diet?

Thesis: Consuming healthy foods leads to an increase in energy, a higher intake of vitamins and minerals, and better overall physical health.   

1. 
 
2. 
 
3. 
 

Completed Example:

Prompt: Should schools teach foreign languages?

Thesis: Schools need to teach different languages because it helps the youth to be better prepared for the future, having more opportunities and developing their skills.

Restated Thesis Versions:

 1. In conclusion, students are benefited in schools that teach a foreign language because they are not only better prepared for future opportunities but also they develop skills. 

2. In closing, the preparation for future opportunities and skill development available to students in schools that teach a foreign language are two of the main reasons schools need to teach foreign languages.

3.  In fine, there are many benefits for students learning a foreign language which is why schools should include these courses.

Apply your thesis to general contexts

There are a few options for the supporting sentences of a conclusion paragraph. All of these options build off the main idea from the restated thesis. 

You could summarize the most important supporting details from your essay. This is done by paraphrasing your topic sentences.

You could mirror your introduction. Connect your thesis back to the general topics you mentioned in your introduction. This polishes off the essay in a refined way. Including the same ideas in the first paragraph and the last paragraph bookends the essay the same way the covers of a book contain a story. 

Or, you could show the importance and impact of the main idea from the restated thesis statement by discussing that idea's effect on the real world. This is usually done with a large scope in mind. How does your idea impact a larger community or the world? 

Give a closing statement

Your concluding statement is very similar to the concluding sentence of a body paragraph except that you will not restate your main idea at the very end of your paper. Your closing statement can be a prediction, suggestion, or opinion.

Exercise 2: Concluding Paragraph Analysis

Read the example student's concluding paragraph.

  • Does the paragraph appropriately restate the thesis?
  • Does the author apply the main idea to general topics?
  • Does the writer include a closing statement?
  • Do you think this is effective as a concluding paragraph? Why or why not?

Thesis Statement: Even though uniforms can transmit an organized image to people outside of the schools, they do not improve students' performance, do not allow students to express themselves, and are a financial burden to families. 

Conclusion:

       Even though uniforms are beneficial for the school's economy, they can impact in different ways to the students. They do not allow student expressions of creativity or develop critical thinking. Uniforms affect the parent's finances, and they do not improve students' grades in school. Uniforms have potential on students in different countries. 

A Conclusion's Role in an Essay

The primary role, job, of a conclusion in an essay is to finish off the essay in a logical way. Just like if you listened to a song that stopped halfway through if you read an essay without a conclusion, it feels unfinished.

A conclusion is an idea that is reached after someone considers evidence about a topic. All the ideas, details, explanations, and reasonings build up to the conclusion.

Usually, this conclusion is stated in the restated thesis statement. The sentences after the restated thesis statement can either summarize the main reasons that support that conclusion or they can show the impact of that conclusion on the real world. The last sentence, the concluding sentence, should be memorable so that people remember the conclusion from the restated thesis statement. It is like the grand finale in a song that leaves a lasting impression.

All of these pieces build on the ideas from the previous paragraphs, so the reader understands at the end of the essay what the essay was all about, the main idea. 

Exercise 3: Consider the Cohesion

Analyze the conclusion paragraph from the example essay at the end of this chapter: https://edtechbooks.org/-WPDI . Consider these questions:

  • Are all the parts of the conclusion paragraph included?
  • How does this conclusion connect with the rest of the essay?
  • What specific language does the author use that you could use in any conclusion?

*Note: Conclusion vs. Concluding

"Conclusion" and "Concluding" are based on the word "Conclude" which has two different dictionary definitions: one about deciding based on evidence and another about ending something.

Conclusion means "something that you decide when you have thought about all the information connected with the situation". 

Concluding means "[coming] to an end; [bringing] something to an end"

Sources for definitions:

  1. https://edtechbooks.org/-JcqJ 
  2. https://edtechbooks.org/-irEB