CoverObjectivesThe Writing ProcessAddressing the PromptPrewritingWritingRevisingOriginalityEssay Shape and OrganizationIntroduction ParagraphsBody ParagraphsConclusion ParagraphsA Shifting StructureExample EssayUsing SourcesFinding SourcesCitationsQuotingSummarizingParaphrasingReference PagePersonal StatementsExample Personal StatementTypes of Personal StatementsOrganization for Comprehensive Personal StatementOrganization for Personal Statement with PromptRevisionExample Personal StatementCause-Effect EssaysExample Cause-Effect EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingRevise a Cause-Effect EssayArgumentative EssaysExample Argumentative EssayPrewritingWritingRevisingOther Genres of WritingTimed WritingTOEFL Independent WritingTOEFL Integrated WritingStudent Choice (Pick Two)Creative WritingFormal EmailsReflectionsReviewsRefining WritingDevelopmentUnityCohesion

Objectives

You will be able to reach the following outcomes as you complete the essays that are outlined in this book. The objectives are repeated throughout the book to encourage you to master these objectives in a variety of essay types.

  1. Writes level-appropriate* text.
    • Writes in all major time frames.
    • Writes multiple paragraph length text.
    • Writes introductory paragraphs for multi-paragraph compositions.
    • Writes thesis sentences with a clear controlling idea.
    • Writes effective topic sentences for paragraphs.
    • Writes logically organized paragraphs.
    • Adequately supports ideas with facts, examples, and reasons.
    • Writes effective concluding sentences in paragraphs.
    • Ends multi-paragraph compositions with an appropriate concluding paragraph.
    • Uses a variety of cohesive devices.
    • Adapts language to fit the audience, material, context, and time constraints.
  2. Synthesizes information from written and spoken texts.
    • Summarizes main ideas of texts.
    • Summarizes major details or key arguments in texts.
    • Connects ideas and details among different texts.
    • Synthesizes information from sources as support for original ideas.
    • Paraphrases sources without plagiarizing.
    • Cites sources using appropriate formatting methods.
    • Creates a list of sources using appropriate formatting methods.
  3. Effectively implements appropriate writing strategies.
    • Uses prewriting to generate ideas for writing.
    • Uses an outline to structure writing.
    • Reads and rereads their own texts to identify and correct errors.
    • Responds to teacher, tutor, and peer feedback.
  4. Incorporates a variety of high frequency academic vocabulary in writing.

*Writing for this level can be described by the following level descriptors:

Function: Students are consistently able to meet a range of academic writing needs. They consistently write in all major time frames with good control. They use a wide range of academic syntax and vocabulary correctly. They produce personal, general, and academic texts in concrete terms and will sometimes produce texts about academic topics in abstract terms. Students have some success in adapting their language to fit the audience, material, context, and time constraints. They are able to write in most informal situations and in some formal situations.

Text: Students use a variety of cohesive devices in texts that may include several well-organized and connected paragraphs. They incorporate organizational conventions of academic writing. They provide abundant language with some elaboration to support their writing.

Comprehensibility: Students can be understood without difficulty by those unaccustomed to non-native writing. Errors do not interfere with understanding but may occasionally be distracting.