CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityTimed Writing 1Integrated Writing 1Essay Shape and OrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsReference PageA Shifting StructureExample EssayTimed Writing 2Integrated Writing 2Descriptive EssaysExample Descriptive EssayPrewritingWriting: Word ChoiceSources: QuotingRevisingRevise a Descriptive EssayExplore Other Genres: Creative WritingTimed Writing 3Integrated Writing 3Personal StatementsExample Personal StatementTypes of Personal StatementsOrganization for Comprehensive Personal StatementOrganization for Prompted Personal StatementWriting: DevelopmentRevisingRevise a Personal StatementExplore Other Genres: Formal EmailsTimed Writing 4Integrated Writing 4Cause-Effect EssaysExample Cause-Effect EssayPrewritingWriting: UnitySources: SummarizingRevisingRevise a Cause-Effect EssayExplore Other Genres: ReviewsTimed Writing 5Integrated Writing 5Persuasive EssaysExample Persuasive EssayPrewritingWriting: CohesionSources: ParaphrasingRevisingRevise a Persuasive EssayExplore Other Genres: ReflectionsTimed Writing 6Integrated Writing 6Appendix A: Argumentative EssaysExample Argumentative EssayStructure of an ArgumentPrewritingWriting: Cohesion in ArgumentsRevisingRevise an Argumentative EssayAppendix B: Using SourcesFinding SourcesIn-text CitationsMore about Reference PagesAppendix C: Extra TOEFL ResourcesTOEFL Integrated WritingTOEFL Independent Writing

Integrated Writing 3

Integrated writing assignments target listening and/or reading comprehension as well as your writing ability. One way to demonstrate advanced comprehension is to vary your word choice and sentence structure while maintaining the ideas. 

Simple Paraphrasing

An application of the strategies of word choice and sentence variation can be seen through the writing task of paraphrasing. You will learn more about paraphrasing in greater detail in a later chapter of this textbook. In this practice, you will see how these strategies can be used to do basic paraphrases.

Paraphrasing is to share the same meaning as what was originally stated using different words. A restated thesis is essentially a paraphrase because it retains the original meaning but says the information in a new way. Paraphrasing occurs in conversations when you ask someone to repeat what they said because we rarely repeat ourselves word for word.

Therefore, at its most basic, paraphrasing requires you to search for and use synonyms. Often, it requires an adjusted sentence structure as well. These changes provide clarity about what was most important in the original statement. 

As discussed previously in this chapter, it is imperative not to alter the meaning of the original ideas when you restate them. You will need to pay particular attention to word choice so that there is no interference from connotations used in your paraphrase. Additionally, you will need to check the grammar of any restructured sentences to ensure that you have preserved the intention of the original.

Integrated Writing Tip

It is common for an integrated writing assignment to include multiple original sources connected by the same topic. These sources may have the same position on the topic (supporting the same main idea and point of view), but they may present opposing opinions as well. This second option is most common on the TOEFL. 

Some differences between author/speaker point of view may be more implicit and subtle. Use your understanding of connotation to recognize opposing viewpoints. 


Exercise 3.40: Integrated Writing (Paraphrase Focus)

Read the article and watch the video below. Using the information you learned from the sources, describe one event of the civil rights movement that Martin Luther King was involved in. What caused Martin Luther King Jr. to be seen as a leader of the civil rights movement? 

Happy Birthday, Martin Luther King, Jr. 

The Civil Rights Movement